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VOL. I. 


i3ublisl)crs in rtinarj to pjet iftajrstg. 

(All rights reserved.) 





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The Mann Family The Mann Pedigree Walpole in France 
Walpole In Italy Walpole with Mann The Family of Medici 
The Last of the Medici The Lorraine Court in Florence 
The Princess de Oaon Mann as a Letter- writer . 


The Princess's Party Etiquette Prince Kaunitz English and 
Foreign Ceremony A French Abbe His Romantic Story 
English in Florence Police and People Lady Walpole The 
Plague A Serenade General Wachtendonck The Silent 
Company English Critics The Cicisbeos An Adventure 
Match Making England and Italy At the Theatre Operatic 
Riot A Fraudulent Banker Jacobite Movement Intrigues 12 



Warlike Movements Admiral Haddock At the Opera Oliver 
St. John Earthquake Condition of Leghorn News from 
Home Troubles and Amusements Mann's Illness The 
Spaniards in Tuscany Domestic Scenes Mrs. Goldworthy 
Cedrati The Jacobites War Mann at Home Madame 
Griffoni Antinori Politics Theatricals Mann's House 
Lady Walpole Presents from England The Princess de 
Craon Prince and Princess Madame Griffoni Festivals 
Foreign Post Lady Walpole The Grand Electress Monte- 



mar Alarms On Sea and Ashore At the Pretaja From 
Madeira Mr. Wright storms Luoca Climates The Pri- 
mate of Lorraine Ideas of Neutrality Balaam and his Ass- 
Hospitality ... ... ... ... ... 36 


The Pretender At the Petraja English Sailors Captain Smith 
A Christening Sposo and Sposa Monsieur de Beauvau 
Cavaliers and Coachmen. Scandal A Young English Gentle- 
man Mr. Chute's Letter Fooling Company at Mann's 
War Bulletins Pleasures Prospects of Tuscany Alarm at 
Naples A Valet in trouble Gratitude ... ... ... 79 


Amateur Concerts Divers and Sundry Mann, neglected Mann 
and Richecourt 'English Fleet Marching and Counter- 
marching The English Admiral War Strong Measures 
Merry-making English Captains Illegitimate Medici A 
Mad Bishop -Censorship Watching Pope and King The 
Domenichino The Pope and Maria Theresa The Pope in 
trouble A Strange English Admiral Festivities ... ... 98 


A Lazy Lady Rural Entertainments Satirical Medal A Lively 
Nun A Domenichino by Sasso Ferrato English Naval 
Captains More Captains At Home and at Court Sailor's 
Politics Royal Gifts Cold Ceremony A Quarrel Unwilling 
to fight Husband and Cicisbeo Sposi e Spose Princely 
Economy Bribing a Minister Delicate Corruption ... 119 


Theatres Italian Fever The Dowager Electress Cold Com- 
fortA Duel An Illustrious Stranger A Poor Rich Man 



The Influenza Death of the Daughter of Cosmo III. Strange 
Arrangements Travelling English The Electress's Will 
Bequests Legacies The Funeral The Medici A Duel 
King Theodore Naval Battle An Illiterate Admiral Small 
Talk The ' Burletta' II Furibondo The Duchess of Modena 
English in Florence Plague Against the Plague A 
Medal well earned A Tender Bride Madame Sarasin 137 


The Pretender and his Son Prince Charles Edward His Progress 
Jacobite Excitement Suspense Papal Sympathy Charles 
Edward in France The Coffee-pot Admiral Eowley Patron- 
age Arrears of Pay An Adventurer M. de Magnan Car- 
nival La Tesi Italian Marriages English Marriages 
Epithalamium Mann's Nights Friends and Lovers A Poor 
Match . 168 


Mutual Presents Ignorant Captains Savona bombarded Move- 
ments of Charles Edward Jacobite Plans Progress of Charles 
Edward Sea Fight Letter to the Old Chevalier Letters 
from Rome Flying Reports The Chevalier's Sons English 
Jacobites in Rome The Jacobite Pope Scenes in Rome The 
Old Chevalier The Leghorn Merchants Papal Perplexity 
Pope and Pretender The Emperor Francis ... ... 189 


Social Traits Speculation The Craons Sorrow and Joy Eti- 
quette Legacy Duties Death of the Earl of Orford Lady 
Orford Mr. Chute His Letter Prince de Beauvau Wai- 
pole's Eagle Family History Mr. St. John The Emperor 
Francis A Riot in Rome Abuse of the Pope Coupling 
Sea-Bears . 208 




The Jacobite Invasion English Jacobites in Eome Jacobite 
Eeports Jacobites in Florence Conflicting Intelligence At 
Sea Eome and Florence Pretended Jacobite Victory Jacob' 
ite History The Higher Powers The Wandering Stuart 
Uncertainty Jacobite Hopes Cardinal Aquaviva The Young 
Pretender An English Gentleman Garden Assemblies Italy 
Marchese Folco Orange-flower Water Satisfaction ... 228 



A Ducal Burglar The Opera at Florence The Ballet Escorting 
a Princess Union of the Churches Dancing Freemasons A 
Point of Honour The Young Chevalier Naval Court- 
martial Eoute of the Young Chevalier An Italian Spring 
Jacobite Views An English Projector Lord Hobart Henry 
Stuart, a Cardinal His Eminence, Cardinal York The Duke 
of Cumberland A Bankrupt Cardinal Caffarelli, a Ducal 
Vocalist Prince Pamfili Scene in an Opera Box The 
Ladies Eival Singers ... ... ... ... ... 249 



An Eccentric Peer Death of Einuncim Lent The Ex-King 
Stanislaus Fire on Board Ship Cardinal Albani Casa 
Craon Pope, Priest, and Emperor Pope and Bishop 
Indiscretion The Cardinal of York An Affectionate Wife 
Mann's State-dinners The French in Genoa An Impostor 
A Suicide The Young Girls at Geneva ... ... ...272 

1749, 1750. 

The Young Pretender Eesignation of Prince Craon Movements 
of the Young Chevalier The Jacobites Opening Letters 
Entertainments A Painted Duke A Trip to the Jubilee 
German Navy Carnival Society in Florence Literature 
Translated Plays The Beast and the Baron A New Fashion 
A German Marquis Wit of Villars The Venetian Ambas- 



sadress A Leader of Fashion The Pope and the Venetians 
English Friends Marriage Speculations Florentine Villas 
Patricians and Nobles Mann at Fiesole Literature rewarded 
Illustrious and Most Illustrious A Genuine Hero ... 289 

1751, 1752. 

The Empress Dowager New Year's Day Hot Pies in Opera 
Boxes Imperial Funeral The Brother of Mme. De Pom- 
padour Morals in Courts A Widowed Mistress 'The Pious 
Lucchi Compulsory Naturalization An Epigram English 
Merchants at Leghorn Lady M. W. Montagu Changes in 
Cicisbeoship Mr. Conway Gentlemen's Gentlemen Wit and 
Impertinence Death of Mann's Father A Guercino, by Astley 
Six Lives for One Unwelcome Guests A West Indian The 
Stuart Family The Esterhazys Banquets Duke Leopold of 
Lorraine Acting and Playing ... ... ... ... 317 

1753, 1754. 

Duelling Honour Seeing Company Prince of Anspach Lord 
and Lady Eochford Theodore, King of Corsica Feastings 
Wilton the Sculptor Astley and Wilton Bianca Capello 
History of a Picture English and Florentines State Pleasures 
Naples and Malta The Inquisition A Little War 
Deserters Pope and Emperor Eome and Tuscany A Fight- 
ing Friar A Bandit Dominican The Queen of Naples 
Miracles The Papal Nuncio Duke of Bridgewater Boling- 
broke Lords Cork and Huntingdon Priests and Friars ... 342 

1755, 1756. 

Deaths of Cardinals The Due De Penthievre Sir Horace Mann, 
Bart. The Margravine of Bareith A Curious Game The 
Margrave of Bareith The Kings of Prussia and England 
Mann's Arms French Guests Use made of Martyrs' Bones 
English, departing Character of Sir Horace Mann Pretender. 
Elector of Cologne Eemedy against Hydrophobia An Old 
Joke Voltaire's ' Pucelle ' Causes of Earthquakes Our 



Admirals Lack of Sympathy French Successes The Pre- 
tender offended Anti-English Feeling Illness of Bichecourt 
Complications ... ... ... ... ... 372 



Pope Benedict XIV. Death of Bichecourt's Daughter Damiens 
and Louis XV. France and the Young Pretender The Pope 
and the King of France The Pope's Letter A Blasphemous 
Prayer Naval Affairs Exit Bichecourt Ginori A Sick Pope 
Neglected Tuscany Picture-buying Prussia and Austria 
Difficulties Te Deiim ! Walpole, on the Pope The Pope, on 
Walpole Mann, Critical Papal Ignorance ... ... 896 


Before the Opera Curtain Manzoli Our Fleet at Leghorn The 
King of Prussia Speculation Marquis Botta The New 
Begent A Te Deum, whispered Baron Stosch Mann's 
Ambition Bule of Action Dr. Cocchi Character of Dr. 
Cocchi Dr. Cocchi's Works The Countess Bena Walpole's 
Guest ... ... ... ... ... ... 416 



IN the year 1737 there was an Assembly in the 
London mansion of one of the minor Queens of 
Fashion, Mrs. Strode. To a young fellow there, 
who bore about him a sober look of satisfaction, one 
of the light and lively Princesses of that Queen's 
Court dashing Mrs. Morehead swept up, and con- 
gratulated him on his good luck. The gentleman was 
Mr. Horace Mann. He acknowledged his good luck. 
Yes ; Sir Eobert Walpole had appointed him to the 
English Legation at Florence, to assist and soon 
succeed the present envoy from England, Mr. Fane. 

' And so/ said the lively lady, ' you are going 
abroad, where you will become an ambassador, or 
some great man. Well, Sir, if I should make you 
a visit, what employment will you give me ? ' The 
by no means too modest young diplomatist gave her, 
at once, a reply. It was one of those saucy answers 
which fine gentlemen delivered unblushingly, and 

VOL. I. B 


which fine ladies, laughing gaily behind their fans, 
took much more as a compliment than an offence. 
It took very much the form in prose of what Chester- 
field said in his rhymes on dear Molly Lepel ; and 
Mrs. Morehead was as little stirred, angrily, by Horace 
Mann's audacious gallantry as Mary Lepel was by 
Chesterfield's impudent audacity. 

Horace Mann was the second son of a country 
'squire, Kobert Mann, who was settled at Linton, in 
Kent ; and who kept this son on a very scanty 
allowance, which the sire stopt as soon as he heard 
of the appointment conferred on his son by Sir 
Robert Walpole. The father had never moved a 
finger to obtain for his son that, or any other employ- 
ment. It was a spontaneous act on the part of the 
great English statesman. There was no sympathy 
between Robert Mann and Robert Walpole, but there 
was much friendship and a distant cousinship between 
their two sons, the two Horaces Walpole and Mann. 
The Christian names, Robert, Horace, Edward, and 
Galfridus, were common to both families, and Horace 
Walpole seems to have had as sincere an affection for 
' Gal/ as he had a warm friendship for Horace. 

The latter says in a letter from Florence, dated 
March 31, 1752 : 'My father had always the unac- 
countable vanity of appropriating to himself great 
merit even in what he called providing for me, though 
I owe it totally to your Father, without the know- 
ledge, much less the assistance, of mine ; so that really 
he has never done any more for me than to support 
me scantily for a few years, till I was fixed here, 
for, from that moment, he stopped the poor allowance 


he made me, and even bragged of having done greatly 
for me.' 

The Florentines were, with their old pride of blood, 
anxious to know whether Mann were cavalier or noble, 
gentleman or aristocrat. Mann's mother was a Guise. 
' I never/ he writes, ' had any doubt of my mother's 
side.' He knew less of his father's descent. He 
wished something could be made out of it, and yet 
affected to think that it did not matter whether 
his father's ancestors, if he had any, were hanged or 
not. Mann indeed knew that his father's father had 
possessed and 'spent' a small estate, which had been 
long in the family ; and that his own father had once 
a mind and opportunity to buy it back, but, as Mann 
supposed, preferred, under some impulse of vanity, to 
be the first of his folk who settled in another place. 
Mr. Chute pretended to have traced Mann's descent as 
far back as his great-great-grandmother, and he said, 
according to Walpole's persiflage, ' by her character 
she would be extremely shocked at your wet-brown- 
paperness, and that she was particularly famous for 
breaking her own pads.' It was not till the Floren- 
tines saw Mann's pedigree suspended in the hall of 
his house at Florence, that they were fully satisfied of 
his gentility. As he left London in 1738, to repair 
to his post, he little thought that he was destined 
to occupy it for nearly half a century, and that 
he would never again see his native land. 

In the month of March, 1739, among the pas- 
sengers who landed at Calais, from the sailing packet, 
were Horace Walpole and his friend Gray. They, at 


once, found themselves in a new world. They were 
bound for Italy, taking Paris by the way, for their 
pleasure, and intending to stay awhile at Rheims, for 
the purpose of perfecting themselves in French, a 
curious preliminary for a sojourn in Italy. 

April and May were spent by the travellers in 
the French capital. Horace Walpole made, of course, 
acute observations on what came within range of his 
experience. French music set his fine teeth on edge. 
' It resembles,' he said, ' gooseberry tart as much as it 
does harmony.' French splendour mixed with squalor 
shocked him. His sympathy for the dead Duke, 
whose funeral he saw from the window of a noble- 
man's house, was disturbed by the thought, that 
though the palatial rooms were hung with rich damask 
and gold, the broken window panes were mended with 
paper. French religious feeling made him smile, when 
he heard a Benedictine call miracles by the name of 
'fables,' and saw a priestly showman laugh at the 
relics which he exhibited. Walpole looked at the 
fa9ade of the palace of Versailles, and called it a 
' lumber of littleness.' He sauntered through the trim 
gardens and among the ' cascadelines/ and pronounced 
the whole a pretty toy enough for such a great child 
as Louis XIV. Having delivered himself of so much 
wisdom, he took Gray with him to Rheims. 

June, July, and August in the city where the Kings 
of France and Navarre used to be solemnly crowned, 
did not afford Walpole much matter for comment. 
Royalty, royal troops, and royal comedians were ex- 
pected, and ' Our women,' he remarks, ' grow more 
gay, more lively, from day to day, in expecting them.' 


With a view to the officers, one lady was * brewing a 
wash of a finer dye, and brushing up her eyes for 
their arrival/ Another was reckoning upon ' fifteen 
of them ; ' and a Madame Lelu, ' finding her linen robe 
conceal too many beauties, had bespoke one of gauze.' 

In September the wayfarers were among the 
mountains of Savoy, ' the lonely lords of glorious 
desolate prospects/ The majesty of Nature had the 
unreserved allegiance of the most artificial of gentle- 
men. In October they were at Geneva, then back to 
Lyons, and in November they crossed the Alps, 
' carried in low arm-chairs on poles, swathed in beaver 
bonnets, beaver gloves, beaver stockings, muffs, and 
bear-skins/ On the way, a young wolf came down 
and carried off Walpole's pet dog, Tory. Turin, safely 
reached, was declared to be one of the prettiest cities 
ever seen. Next came Genoa and Bologna, with the 
remark, 'we don't go a staring after crooked towers 
and conundrum staircases/ In January, 1740, the 
friends were over the Apennines and safe in Florence. 
After Walpole had been weeks in that city, he wrote 
to West : ' To speak sincerely, Calais surprised me more 
than anything I have seen since/ He adds, l The most 
remarkable thing I have observed since I came abroad, 
is that there are no people so obviously mad as the 
English/ Later, he became ' fond of Florence to a 
degree ; 'tis infinitely the most agreeable of all the 
places I have seen since London/ The Floren- 
tines liked the English very well, and Walpole had a 
gay time of it. During the Carnival, he says, 'I 
have done nothing but slip out of my domino into 
bed ; and out of bed into my domino/ In March, 


a P.S. in a letter to West, says: 'Direct to me (for 
to be sure you will not be so outrageous as to leave 
me quite off), recommande' a Mons. Mann, Ministre de 
sa Majeste JBritannique a Florence.' 

After brief sojourn with the Minister, Walpole 
set out on that tour in Italy which he has described 
in letters from Siena, Rome, and Naples. In July he 
was again in Florence. ' I am lodged/ he says, ' with 
Mr. Mann, the best of creatures. I have a terrace all 
to myself, with an open gallery on the Arno. Over 
against me is the famous gallery ; and on either hand 
two fair bridges. The air is so serene and so secure, 
that one sleeps with all the windows and doors thrown 
open to the river, and only covered with a slight 
gauze, to keep away the gnats/ 

One of the periods he most enjoyed and best 
remembered was the month he spent at the Fair of 
Eeggio, where the strangest figures were the Duke and 
Duchess of Modena, whose granddaughter, the Arch- 
duchess, he received, forty-five years later, at Straw- 
berry. At the fair, in 1745, the above Duke was to be 
seen, ' with a mound of vermillion on the left side of 
his forehead, to symmetrize with a wen on the right.' 
His sister, the Princess Benedict, ' was painted and 
peeled like an old summer-house, with bristles on her 
chin sprouting through a coat of plaister/ Soon after, 
Walpole bade farewell to Italy ; and having agreed 
that the two Horaces should begin and maintain a cor- 
respondence, by letters, Walpole left Mann to his other 
duties at the Court of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 
One word as to this personage and Horace Mann's 
position at his Court. 


Horace Mann entered on his duties at the begin- 
ning of a new era. The House of Medici had fur- 
nished Grand Dukes to Tuscany since 1569 ; for the 
previous three hundred years the family had been 
among the most honoured of the Florentine Republic. 
There came a time when the head of the House pre- 
ferred being the last Magnate in the Empire to the 
first Man in the Republic. The title of Grand Duke, 
with an Imperial body of troops to add to the dignity, 
had a higher sound than that of Leader or Adviser of 
the Commonwealth. The flatterers of the Grand 
Ducal family told them they were descended from 
Charlemagne. When Mary Stuart was provoked to 
anger by Queen Catherine de' Medici, she told her 
royal mother-in-law, that she was only one of a race 
of tradespeople. 

Roscoe speaks of the whole Grand Ducal line with 
withering contempt, not quite justifiable in its uni- 
versal application. But no measure of contempt could 
reach the demerits of the last of the race, Giovanni 
Gaston, who succeeded to the title in 1723. At this 
Duke John's crapulous court, Mr. (afterwards Lord) 
Fane was the English Minister and the predecessor 
of Mann, who seems to have been for a time Secretary 
of Legation and Mr. Fane's 1 substitute when that 
gentleman was indisposed. 

John Gaston was not a fool by nature, but an 
imbecile by abuse of it. Born in 1671, he succeeded 
the travelled Cosmo in 1723. In 1697 he married a 
widow, Anna Marie of Saxe Lauenburgh, a lady of 
enormous weight, immense self-will, and no personal 
attractions. In order to forget her, her first husband 


took to hard drinking, which succeeded in killing him ; 
and her second, John Gaston, ran away from her at 
the end of a year. His mother, Mary of Orleans, 
gave him a hearty welcome in Paris, but in Paris as 
well as afterwards in Florence, John Gaston was more 
of a rioter in taverns than a sojourner in palaces, 
among decently-conducted princes. 

Matters went worse with John and with his country 
after his accession. He had not strength to rule him- 
self, and he left the government of the duchy to his 
valet, Giulio Dami. There was no heir, apparent or 
presumptive. The Grand Duke was chief buffoon in 
the company of buffoons by whom he was surrounded. 
Half his time was passed in bed, to recover from the 
effects of the half ill spent out of it ; and business 
became such a terror to this pitiful descendant of 
the great citizen, Lorenzo, that to ask him to sign 
a paper was like asking him to sign his own death- 

The Great States of Europe took the case of 
Giovanni Gaston into serious consideration, which 
concluded by their proposal to confer his Grand 
Duchy, after his death, on Don Carlos, son of the 
King of Spain, and Elizabeth Farnese of Parma. 
John protested loudly against the arrangement, which, 
indeed, came to nothing. There was a disjointed 
condition of things just then in Europe ; and it was 
sought to partly repair it by inducing Francis, Duke 
of Lorraine, to give up his duchy and hereditary 
estates in France, in exchange for the Duchy of 
Tuscany, when it should be vacant, and the hand 
of the Archduchess of Austria, the Maria Theresa. 


Duke Francis strove hard to keep Lorraine and get 
Tuscany and Maria Theresa too. But he was told 
somewhat peremptorily, ' No, no I Without sur- 
render of Lorraine, no Tuscany, no wedding with 
the Archduchess/ Francis acquiesced in an arrange- 
ment which ultimately made of him an Emperor 
of Germany. Meanwhile, as John Gaston con- 
veniently and characteristically died, in 1737, Duke 
Francis succeeded to the Tuscan Duchy, and Mr. 
Fane represented England at his court. 

Francis was not a resident Grand Duke ; he lived 
at Vienna, and left the Prince de Craon at Florence 
to administer the affairs of the dukedom. The court 
swarmed with Lorrainers. All the good posts were 
given to gentlemen from Lorraine, and the Prince de 
Craon held the best of all. He was a Beauvau, 
descended of the old Angevin house so called, which 
had furnished many a brave soldier, wise statesman, 
and gifted scholar to France. His father had been 
the trusty servant of Duke Leopold. Duke Leopold 
had an 'illegitimate mistress/ and a legitimate son, 
Francis. The younger M. de Beauvau took the son 
for his pupil and the mistress for his wife. When 
Francis became Grand Duke, he remembered this 
double service to his father and himself, and he 
obtained the elevation of M. de Beauvau to the 
dignity of a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. 
The Prince and his Princess are prominent figures in 
the earlier records in the following pages. 

The Princess de Craon was not much of a Princess. 
Duke Leopold of Lorraine was a gallant and hand- 
some man. There was one lady at his court who 


cared nothing for his gallantry or good looks. She 
wrote as much to her husband, absent in Tuscany; but 
the gallantry was so insinuating and the good looks 
so irresistible, that the lady at last wrote to her hus- 
band, that if he did not immediately take her away 
from Lorraine, she would not answer for the conse- 
quences. She was * erept ' from the gay court ; and the 
balked Duke thereof, walking abroad in the meadows to 
digest his melancholy, saw a buxom girl in a field 
driving turkeys. His melancholy was cured. In a 
week the thoroughly washed and newly decked rustic 
beauty was lolling and laughing from one of the 
windows in the ducal palace at Nancy. This was the 
lady who was afterwards married by M. de Beauvau. 
For their respective services they became Prince and 
Princess de Craon, and they were vice-gerents in 
Florence for Francis, the husband of Maria Theresa. 

At that Court of Florence, Mr. Mann did Mr. Fane's 
work for nearly two years, before he (Mann) was the 
regularly appointed minister, and he frequently com- 
plains that though he did the work, Mr. Fane (remain- 
ing nominally Minister, and really not in the Duchy at 
all) received the whole of the pay ! Mr. Fane was 
a very particular person, and was very easily put out. 
Walpole speaks of him as having ' once kept his bed 
six weeks, because the Duke of Newcastle, in one of 
his letters, forgot to sign himself, your very humble 
servant, as usual, and only put, your humble servant.' 

Walpole's letters to Mann were periodically returned 
to the writer, at his own request, as they were written, 
as most of his letters were, for posterity. Mann, 
in return, literally wrote reams of paper. They con- 


tain a great deal of what Gratiano furnished by word 
of mouth, ' an infinite deal of nothing ' ; and one 
might say of the writer in every page, as Sir John 
says to the Prince, ' thou hast damnable iteration/ 
Moreover, very much, in some thousands of letters, 
is a mere repetition of Walpole's home news, or dull 
comment thereupon. No small space, too, is occupied 
by reports from foreign Gazettes, followed by correc- 
tions of the reports, by the Gazettes themselves. But 
the letters, slip-shod in style and loose in their spelling 
as they are, are rich in illustrations of Life in Italy 
during nearly half of the last century. To these 
illustrations the following pages are confined, and 
they are now submitted to that pleasant old friend, 
The Courteous and Gentle Reader. 



' I AM just come from the Princess's/ writes Mann, in 
May, 1741, ' where was much company in the great 
apartments. It was not an invitation, but a hint 
given to the ladies that their going would please. 
The Prince took an opportunity to make me under- 
stand 'twas no invitation, by saying he could not tell 
by what accident all that company was met ; but 
supposed, to see Count Kaunitz, the handsome Ger- 
man. I found each dame protesting to her Cicisbeo, 
that she could not see anything, extraordinary ; that 
he was proud, affected, tho' very well made; but. he 
sat three hours at his toilette every morning, and that 
the Inglesino (Hervey) was much handsomer, to which 
most of the men agreed. Mme. Bolognetti was 
there, by way of returning the visit the Princess 
made her yesterday. The three first days, she had 
"colique," "accablements," et "vomissment," but being 
given to understand all would not do, she at last 

'There has been a strange demele between Mes- 
dames Griffoni and Vitelli. It happened on the road 
from Leghorn. The former desired leave to pass her 

1741. ETIQUETTE. 13 

chaise, which was not granted. However, it passed ; 
then, the second chaise (with some of Madame Grif- 
foni's attendants, young Panciattici and another) fell 
down. Madame Vitelli ordered her postillion to pass 
over it. This could not be done, and the stop gave 
room for harsh discourse. Vitelli told the men they 
were B -f- ti ! They replied Bu g ne, etc. In 
short, they all came to Florence in high wrath, and now 
each lady asks satisfaction; and the whole affair is put 
into the hands of two wise gentlemen to make an 
' agiustamento,' but they don't know how to dispose 
of the above titles. Though everybody condemns 
Vitelli and subscribes to her title. Carducci is in the 
thickest of it all ; as he, on this occasion, abandoned 
her for the Griffon i, who had four chaises of attend- 
ants ; the other only one. 

' The Princess went last week to the Opera ; made 
it wait till an hour and -| ; was received at the door 
by a crowd of Cavaliers ; behaved stiff, and went 
away before the second dance. All this moves con- 
versation here.' 

May 23rd, 1741. 'I cannot help telling you what 
a Eook Prince Kaunitz has been, and with what art 
he has got several pretty things whilst he was at 
Florence. He first attacked the Bishop of A , 
praised a stone snuff-box of his excessively ; which 
for a long while had no effect, but at last told 
him that it was finer than that the Electress had 
given him; which the Bishop could not withstand, 
and according to the Italian fashion, told him, it 
was al suo commando. The word was no sooner out 
of his mouth, but the Baron put it into his pocket. 


He then went to Stosch's, and after having seen many 
things, told him, he believed he was related to him. 
Stosch was agreeably surprized to find so great a 
cousin, and asked him, how ? The other replied that 
his name was likewise Stosch. This wanted also 
explanation, which was cleared up by telling him that 
his name was Stosch-Kaunitz. There being then no 
doubt that they were nearly related, Stosch embraced 
him, and rewarded him for his humility, or rather to 
act nobly according to his great birth and of Casa 
Kaunitz, by presenting to him a gold hilt for a 
Hanger, and two very good Intaglios. Buondelmonte 
gave him the " Museum Florentinum ; " Ginori, the 
" Vocabulario della Crusca," and he asked General 
Braitwitz for two Neapolitan horses, on a promise 
to send him two of his own Stud from Vienna, which 
Braitwitz's friends bid him never expect ; and now 
each of these generous people laugh at the other, for 
being so easily caught. Stosch thinks he is the only 
gainer, as he has acquired great nobility ! ' 

Stosch was a noble, like Kaunitz, and was a diplo- 
matist also, after a certain fashion. He was a Prussian 
virtuoso ; but he was employed by England, as a spy 
on the * Pretender.' General Braitwitz was the com- 
mander of Maria Theresa, the Queen of Hungary's 
troops in Tuscany. He was an amazingly ignorant 
person. He spoke of the Queen and the King of 
Sardinia as ' Ces deux Potences,' meaning ' Potentate ' 

Among the English sojourning at Florence, at this 
time, was the eccentric Lady Walpole. Her maiden 
name was Margaret Rolle. She was a great Devon- 
shire heiress, and she was married to Sir Robert 


Walpole's eldest son, who was raised to the peerage 
in his father's lifetime. She soon separated from her 
husband. At Florence, Count de Eichecourt was her 
recognized lover. The Count (a Lorrainer) was the 
creature of the favourite minister of the Grand Duke. 
He treated the De Craons with an aggravating amount 
of lofty scorn ; and he did not care to be otherwise 
than capricious and aggravating with my lady. 

'I must tell you/ writes Mann, 'that you are 
infinitely mistaken in thinking that my lady took the 
reception ill from her Count. There are pieces of 
sincerity and freedom that spoil nothing. I hear that 
he has ordered a very fine chariot, which is to cost 
600 crowns, and to be presented to her. I believe in 
my conscience, an affair is struck up with the Senator 
Rucellai, who is eternally there ! ' 

Among the able medical men of Florence, no one 
was more able or distinguished than Dr. Cocchi, Mann's 
favourite physician. "Tis terrible,' the minister 
writes in May, ' a man of his worth, and who might 
be so useful to society, should be so neglected. They 
have made him, in company with two old women 
(Franchi and another), Inspector and Regulator of the 
Sick in the Hospital, which honour, as 'tis termed in 
the letter, from the Secretary's office, of notification, 
he seems determined to refuse. What do you think 
his gain would be for an immense deal of trouble ? 
Why, some long wax candles ; perhaps eight or ten 
pounds of wax, a year; and this honour and profit 
the Court, who on all occasions, professes infinite 
esteem of his merit, has procured him. As therefore 
he is neither sensible of the one nor of the other, I 
can't blame him to refuse them.' 

16 CEREMONY. 1741. 

June the 13th, Mann writes of the Duke of 
Modena's plump and handsome sister : ' The Princess 
of Modena is here. There is a violent deme'le', and 
our Princess has not been, or will go, to see her. 
Some time ago, she employed the Bishop of Assamea (?) 
and de Sade to write to Modena to settle the inter- 
view : to be met at such a distance ; not to wait a 
moment ; an equal chaise ; and the right hand. The 
negotiators told Madame de Craon all was settled and 
agreed to. The night of the other's arrival, she sent 
Marquis Forzoni to compliment her and to know the 
hour precisely she might come. The answer was 
whenever she pleased, and how impatient she was to 
see her. Forzoni had private instructions to touch 
on the affair of the right hand, which, by the answer 
lie received, shows it was far from being agreed to. 
Count Somebody, who acts as her Great Master, told 
him the pretention was extraordinary and could not 
be allowed. He went, however, to his Princess, who 
returned the same answer, adding, that however great 
her desire was to see Madame de Craon, yet she did 
not dare give up what her house had always insisted 
upon, for fear of offending her mother. At Forzoni's 
return all was in a flame. " Comment ! Elle ne me 
donnera pas la main ? Madame de Modene fera ceque 
lui plaira ; mais je n'irai point ; je ne mettrai pied 
dans sa maison; je me dispenserai bien de la voir I" etc., 
etc., etc. Since which Mme. de Craon goes much about 
en attelage, with an Ecuyer on horseback, and braves it 
out. The Eegency sent the Prince of Modena a nasty 
present of eatables, very ordinary servants of the 
Court, and very scrub coaches, which she makes use of 

1/41. A FRENCH ABBE. 17 

with a guard at her door. She would not use the 
Duke of Tuscany 's box, though it is lighted and 
adorned every night. They have taken the box over 
against mine, joined with that of the singers, hung 
Avith damask and well illuminated. She is courteous 
to a degree, and is adored by all the ladies, whom she 
entertains by turns at dinner, and who pay her great 
court. When she does not go to the Opera, she stays 
at home and receives the whole town.' 

Mann subsequently passes to a story which, as he 
says, for the variety of incident merits a place in a 

' Count Lorenzi (a Florentine, but Minister from 
France) received last post a letter from Cardinal 
Tencin, to desire he would apply to the government 
to have a French Abbe, who was some days before 
arrived here, secured in the fortress. This was im- 
mediately done. The Abbe's story, as Prince Craoii 
told it me yesterday, is as follows : He is born of 
noble parents, in some part of France. His mother 
was taken in labour when abroad, and put to bed in a 
little hut. The child and she were carried home in a 
chaise some time after. The former had fits and 
showed little signs of rife ; was therefore baptized in a 
great hurry, and by mistake they made use of rose- 
water instead of pure. The circumstance appears 
trifling, but will appear of consequence in the sequel. 
From his infancy, to the age of 1 7 or 1 8, nothing ex- 
traordinary happened. He followed his studies with 
a view of attaching himself to the Church. He then 
travelled about France, where he fell in love with and 
married a woman of fashion, unknown to his father, to 

VOL. I. C 


whom he returned, and was pressed to take his degrees, 
which he began by the tonsure, thinking that of no 
consequence. Soon after, he received advice of his 
wife's death, at the same time that she did of his. He 
then went on and became a Priest. She did not give 
credit so easily to his death, but wrote to the Cure of 
the parish where he lived, and was confirmed by him 
that such a one of that name was dead and buried. The 
mistake was occasioned by the death of his brother. 
She soon after married a second husband, who died 
soon. Some years after, the Abbe returned to the 
place where his wife lived, and made an acquaintance 
who told him there was a lady at a small distance in 
the country who had a great curiosity to see him, 
having been intimately acquainted with a person of 
his name. They went. At his first entrance, the 
lady fainted away. He had forgot her. As soon as 
she was recovered, she desired a tete a tete, and soon 
convinced him that she had been his lawful wife. He, 
preferring his first engagement to all others, which he 
had taken in consequence of her supposed death, con- 
tinued with her, and had three children, and called 
upon his brother for the restitution of what he had 
renounced when he became a Priest. They refused "it 
on his being no Christian, and quoted the rose-water 1 
On this a law suit was commenced, but as the case 
was so extraordinary and so intricate, nobody but the 
Pope could determine it. The Priest therefore went 
to Rome, and has been in the house and under the pro- 
tection of Abbe Franchini. What success he had there 
is not yet known. He left Rome, came here, and was 
taken up, and is now in the Fortezza di basso.' 


In a P.S. Mann notices the arrival of certain 'bears ' 
and their ' leaders ' in these words : ' Four English 
are arrived here to-day. Mr. Clepham, who was with 
Lord Mansel, leads the other three. Their names I 
don't know/ In a subsequent undated letter, he refers 
to these gentlemen, who were on the 'grand tour/ thus 
'The four English, the most silent creatures I ever 
saw, are gone to Pisa, but will return to my little 
house near the Arno/ The departure of the Princess 
of Modena, after scattering diamonds, snuff-boxes, 
and gold-headed canes in profusion, among those who 
had paid most court to her, is duly announced, at 
great length. Florence was not much the duller for 
her going. On the 24th June, Mann writes : ' Here 
are a vast many strangers, both men and women, for 
our St. John. Their names I don't know. The 
English, Mr. Bouverie (a relation of Sir Jacob) and 
Mr. Fuller, I know nothing of, nor of Mr. Trap, except 
that he is a son of the famous Doctor Trap ; Miss and 
Mr. Clepham. They all travel at Mr. Bcuverie's 
expense. They all dined with me and Sir Erasmus 
(Phillips), but such a silent meeting I have seldom 
seen : I could not get them to open their mouths ; in 
short, I was vastly fatigued. They go nowhere, on 
account of their having no language/ Another 
Englishman is noticed, a Mr. Sturgiss, who was a 
friend of Lord Walpole's, and the lover of Lord 
AValpole's wife ; indeed, he came abroad with her ; but 
they soon parted, yet he remained a friend to whom 
my lady showed ample hospitality. ' Sturgiss has 
come back, but there is so little room for him in 
my Lady's little house, that she lends him the use of 


one room to sleep in. Every morning his bed is 
removed, and my lady receives company there.' 

In a letter of July 1, referring to St. John's day, 
Mann says : ' On St. John's day I was at the 
Prince's lodge to see the races. The Great Duke 
won the Paglio. When it was carried to Prince 
Craon's house, attended by crowds, there were three 
solemn Fischiati. In the afternoon of the same day 
there was a country fellow to see the show ; 7 or 
8 Gens d'armes, out of a joke, beat time with their 
canes on his back. The fellow's entreaties to them to 
give over were in vain. At last he turned about to 


the people, saying : " Popolo, ajutatemi ; questi mi 
ammazoranno certo." No sooner were the words out 
of his mouth but the people assaulted the Gens d'armes 
with stones, with such vigour and so well aimed, that 
some were wounded, and had it not been for a neigh- 
bouring church, into which they fled, 'tis thought 
they would have been murdered. The Priests were 
forced to shut the doors, which was hardly sufficient 
to prevent the people entering, whose rage was so 
great that in all probability they would have finished 
their work even at the altar. Some sucli insolence as 
this will one time or other occasion a general solleva- 
tion. Woe be to them when it happens.' 

Passing from the ' people ' on the race-course to 
the ' Quality ' at the Opera., Mann says : ' The 
Princess, after having led ' (the Duke of) ' St. Aigmui 
and poor Count Lorenzi in triumph through the 
Corso, in her phaeton, went in the same state to the 
Opera, in the Great Theater, and supped in the Great 
Duke's box. The Prince, the day before, came behind 

1741. LADY WALPOLE. 21 

me, and with his hands on my shoulders, prevented 
my turning so as to see who it was. " Devinez," says 
he, " qui je suis, vous me connaitrez par le chaleur de 
mes embrassements." All I could answer on the 
sudden was, " Ha, ha ! mon Prince ; oui, je vous 
connois." What else can one say to such things ? ' 

' I can't omit telling you that Count R.' 
(Richecourt, Lady Walpole's lover) ' is, I am assured, 
sent for to Vienna. There is the greatest confusion at 
a certain house ' (Lady W.'s), ' but 1 believe she will 
not follow. Whether the little bottle' (laudanum) 
'is to be used on this occasion, we shall soon see, but 
I fancy the drops of a larger bottle will render the 
former useless, seeming to be convinced they are a 
better specific. . . . Count Richecourt is gone 
with all the mystery imaginable ; where, nobody 
knows ; nor why. He asked peoples' orders pour les 
canx. My Lady, I suspect much, is moving, though 
the Count said he should return in 3 months ; to 
others, 6. Sturgiss ' (the other lover) ' was sent to 
Leghorn. Nicolini, the Abbe*, her creditor, was sent 
for, and told by her that, for the debt, she designed to 
put some pearls into his hands. He says he will take 
them ; and I told him he was in the right. Sturgiss 
asked much t'other day about Geneva ; and then of 
Aix in Provence. This, you will say, is all very dark, 
but still I think may mean something. . . . Poor 
Prince Craon is at the Petraja, and has again got the 
itch ! August 6. Prince Craon, poor man, staid at 
the Petraja to scratch himself.' 

On the 12th August, Mann sent Walpole news of 
a ' scare ' at Leghorn. ' The whole town of Leghorn 

22 THE PLAGUE. 1741. 

lias been alarmed on account of a sickness that has 
been discovered on board a French vessel from Algiers, 
which is judged to be certainly the plague. Six people 
are dead already. At last, the Government took the 
resolution to send the ship out into the road, and after 
burning for 6 hours to sink her ; which has been 
executed. The remainder of the crew ivere obliged to 
swim to the Marzocco (a little fort), where everything 
was prepared for them, and where they must live some 
months. A second alarm has been occasioned there 
by the dangerous illness of General Wachtendonck, 
who has been given over by his physicians and turned 
over to the priests. He was not dead at the departure 
of the last letter, but there were few hopes. They 
had exposed the Sacrament in several Churches, and 
were making processions for his recovery. Though 
the subject is melancholy, I own I could not help 
laughing at Mrs. Goldworthy's account, whose 
words are, "There is no hopes of his doing well. 
God send he may, as he has but few equals. I am 
afraid he is too good to be amongst us ! " What 
words could Madame make use of stronger? She must 
have told him he has no equals.' 

The moribund warrior was General of the Grand 
Duke's troops at Leghorn. Mrs. Goldworthy's hus- 
band was English Consul in that town, where he 
intrigued, unsuccessfully, to supplant Mann at Flo- 
rence. Madame was a niece of Sir Charles Wager, 

O ' 

and an ill-educated woman. AVachtendonck was her 
Cicisbeo, and something more. He spent a good deal 
of money on her ; and, being a methodical man, he 
put down every Zecchino in his account book, and 

1741. A SERENADE. 23 

the reason for which it was expended. Mann was 
delighted at the condition in the domestic affairs of 
his enemy, the Consul. Meanwhile, there were gay 
doings at Florence. 

' There's a very great Cocchiata ' (a serenade in 
coaches) ' to night on the Terrass of the Corsini house, 
Lung' Arno. Chains are put up at the ends of the 
street, to prevent Coaches approaching, so that the 
whole town will be there, or thereabouts, a-foot ; 'tis 
a charming situation, you know, for such a thing ; 
and the night is most favourable, after some of the 
hottest days, they say, of this or any other summer. 
Oh, if you were here, I am sure you would be pleased 
and would be among'st 'em in your long night-gown, 
till break of day. "Tis made by 12 Cavalieri, set on 
foot and managed by Abbate Capponi. It begins at 
5 hours.' 

On the 21st August, Mann expresses a hope that 
some at least of the letters addressed to Walpole 
would reach him. There was faint reliance on the 
perfect trustworthiness of the Post in those days. 
To a reference, made by Walpole, to Spence, who 
was travelling with him, Mann replies : ' Spence, I 
take it, will always be a Fellow of a College ; that is, 
with all their classical learning, extreme tiresome. 
It is a character, extreme difficult, I have observed, 
to lay aside ; but how few people there are we can 
bear to be locked up with ! ' The Prince de Craon 
was one of these. ' The Prince and Princess are still 
at the Petraja ; and the Prince extreme bad with 
the Itch/ Mann adds : ' Wachtendonck is dead. He 
died last Tuesdav of a malignant fever which has 


been common here among the poor people, attributed 
to the effects of the inundation. At the beginning 
of his illness, he sent to desire Mr. and Mrs. Gold- 
worthy not to come to him. He, however, Avent and 
was totally neglected. This did not proceed from 
pique, but from a desire, as he expressed it, to " fare 
il gran passo come si doveva." The Priests soon got 
about him, and banished the two pictures, Mrs. Gold- 
worthy's and the Princess Triulzi's, from his bed-side, 
to make room for those of Saints of both sexes. Altars 
were erected, and whole loads of relicks brought him, 
to which the pious General applied with great fervour. 
I was told that he was in great danger, but was still 
kept alive aforza delle gran preghiere, and that Mrs. 

Gold had caused many masses to be said for his 

recovery ; so that he made his exit quite to the satis- 
faction of the Capuchins, and edification of his Godly 
beholders. His Farewell was performed with great 
pomp, after he had lain in state in his Hall, in the 
midst of altars erected for the occasion. He left 
Mrs. Goldworthy his body coach and a pair of horses, 
but they say the order cannot be complied with, as 
it was verbal ; besides, being a Chevalier de Malta, he 
could not bequeath unless he had a permission for 
a fifth part ; which if asked is never denied. 

' Last night (at the Opera), Bali Einaldi took some- 
thing ill of Cavaliere Pitti, who had never any design 
to offend him, and less inclination to fight, which the 
other observing, was less tractable. But, as it was 
near my box, I was desired to intercede On my 
first appearance, before I knew a word of the story, 
Albergotti, who was mediating, said : " Via, Signor 


Bali. Ecco un Ministro chi e capace di fare la pace 
tra T Inghilterra e la Spagna ; che non sia mai detto 
ch' abbia mancato in questo." On which the Bali was 
more compliant, and condescended to promise not to 
kill Pitti. It has been since said that I made the 

27th August. ' Mr. Chute is a good deal with me. 
The silent company dined here the day before yester- 
day, and as most of them are downright Johns, Mr. 
Chute was convinced they despised him much. They 
disliked his fan extremely. They wanted to drink 
after dinner ; but you know I never allow that, so 
called for coffee, and asked them if they would not 
walk in the garden. I saw they were out of humour, 
and was convinced all the time one is entertaining and 
thinking to be civil, that they despise one vastly. 
Indeed, there are so few worth obliging that to attempt 
it is time and money thrown away. Last night we had 
the most terrible storm of rain and hail, with thunder 
and lightning, I ever heard. My servants were all 
frightened out of their wits. They all stuck close 
together, nor would separate to go to bed, till 'twas 
over. I was pleased to see that Giuseppe ran home to 
his wife, the moment he had put me to bed. It has 
cooled the air so much that I fear I shall be drove 
out of the Terreno soon. I shall be sorry to quit 
it, for 'tis the prettiest appartment I ever saw.' 

September 2nd. ' I was at Mons. Suares' villa, to 
see his "Demetrio," which I was forced to praise 
vastly. The whole town was in raptures about it, 
though it was bad enough. Mr. Chute and I sat 
together and had the private satisfaction of abusing 


them all the while, but then we had the mortification 
after it was over to be obliged to commend every- 
thing, and own that the sentiments were great, and 
that Metastasio was unico. Mr. Chute thanks you 
for liking the Maison Quarree, and promises in return 
to like anything you please to direct. He is ex- 
tremely entertaining, but he found out that the herd 
of English do not take to him ever since he came in 
his fan. . . . Poor Prince Craon is bad with his itch ; 
on which account he is returned from the Petraja. 
The Princess came sore against her will, et dans la 
prevention de tomber malade d son entree dans 
Florence, with which she is now confined to her bed. 
The Prince asked me if I would go into her room, 
which I accepted, but Forzoni had received instruc- 
tions to the contrary, so all was over. Conte del 
Benniro is dead at last ! The little Countess has put 
her husband under the Papilli. Some blame her 
much. I had not seen her for some time before 
yesterday, and that was at a distance, in the deepest 
mourning-coach I ever saw. I did not know her at 
first, but was soon convinced it could be nobody else 
by her extreme liveliness through such dismal trappings. 
I thought she would have jumped out of them, so 
great was her pleasure to be met. The Sposo and 
Sposa Eossi, from high words have come to blows. 
He bore the first tolerably well, but when Madame 
pushed things further, he turned again, pulled off her 
cap and tumbled her hair so, that she was unfit to 
appear at the Conversation, lo which she was that 
instant going. Her own relations are against her, and 
she has been told that if she goes on witli her fisty- 

1741. THE CICISBEOS. 27 

cuffs, she runs great risk of dying in a convent, or at 
best, a villa.' 

Sept. 10. ' I was last night, for the first time, at 
the Burletta, at the little theater ; the worst entertain- 
ment I really ever saw. The first woman is called 
La Cecca, from being protected by Cecco. She is a 
third sister of the Giuclita. He, Cecco, introduced her 
to his mother, who really looked upon her with 
pleasure, made everybody observe everything that 
was tolerable about her, and from that time took her 
under her own protection.' 

Mann, in a letter dated September 17th, gives 
further illustrations of Florentine life, in a description 
of a flutter among the Cicisbeos, at a great Festino at 
Kiccasoli's : 

'There were 280 ladies, and men out of all pro- 
portion. It proved a fatal night to the Cicisbeos. 
In the first place, the great black-headed Frescobaldi 
fairly dismissed her Bernardino, who "per verita ed 
in legge d' onore," was greatly disconcerted. I expect, 
however, to hear she has taken him on again, as the 
fat Antinori can never be sufficient alone. The 
Gaburra dismissed poor Andre Siristori, who, in 
appearance, is disconsolate. I saw him the next 
night at the opera. She was in my box, and he in all 
those opposite to it. Some suspect that her relations 
have made her uneasy, and that this separation is a 
concerted matter. Madame Gondi has turned off the 
poor pale-faced Abbe ; to be sure, for the same reasons 

that Miss Edwards did Lord Anne . She has 

not, I hear, yet fixed upon another. The Yitelli 
pines after what the Parigi robs her of, and daily sees 


Giovanino's infidelities. He thinks Conducci supplies 
his place. . . . The greatest heroine of all is the Pepi. 
Pecori left her for a few days, for the Parigi. I did 
not know till lately, she was so exasperated, that she 
had resolved his death ; for which purpose she dressed 
herself like an Abbe, with a couple of pistols in 
her pockets, and marched out to waylay him ; but, 
most unluckily, met with the Guard of Sbirri, who, 
after a certain hour, stops odd figures, to search for 
prohibited arms. They found the pistols upon her, 
and hurried her to the Bargello's prison, where she 
was forced to discover herself to be an injured Lady, 
and that Love was the cause of her transports. 
Money, I suppose, helped it up, and she was dismissed 
to go home to sleep by her husband.' 

' Cecco's mother has not appeared at any of these 
places ; she says, on account of some waters she is 
drinking, which require her to stay at home in the 
evenings, to avoid the night air. But Cecco was 
more honest. On my asking him, bonnement, why his 
mother did not appear, he whispered me that she 
had no jewels, that they were all in pawn, nor could 
be redeemed ! I have known her pay a monstrous 
price for the tise of her own jewels, for one night ; 
and then return them the next morning to the jew. 
I really pity her, but more on another account. She 
tells me that if it were possible to add a little more to 
the Dote they design to give the Teresina, she should 
have hopes of marrying her to Roberto Pandolfini, who 
has explained himself so far as to discover he likes her 
person; but, as his mother had 12,000 crowns, he 
must have it too. However, Madame thinks 9 or 1 

1741. MATCH-MAKING. 29 

would do, and is actually employing a tried and 
common friend to persuade him to take 6, which is 
all they have to give. That oaf, the Bishop, might 
give her something, but he has declared his conscience 
wont let him take from God, to give his niece. 1 

Among the Mann letters, there is occasionally one 
from Chute, ' To the Hon. Horatio Walpole, Esq., 
These,' is the superscription over some chronicling of 
small beer, with this notice of princely malady and 
manners : ' The poor Prince's Distemper being of a 
nature to be carried always at his Fingers' ends, and 
so not admitting of enquiries much, I, who you know 
am half blind, must be ill qualify'd to give an account 
of his Progress ; but I think he does not ferret so 
much as he did. His Princess, I believe, enjoys per- 
fect Health ; a Circumstance always supposed con- 
ducing to which, she took care to mark strongly the 
other night to her whole assembly, by addressing 
herself to us all, as she sail'd in all her floating 

' O 

majesty from the further end of the Gallery to the 
Door of one of her more private Apartments, in these 
Terms: "Je ne demande Permission a Personnel" 
you know how to accent it, and explain advan- 
tageously, as I did, to the state of her Constitution.' 

At this time AValpole had returned to England. 
The first letter addressed by him to the British 
Minister at Florence, was begun at Calais in Sep- 
tember, 1741, and finished at Sittingbourne (Kent) on 
the 13th of the month. 'The country town,' writes 
the wanderer, at home, ' delights me ; the populous- 
ness, the ease, the gaiety, .and well-dressed e very-body 
amaze me, Canterbury, which on my setting- out I 


thought deplorable, is a Paradise to Moclena, Reggio, 
Parma, etc. I had before discovered that there was 
nowhere but in England, "middling people." I per- 
ceive now that there is peculiar to us, "middling 
houses." How snug they are ! ' 

To this outburst, Mann replies : ' I am glad of 
all that's in your letter ; that you are safe arrived ; 
that your company diverted you ; and that, at landing, 
they respected the person of your trunks ; and am 
extremely glad to find that you was struck, as I really 
was, at my return to England, after having been 
abroad, where there is such a ragged appearance, 
except in the very great towns, to what we see in 
the middling towns at home. If we could alter some 
things (many things), and totally change the climate, 
it would be preferable to all other places.' 

From this faint praise of home, Mann gets back to 
the noblest house in Florence, and to the Prince Craoii, 
who, having recovered from his itch, celebrated the 
event by a grand dinner : ' 'Twas a dinner at which 
the Princess did not appear, but at the window of the 
gallery which looks, you know, into the room where 
we dined. We were 25 at table. The Prince and I 
sat at the two ends of the table ; but not to be less 
loving than if we had been near, we sent messages to 
each other continually. Among others, one was to 
drink your health, to me ; which I returned by the 
same Page, by drinking his child's health, to him ; 
Prince Beauvau's. The only difficulty I was put 
to on this occasion, where healths must not be drunk 
in water, was about wine, as I have totally left it off, 
since the beginning of my illness, but a thimble-full 

1741. AT THE THEATRE. 31 

does to colour the water, and one glass does for the 
whole table. At night, there was no invitation of 
ladies, but it was given out that " tutte sarebbero 
gradite." . . . Madame Griffoni is vastly well and 
continues handsome. Her sister grows monstrously 
fat, else would be handsome too. The good little 
Albizi has been ill of a fever, but is much better. She 
is deprived for a time of her little hero, who is become 
a Colonel of one of the two regiments to be raised out 
of the Militia, which he is about to form. Capponi, 
you know, has the other. They are always called 
Signori Colonelli.' 

' We had a strange uproar last Wednesday, at the 
Burletta ; an affair of party. I never saw anything 
like it before, but have heard of it happening in 
England. Albergotti was the hero ; he had made his 
addresses to the Romana, but being ill received, he 
would not permit the applause the Pit gave her ; 
superior greatly to that which was given to the Cecca, 
whom really every body did applaud till it was known 
Albergotti was offended with the notice that was 
taken of the Romana. Piques of this kind went on 
for many nights, but were always kept within the 
bounds of gentle hissing (which may be taken, as 
'tis often meant in Italy, for a call of silence, or of 
attention) and violent clapping ; but on the fatal 
Wednesday night, just when the Romana was at the 
height of her favourite song, which could hardly 
be heard for the clapping, she was silenced by a 
most dreadful concert of cat-calls, performed by the 
Lorraine officers, and their servants. You cannot con- 
ceive the damp that was struck all over the theater. 

3-2 OPERATIC RIOT. 1741. 

The ladies were all offended, and afraid to go home, 
it having been discovered that the Cat-callers were 
all armed. Albergotti was not one of them, though 
publickly known to be the promoter of it. One of the 
officers called to him from the Pit, and said, " Marquis, 
c'est pour vous veuger ! " In that the Impresario was 
affronted, so was his theater. The affair was carried 
the next morning before the Council, as what might 
have "des suites facheuses ;" to prevent which it was 
thought proper to order Albergotti to repair to Arezzo, 
his native country, there to receive the orders that 
were to be sent to the Governor. He departed yester- 
day. The town in the mean time was deprived of 
an opera on the next opera-night ! ' 

November 26th. 'You know Vanneschi, Lord Mid- 
dlesex's favourite poet. He wrote an opera, formerly, in 
which there was an air that began : " Leon die scherza c 
ride." I don't remember the rest. Condeli was struck 
with the idea, and made the following imi ation off- 
hand, soon after there had been an earthquake in 
Florence : 

" II vezzoso Terrenioto 
Ingollava la Citta, 
Ed il Fulminar giulivo 
Non lasciare un uomo vivo 
Scherzaggiando in qua e in la ": 

I am sure you like it, for its odduess. 

December 17 'th. 'Nothing is spoke of but Gavi 
(a fraudulent banker) and his accomplices. He is in 
a church, and what is more strange, the Priests think 
him too great a villain to harbour him, so that he is 


drove from one convent to another. The secret is, that 
as soon as they can fix him, they mean to take him 
by force. I pity his poor wife. She is with child, and 
constantly attended night and day by the Sbirri in 
her room. She sent a complaint the other day, that 
the Sbirri "non la lasciavano vestire con pace, e che 
consumavano tutte le Bracie ; che per 1'amor di Dio 
dessero a dire che non tocasseno le Bracie" The 
great concern for her small coal made them suspect a 
rat. Upon examination, they found 6000 crowns 
under them. In different holes and corners, they found 
18,000 crowns, but all in silver ; from which 'tis 
thought he found means to carry off his gold.' 

December 19 th. 'I had like to have forgot to tell 
you, that about 3 weeks ago, 6 medals were sent 
from England to Rome, vastly satirical. Sir Robert 
Walpole, with a cord round his neck, led by the Devil. 
On the other side, Sir Robert leads the King by the 
nose. The person writes me word he has seen them, 
and has promised, if possible, to get me one. There 
are mottoes, but he did not say what.' 

As Mr. Mann w r as stationed at Florence partly to 
watch over, partly to receive reports of the sayings 
and doings of the Pretender and his family in Italy, 
the Minister's letters occasionally contain references to 
this subject. On the 22nd August, 1741, we have the 
first notice of the movements of the Stuart Princes. 
' I have been writing,' says Mann to Walpole, ' since 8 
hours of the morning, and now it is 5 hours at night. 
I was alarmed in the middle of the night, by an express 
from Rome, to acquaint me, the Eldest boy was going 
off at night, in company with Murray and one servant, 

VOL. I. l> 


(Walpole has here written, over the word ' Murray ' 
' Lord Dunbar,' who did not go with him at all.) ' It 
was in so private a manner that nobody knew it. My 
Abbe got notice of it two days after. I am horribly 
uneasy lest I should be deceived ; and how is it 
possible to know the truth ? The circumstances are 
very particular. They went in a borrowed chaise, 3 
posts from Kome ; then they took post by Fuligno, 
Fossombrone, so to Brescia, by the Orisons, into 
France. Cardinal Tencin presented to the Boy, on the 
14th, in the name of his Master, a set of Plate da 
Campagna. They say it was fine wrought and gilt. 
He gave him at the same time a letter, by which the 
French King declares him (but I cannot believe it, 
though the whole town is full of it) Commander in 
Chief of all his troops by sea and land. The expressions 
are so odd, the command so great, and the thing so 
extraordinary, that I can't tell what to make of it. 
In some of the letters about the town thfere is added to 
the above, " In case of a war with England." 

On the 27th August, 1741, Mann writes, ' It is a 
very hard matter to say what is, what is not ; espe- 
cially when folks make it their business to puzzle on 
this fact. I have represented the thing to them at 55 
(Hanover). I am almost wild, there is such a strange 
noise about my ears, I can hardly write. One tells 
me one thing ; another tells me the contrary. Some 
affirm, with all the particulars, 2's' (Prince Charles 
Edward's) 'journey into France, just indeed as I had 
heard it a week ago. If I was present at the Petraja 
I could judge better of it ; but as I cannot go there, I 
must say what Viviani and others tell me/ 


Mann's despatches were sent, not direct to Eng- 
land, but round by Hanover, where he expected 
George II. might then be. In a letter of September 
24th, he names one 'Jackson of Leghorn, who by 
being concerned in commerce, has been and is very 
attentive to what is going forward/ Subsequently he 
adds : 'It is certain they flatter themselves that the 
Marriage ' (Union of England and Scotland) ' may be 
broke off; 202V (Mann's) 'friend at 77 ' (Rome) 'says 
that two of Miss North and Grey's tenants ' (Scotsmen) 
' have been there to confer with 1 1 ' (the old Chevalier) 
' about the Settlements, and that their setting out was 
what deceived him/ ' In France,' Mann writes, October 
8th, 'the King of England is spoken of with very little 
attention, and is constantly called Monsieur Hanover. 
202 ' (Mann) ' does not believe this and infinite other 
impertinencies, which are unreal, but I saw him in a 
great passion on hearing a letter read from France, 
which contained them I ' 

And so ends the chronicle of the first year. 




AT this period England was ' meddling and muddling' 
in Continental politics. The interests of Great Britain 
were being made subservient to those of the Electorate 
of Hanover. We were supporting the cause of Maria 
Theresa, the Queen of Hungary, against France, 
Spain, and Bavaria. Fleets, armies, and subsidies 
were lavished for a foolish object, and for ungrateful 
personages. Tuscany was threatened with a Spanish 

January 17th. ' The Great Duke has not sufficient 
force to make any resistance in case of need. H. M. 
sends a fleet perhaps, but on a supposition, no doubt, 
that Leghorn could make some defence itself, which 
at present is not the case. Five thousand good troops 
would not be enough ; but these are as bad as can 
be, and the greatest part Tuscans, poor country 
fellows indeed ; but you know the whole country is 
inclined to the Spaniards. An opinion has prevailed 
since my going to Leghorn, that England had pur- 
chased that town of the Great Duke, for money ! It 
is not the first time it has been talked of, and by all 


thinking people greatly wished to be true. Sure, the 
advantages of having it must be great. Now if ever 
is the time to bring it about. We might part with 
something we have in the Mediterranean, at least Port 
Mahon, not of half so much use as this would be. 
Leghorn would be what we must always have a port 
in these seas, and would be at the same time a con- 
siderable trading town. Will you mention this by 
way of discourse ; the time more than ever makes it 

'. . . Mr. Haddock is at Port Mahon. On his 
passage thither he saw the Spanish squadron, and 
was preparing to engage it, but soon discovered the 
Toulon squadron, when the Spaniards bore down 
towards the French. Mr. Haddock called a Council, 
in which it was not judged proper to attack them, as 
they were joined with the French. This is the ac- 
count of the Captain of The Garland, man-of-war, 
who lately arrived at Genoa. At this rate, if their 
united fleets are to convey the second embarkation, 
Mr. Haddock, without a reinforcement, is not strong 
enough to prevent its taking place.' 

January 12th. ' The poor Prince de Craon is ex- 
tremely disgusted ; no visits have passed, and I believe 
both he and she are determined to retire, if things 
don't mend. De Sade came into my box, the other 
night, " Helas ! " said he, "le pauvre Prince de Craon 
est au de'sespoir." " He would not appear at Council ! " 
says I. " Non ! " dit il, " il a raison. ' Tenez,' je lui ai 
dit, ' mon Prince ! si vous etes delicat, il faut vous 
retirer. Si vous ne 1'etes pas, tirez votre pension sans 
rien faire.' ' Is not this quite like De Sade ? 

38 AT THE OPERA. 1742. 

' Lady "Walpole is returned. She drove directly to 
tlie old palace, the habitation of the Count. She wants 
satisfaction for the affronts she received. . . . Poor 
Mr. St. John, the madman in religion, though in no- 
thing else so, wanted to make me a present of some pier 
glasses, for saving his fine and numerous library, which 
I refused. He still pressed it, but I was obstinate. 
" Lord ! " says I to Mr. Chute, " what can I say more 
to the man?" "Why, very true," says he, "he cannot 
even pretend that his present will not cast a reflection 
upon you." I have no heart to speak to you about 
our operas, they are so very bad. One goes there 
notwithstanding. The Bagnolese caricata to a degree. 
She really squeezes out her words so, that it puts 
one in mind of something else. Tedeschino is very 
middling, a humble imitator of Salembeni. The 
Tenore is very good, but an extreme mean figure. The 
rest are not worth naming. Poor Giuseppe Eidolfi will 
pay dear for the honour of being Impresario. For, to 
make it worse, they have contrived in this, as in other 
trifles, to disoblige the whole town by refusing a per- 
mission for masks, so that the theater is always empty. 
That of the Via del Cocomero is most frequented. 
"Dido" was the first opera, and pleased. Fini com- 
posed the second ; the vilest musick that ever was 
heard. The audience at the end cried out, "Eh bene 1 
eh bene ! ma Didone ! Didone ! " which they say it 
is to be, much to the mortification of Signor Fini, 
who swears there is not even an " ombra di sapere o 
di gusta," left in Florence.' 

'On Tuesday last, at the time everybody was at 
the opera, there was a severe shock of an Earthquake 

1742. OLIVER ST. JOHN. 39 

at Leghorn, which frightened them all out of their 
wits. There were afterwards severe repetitions. 
Braitwitz slept in his carriage, in the place. The 
public diversions were suspended as inconsistent with 
prayer, to which everybody was ordered to betake 

January 28th. ' I told you of Mr. St. John and 
his Glasses. Many letters passed, and all I could say 
was not sufficient to convince him, I would not have 
them ; by this at last he understood I wanted some- 
thing else in lieu of them ; and what do you think 
he did ? Why he sent me ] 00 Zecchini, as the full 
value of them, which he said I ought not to refuse 
accepting, for if that was wrong the offering it was 
so too, and that he was incapable of committing an 
error ; that in Equity and Justice a valuable con- 
sideration was due to me for the services I had done 
him ; that no man, of whatever rank, need have felt 
the least shame of either proposing or accepting it ; 
that it need not be made a necessary clause in every 
deed of conveyance, or lease, and concludes his letter 
with (what, tho' I was devilishly angry, made me 
laugh extremely) " a small sample of his poetry," he 
calls it : 

" Let him who would be happy, strive 
To be the simplest man alive, 
And he may be the simplest man but one; 
And that man I am, Oliver St. John." 

Did you ever hear anything like this poor simple 
man ? . . . I wrote him a most thundering answer 
when I returned his hundred Zecchini, to which he 

40 EARTHQUAKE. 1742. 

wrote a reply, two days after, by telling me that he 
had deposited the same sum in his Advocate's hands, 
which I would please to demand when my scruples 
were not insuperable ; that he meant me no affront, 
but a genteel present, but that if I persisted in 
thinking it so, " I might take my EEMEDY ! " 

' This poor man has got a scheme in his crazy 
head to convert all the Jews in Leghorn, for which 
purpose he struck up a correspondence with Mr. 
Porter, the parson there, a poor creature. St. John 
wrote him the strangest long letter about it, and made 
him the greatest offers of houses, money, settlements 
for life, etc., and at last sent him a Poem of 80 
Stanzas, of 6 lines each, the title of which was, 
" Great News to the Listening Jews," to the tune 
and metre of " Old Sir Simon the King ; " and yet, 
except on this religious key, the poor man is vastly 
sensible, and was always known to have a great deal 
of learning.' 

( The Earthquake at Leghorn has been very severe. 
They had in all sixteen shocks. We felt nothing of 
them here.' 

' Jesus ! I little expected to be obliged to take up 
this letter again to add so horrid a postscript. A few 
hours ago, an Estafette arrived from Leghorn with a 
very short and confused account of a vile shock of an 
Earthquake that happened yesterday, at about 19 
hours. All the houses, they say, have suffered ex- 
tremely, particularly the Jews' quarter. Part of a 
church fell in, and some people have been killed. All 
the inhabitants fled out of the town, and everytliing 
was in horrid confusion. Braitwitz has asked for 

1742. EARTHQUAKE. 41 

tents, etc., to lodge his troops ; as their Quarters are 
so much damaged it makes it unsafe to live in them. 
Abbe Tomaquenei, to whom I have just sent to ask 
some account of this accident, knows no more than 
what I have mentioned, but has promised me a par- 
ticular account as soon as he receives it. They have 
despatched a Courier, an hour ago, to Leghorn. I am 
going to write a letter to Mrs. Gold worthy, to invite 
her to Florence. Common humanity engages me to 
press her to come from that horrid place, and to forget 
everything they have said and done against me. I 
suppose my letter will find them on board some ship 
in the Mole, as nobody lives in their houses.' 

On the 3rd February, Mann continues the theme 
of the Earthquake. ' The damage that has been done 
must be very considerable, though it is yet not distinctly 
known, as people are too much terrified to examine 
narrowly into the buildings, most of which are for the 
present totally abandoned, from the dread of another 
shock which, if equal to the former, would, it is 
believed, lay the whole town in ruins. The inhabi- 
tants, from upwards of 40 (thousand) are reduced to 4 
or 5 (thousand). Many whole families fled to Pisa, 
Lucca, etc., in the dresses they escaped with out of 
their houses, not daring to return for money or 
common necessaries. All the English in general took 
refuge on board the ships in the Mole, where they 
still remain, and have conveyed thither their books 
and cash. Those that were obliged, either by their 
employments or for want of means to escape, remained 
in the town, spent both days and nights in. the 
Square, some in coaches, others in chairs, till tents 


could be pitched, in which Braitwitz and all his 
officers etc., now live.' 

' The Madonna di Monte Nero, who is to Leghorn 
what the Lady of the (illegible) is to Florence, was, 
by Braitwitz's order, brought into the town and 
placed in the Square, about which are erected many 
Altars for the publick devotion, as nobody will run the 
risk of being crushed in the churches, as one or two 
poor people were by the fall of the roof of that 
mentioned in the enclosed paper. Those who fled from 
there knew nothing of what they left behind them, and 
those that are there are still too much frightened to 
give any rational account by letter. Besides the hurt 
done to all the houses, it is greatly to be feared that 
the publick and private cisterns were spoilt, by which 
alone, except one little spouting fountain, the whole 
town is supplied with water. If so, the expense of 
repairing them will be immense; and, at this juncture, 
if the Spaniards should besiege the town, for want of 
water only, it would be obliged to surrender. Leghorn 
has received a blow, of w r hich it will not recover for 
a veiy considerable time. 

' A Council of Kegency was assembled on Wednes- 
day night, to consider of the proper order and steps 
that were to be taken for the relief of it. You will 
hardly believe that it was by mere accident this was 
thought of at all. "Well, but better late than never ! 
Orders were sent by an Estafette last Thursday to 
oblige the Bakers to bake, which they had omitted, as 
the Butchers had to kill meat. In short, nobody 
thought of any other means to secure life but by 
running from the Earthquake ; so that as none of the 

1742. EARTHQUAKE. 43 

people about carried provisions into the town as usual, 
the inhabitants suffered extremely. Six hundred loafs 
of bread are ordered daily to be distributed to the 
needy. Patrols are in the streets night and day, 
to prevent the houses that are abandoned being 
plundered. The Great Duke's iron works to furnish 
iron to all that want it, upon credit. The Monte di 
Pieta to furnish money to those who have none, for 
the immediate repair of their houses. But lo ! the 
great iron works have no iron, nor the Pieta any 
money. ' 

' We have had three days of devotion for the sake 
of the Livornesi, though surely never was there so 
little inclination to pray. 'Twas quite ridiculous, the 
last night of the Opera, to see the contrast between 
the pleasure of masking and the devotion they were 
entering upon. They did not dare publickly to say 
anything against it, for fear it should be a sin, but 
many of the ladies wished it had been deferred till 

' Col. Capponi has been at Leghorn during the six- 
teen shocks, and came frightened out of his senses. 
. . . His old unckle at Leghorn would never stir out 
of his house, though he was quite alone in it, and 
would by this means, have encouraged the people, had 
not Braitwitz's example on the contrary been more 
prevalent. The terror people were seized with has 
occasioned the utmost desolation. Ferdinand the 
Second went with his whole court to Leghorn, on 
a like occasion, to encourage, by his presence, the 
inhabitants to stay in the town, by which he pre- 
vented the ill consequences of their panick fear/ 

44 NEWS FROM HOME. 1742. 

February 24/i. ' I am to have Mrs. Goldworthy, 
with her children and maids, etc., the day after to- 
morrow. Poor creatures ! I really pity them. They 
come directly from on board to Florence, as his house, 
like all those that were corner houses, has suffered 
most and been rendered uninhabitable. I foresee it 
must be vastly troublesome, but in certain cases one 
cannot avoid these things. I shall retire into the two 
rooms t'other side of the hall, and leave the rest of 
the house to them.' 

Walpole addressed a letter to Mann, dated 9th 
February, 1742, in which he gave an account of the 
intrigues of the Prince of Wales, ' who it must seem 
proposes to be King ; ' of the plot to impeach Sir 
Eobert ; of the triumph of the latter when George the 
Second raised him to the peerage as Earl of Orford, 
and conferred on his natural daughter, Mary Skerret, 
the rank she would have enjoyed had she been legiti- 
mate ; and of the general confusion that existed at a 
time when men ought to be most united. To this 
letter Mann replied on March 18th, the day after he 
had received Horace Walpole's letter, which was written 
nearly six weeks earlier :- 

' The first part of your letter of the 9th February 
terrifies me a great deal ... I try to flatter myself 
that all will still go well. It is infinitely kind of you 
to write me the true state of things. Such malignant 
whispers are set about by some others here that I 
should be distracted, if I did not know by your letters, 
how far to credit them . . . The Pretender's party is in 
high spirits about all this, and flatter themselves that 
it will turn out well for them. Surely 304' (the 


Prince of Wales) ' does not think seriously of what he 
is doing. He may be the first to repent when it will 
be too late to quench the flame he is blowing up. ... 
The King is greatly to be pitied. I own to you I feel 
for him now what I never did before . . . Lady AValpole 
has told Mrs. Goldworthy that she knows for certain, 
Mr. Haddock (the Admiral) is recalled. This part of 
the world is in great expectation of great deeds, on 
which account it is reported that 17,000 Spaniards are 
to march from Barcelona, instead of coming up by sea, 
. . . Don Phillip departed the 22nd February and is to 
be at Aix the 5th of next month ; thence to Antibes, and 
so to be escorted by the French, Spanish, and Neapoli- 
tan Gallies, but where he is to land is not known here.' 
In this month Masquerades and Earthquakes are 
still the theme ; ' Here am I, at four hours in the 
night, the last of Carnival, ever since fifteen in the 
morning, writing. All the world has been in mask 
the whole day, and will be again, after cramming as 
much gras as will make them sick with their ceneri 
for three days. You know how this is. There is a 
ball after midnight ; we were there together last year, 
would it were the same this ? . . . I did not expect 
Mrs. Goldworthy till to-morrow ; but behold she came 
in at 23, with three children, two maids, and a man. 
I was forced to leave her with Mr. Chute and Whit- 
hed. Poor creature I she has been frightened terribly, 
and gives a most lamentable account of the situation 
of Leghorn ; and yet she will be devilishly trouble- 
some. The Princess said : " Comment vous aurez done 
des enfants sans en etre le pere ! " Antinori puts these 
gross ideas into her head/ 


For some time Mann was the victim of a serious 
and painful complaint, requiring 'a serious and painful 
operation. His letters are full of details of the most 
unreserved nature, as if he were proud of his afflictions, 
and as if his friends must, with sympathy for the 
sufferer, be gratified by being taken into the utmost 
confidence with regard to the progress and cure of the 
malady. He wrote in bed, in all sorts of positions, 
the reasons for which are liberally supplied. ' On the 
9th day of my laying in/ as he calls it, he wakes up 
to render an account of the new scenes which had 
opened in Florence through the shifts and changes of 
the war. One of the strangest incidents of that con- 
test between the Queen of Hungary and her adversa- 
ries was that her husband, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
gave leave to a Spanish army, hostile to Maria Theresa, 
to have passage through his Duchy. Accordingly, on 
March 11, 1742, Mann called for his writing materials, 
and as he lay in bed, now on one side, now on another, 
sometimes on his back, at others on his face, he sent 
the following account to his 'dear child.' 

' The Spaniards are marching under the walls of 
Florence, this morning ! The fourth column went by. 
In all they have been more than 10,000 men but 
great numbers desert. The General (M. Castelar) 
demanded some whom he supposed had been debauched 
by the Great Duke's officers; and bid the Spanish 
agent acquaint the Eegency that if they were not 
given up, he would leave a sufficient body of troops 
at all the avenues of Florence, to prevent the like in- 
conveniences. An officer was sent to him to treat the 
matter, but I hear nothing has been concluded. Caste- 


lar was asked by an Orso' (one of the faction that 
supported Don Philip) ' why they did not stay ; that 
they had deceived their well-wishers, etc. He replied 
that they were to go into Lombardy now, but that 
Tuscany would afterwards be an affair of three days. 
I believe some of the Regency are firmly persuaded 
it will be so. At a time that it was only known 
at Vienna that the Spaniards were to pass within 
two miles of the town, as was first stipulated, an order 
came to plant the cannon of the fortresses against the 
town, and charged ; and in case of an insurrection, to 
fire. They were accordingly prepared in the sight of 
the whole people, who were astonished to see such 
preparations against them. You have heard, to be 
sure, of the alliance between the Queen of Hungary 
and King of Sardinia, for the mutual defence of each 
other's states. The King of Sardinia reserves to 
himself a power to make good his pretensions to this 
part of the Queen's dominions in Italy ! He is to fur- 
nish her with a considerable body of troops that had 
already begun their march in order to unite themselves 
with those under the command of Prince de Traun, 
who it is thought would march into the Pope's States, 
towards Bologna, to attack M. de Montemar. A little 
tune then must decide our fate. . . .' 

' . . . Adieu, my dearest child, I am tired of the 
awkward posture in which I write in bed ; on which 
account you must excuse many blots and errors. The 
Countess Galli is the only woman I have admitted 
yet ; and she has a right to come when she pleases ; 
as at my request, she serves Mrs. Goldworthy, and is 
often in the house. I hear nothing of the poor simple 


things going away. She is such a fool I and chattel's 
and talks so much, and so literally translates all her 
little conceits and ideas into horrid French or Italian ! 
Mr. Chute says she talks from hand to mouth. T'other 
day she told a company of ladies that il suo Marito 
era gravido to do I don't know what. They stared, 
but did not understand how he was to be eased. 
Then she's a notable, and teaches her poor children 
all kinds of things wrong. ' Indeed, you shan't have 
any pudding, Charles, unless you spell it ! How do 
you spell pudding ? P-u-d pud, d-i-n-g, pudding; and 
so the poor child repeats it after her. She tires them 
to death with religion and the prayers of the day, and 
in order to bring things down to their capacities, she 
told them why, for example, if Jesus Christ was here 
and would touch your sister she would be well, and 
cut her teeth ; so the poor brats walk about the house 
all day long wishing for Jesus Christ to be in the 

' I send the new Emperor's letter ' (Charles VII. 
Elector of Bavaria. His election was supported by the 
French, and it caused a general war) ' to the Pope. It 
is looked upon as low. Do but consider the affecta- 
tion of attributing his election, in a great measure to 
the Pope I There are a thousand Pasquinades at 
Borne ; but bad. The best of them I think is that on 
the stile of the forum (sic) the Emperor is cited to 
fix his habitation. There was a man dressed in a 
most ragged cloak, with these words on his back, 
A tutti v*e rimedio, fuorite al Bavaro ! ' an Italian 
pun, you know Bavaro signifies the great cape of a 
cloak ; or, I believe, at Rome, a cloak itself ; which 

1742. MRS. GOLDWORTHY. 49 

makes it better. Tencin raves and storms at all 
these liberties. The Pretender has shown great 
rejoicings at this Election. 

' We are now entered into the Quaresima (Lent) 
and are to have the Concert as last year, though not 
in Palazzo Strozzi ; 'twill be the only diversion for 
Mrs. Goldworthy, with whom I shall be most extremely 
embarrassed. She is such a horrid fool, such a little 
unconnected thing, and so fiddle-faddle ! oh, it has 
been a terrible earthquake for me ! The Ladies begin 
to visit her. I was in her apartment with the Countess 
del Benniro and the little Albizzi, but was forced to 
fly on hearing the name of the Princess (who is now 
with her) and many more. Her's was a return of a 
visit, as you may imagine. There's the Griffoni too, 
but I can't go in as I am undressed. Lady Walpole 
was here this morning, for the first time she ever set 
her foot in this house. She talks of nothing but 
Venice, and goes about dressed a la Veniziana. I am 
no favourite still. She was angry, I believe, that I 
sent the morning after her return from Padoue, instead 
of going to see how she did. Her answer was, that 
she thought I had been unwell. I could not go till 
the third day, because of one of my head-aches, with 
which, however, I am not so much troubled since my 
illness, and which I attribute in a great measure to 
my having left off snuff . . . 

' I dare not venture to send any of your things 
home ; 'tis more dangerous than ever. The Spaniards 
keep a watch out of the Gulph of Spezia and may 
take every ship that passes. The merchants are horribly 
uneasy. I can venture, therefore, to send nothing home 

VOL. I. E 

50 CEDBATL 1742. 

but a great jar of Cedrati in guazzo, which is the only 
way of preserving them for so long a voyage. The 
whim of sending you them came through my hearing 
a dissertation upon Cedrati at Signor Ferroni's, where 
my brother of France said he had that day (as he did 
every Christmas) sent six Cedrati to Cardinal Fleuri, 
who was extremely pleased with them. Well, says I, 
if I knew how to get any to England, I would really 
send Mr. Walpole some. " In guazzo! " they all cried, 
" there is no other way; " and some days after Madame 
Ferroni sent me some from Bella Vista. I got more, 
and set folks about them to put them " in guazzo." 
The earthquake has so deranged everybody and every- 
thing at Leghorn, that there they are still. . . On 
fryday last they say there was two small shocks not 
felt by everybody. 

' The Princess sends me word from t'other appart- 
ment, qu'elle croyoit de trouver Monsieur Mann, et 
qu'elle me grondera un peu quand elle me voit. I 
deny positively that I am at home. Adieu, my 
dearest Child, I am for ever yours.' 

The above letter is addressed ' To the Honble. 
Horace Walpole, Esq., Jun., at the Eight Honble. Sir 
Robert Walpole, London. 

Out of the general confusion the Jacobites hoped 
to reap substantial advantages. In a letter of the 
25th March, Mann informs Walpole that he has 
received repeated accounts from Rome, that ' all the 
notices and insinuations of what is doing in England, 
in the House of Lords and in the Commons, and of 
the disconsolate condition in which the King is de- 
scribed, are regularly sent thither, to a person I have 

1742. THE JACOBITES. 51 

named to the Duke of Newcastle, by divers people, 
particularly Sir Francis Dasliwood (whom, however, I 
have not named), which notices are immediately 
carried to 11 ' (the old Chevalier). To Walpole's 
announcement that Lord Limerick's motion in the 
Commons against Sir Eobert Walpole ('for a com- 
mittee to examine into the conduct of the last twenty 
years ') had been lost by 244 to 242, and that the 
Duke of Argyle had resigned, Mann replied in a letter 
of April 17, 1742: 'We are told, and 'tis wrote 
from Rome, that things are greatly exasperated since 
that motion was thrown out ; and since the Duke of 
Argyle resigned, from whom great matters are now 
expected. I rather believe the Lords hoped much 
greater had he stayed in. You guessed very right ; 
the Pretender and all that set are in high spirits, and 
flatter themselves more than ever. I don't know but 
they have reason. I confess to you, I should be very 
sony to see the Duke of Argyle with an army ; then 
might the Pretender, in my opinion, triumph.' 

April 8th. ' There has been a Medal struck, with 
the Great Duke Francis's head on one side, with the 
motto " Aut Caesar aut Nihil " ; on the other, the Em- 
peror Charles, with "Et Caesar et Nihil." Accompanied 
with this idea of peace universal, there is a stronger 
persuasion than ever that Don Phillip is at last to be 
our Great Duke. I don't wonder at the common 
people who wish it believing it, as they see he ad- 
vances on his journey towards Italy ; but I find 
among the Lorrains such an opinion likewise prevails, 
and they say they are to go to Milan. A great 
number of cases are continually sending off to Leg- 

52 WAR. 

horn, in order to go to Trieste ; but nothing out of 
the Palazzo Pitti or Gallery is visibly touched. Don 
Phillip, according to the disposition of the route, and 
notice by a courier that passed to Naples, was to 
arrive at Antibes as the day before yesterday, the 6th. 
They suppose he is to embark immediately. I can't 
tell how that will be, but I have received a letter this 
morning from Mr. Haddock, by a ship he has de- 
spatched to Leghorn, in answer to that I wrote him 
lately, to acquaint me that he was ready to put to sea, 
and would to the utmost of his power endeavour to 
execute the King's orders, either by preventing the 
further embarkation of troops from Spain for Italy, 
or by giving all aid and protection to the countries 
of his Majesty's allies. This I have acquainted Prince 
Craon with, by a letter this morning, and have re- 
ceived for answer that he will communicate the con- 
tents of it to the Regency, and then tell me their 
answer. The Captain who brought this letter says 
that all the dispositions were made in the fleet, in 
the best order. The Frigates were out and stationed 
at Barcelona, so as to watch the motions of the Span- 
iards, one of which had taken the Tender belonging 
to Admiral Perez, with 60 men and an officer on board 
her. Admiral Haddock had been extreme ill, but was 
something better.' 

' I do not recover strength so ftist as I would wish. 
. . . The weather is so extravagantly bad that if I was 
well I could not venture out. I receive a great deal 
of company. All the ladies in town come by turns to 
me. Mrs Gold worthy being still here, without the least 
necessity, as her home is prepared at Leghorn, makes 

1742. MANN AT HOME. 53 

it very inconvenient, as she makes use of all the house 
except the two small rooms on the right hand of the 
Hall. She talks now of going away, but I see she 
will draw it on as long as she can ; nor I believe 
would she have thought of it had she not been 
frightened by some great cracks which, on exami- 
nation, prove to be of consequence, and must be 
mended. On which account, as soon as I am able, 
and she is gone, I must retire again to my old appart- 
ments near the Gallery, as all the other rooms will be 
rendered uninhabitable, and the front towards the 
garden almost pulled down ? ' 

Mann makes frequent allusion to the great Italian 
beauty of that day, Madame Griffoni (nee Elizabetta 
Capponi), to whom Horace Walpole had made love, 
after his fashion, and whom he spoke of as ' his illus- 
trious mistress.' Presents, messages, and compliments 
passed between them through the agency of Mann ; 
but Walpole makes singular comment on his friend's 
intimation that he had gone to an entertainment at 
the illustrious beauty's house. 'How exceedingly 
obliging to go to Madame Griffoni's festino ; but, be- 
lieve me, I shall be angry if, for my sake, you do 
things that are out of your character, don't you 
know that I am infinitely fonder of that than of her.' 
The fine gentleman's affected passion soon died out : 
'Lord!' he writes to Mann, 'I am heartily tired of that 
romantic love and correspondence.' Walpole 's jokes 
upon her and her more or less illustrious Cicisbeos 
were not marked by much refinement. He became 
weary of writing to her, his ' Serene Princess ! '- 
'Alas! I owe her two letters, and where to find a 


beau sentiment, I cannot tell. I believe I may have 
some by me in an old chest of drawers, with some 
exploded red-heel shoes and full-bottom wigs ; but 
they would come out so yellow and moth-eaten. . . . 
Do vow to her that my eyes have been so bad that, as 
1 wrote you word over and over, I have not been able 
to write a line.' Madame Griffoni wrote to Walpole 
from Florence, and he noticed her by saying to Mann, 
'Where to find a penful of Italian in the world, I 
know not 1 ' The married lady sent to her Cicisbeo for 
an hour, a tender gift of hams and wine. ' My dear 
child/ he wrote to Mann, ' be my friend, and preserve 
me from heroic presents ! I cannot possibly at this 
distance, begin a new courtship of regali ; for I sup- 
pose all these hams were to be converted into watches 
and toys.' He is aware that a Florentine Ariadne 
is not likely to be altogether abandoned, and after 
awhile he asks, 'Who consoles my illustrious mistress?' 
As years passed by, and after a whole generation had 
gone to 'the senseless damp of graves/ he had curiosity 
enough to enquire ' if Madame GrifFoni, though thir- 
teen years older, preserves any remains of beauty, 
like the Duchess of Queensberry. ' When the Miss 
Berrys were in Florence, in 1790, Walpole recalled to 
memory his old Florentine time and its manners ; and 
he wrote to Agnes, ' I suppose none of my Florentine 
acquaintances are still upon earth? The handsomest 
woman there of my days was a Madame GrifFoni, 
my fair Geraldine. She would now be a Methusela- 
ness, and much more like a frightful picture I have 
of her by a one-eyed German painter. I lived then 
with Sir Horace Mann, in Casa Mannetti, in Via de' 

1742. ANTINORI. 55 

Santi Apostoli, by the Ponte di Trinita.' From that 
Casa, Mann wrote as follows to Walpole, in April, 

' Madame Griffoni sends you a thousand compli- 
ments. Antinori, who was by, desires hers too. She 
has of late taken to the eldest Seristori, or he to her, 
which she does not seem to disapprove of, to the great 
disturbance of Marquis Albizzi, who has challenged 
him for it ; but by the interposition of friends 
nothing came of it.' 

Antinori was the sister of Griffoni of whose hus- 
band, by the way, no notice is taken by any one. It 
is otherwise of her Cicisbei. There was quite a sen- 
sation in Florence, when Montemar, the General com- 
manding the Spanish troops in Italy against the 
Imperialists, was reported to have left the Galla for 
Griffoni, and then to have offered the homage of his 
services to Antinori, for whom Mann himself came to 
entertain a strange and deep affection. 

April 17 'th. 'A poem lately came to my sight, 
printed in 1741, it is said to be Pope's, and entitled 
" Are these things so ? " It has been brought to light 
and translated by word of mouth to all that would or 
would not hear it ; and has been given to be translated 
into Italian verse, in order (if the person will do it) to 
be, I imagine, printed and made as publick as possible. 
202 ' (Mann himself) ' has done all he can to prevent 
its appearance in that language, having some influence 
over the person chosen out to do it, and the only one 
indeed here that is capable of such a performance. 
Can you imagine anything more inveterate ? There 
can be no motive in this but malice, as in my opinion 




there is nothing but downright scandal and insolence 
in that poem, without the least invention or aught that 
could indicate it to be of Pope, but it's supreme 
scandal and villainy. Surely those that can write 
or can like such performances must be extremely un- 
happy from the Gaul (sic) of bitterness in their own 

Turning from poetry to politics, Mann says : ' The 
country is in great attention to see how Don Phillip is 
to be disposed of. His proceedings on his journey, in 
order, as it is confidently said, to embark at Antibes, 
makes people conclude he will embark, which they 
think he would not do if there were not great security 
for his passage. Various are the conjectures where he 
is to land ; some think in the Genoese state, and that 
a house has been prepared on another pretence, by 
Marquis Mari. Dispositions have been made at Orbi 
tello sufficient to make some suspect he is to land 
there ; and, by the letters of this morning from Eome, 
it is wrote that Acquaviva has most magnificently 
furnished his palace at Capracola and that it is pub- 
lickly said Don Phillip is to reside there till his fate be 
decided ; which people interpret, till he is to take 
possession of Tuscany, which the Queen of Spain is 
working to bring about.' 

With Mann's letter went one from Mr. Chute, 
written on the same day, April 17. It is, as Mr. Chute 
remarks, ' four sides to very little purpose.' One line 
refers to the climate of Florence, at such an advanced 
Spring-time. ' The season is still sick of a lingering 
Winter. In another letter's time it will be Spring ! ' 
Chute adds : ' We can give no guess at the D. of O's 

1742. THEATRICALS. 57 

reasons, if lie has any. He puts me in mind of an 
Epitaph that was made on a covetous Archbishop : 

" Here lies his Grace in cold clay clad 
Who died for want of what he had." ' 

Spring did not come so early as Chute foretold. 
Mann writes on the 22nd April, 'The Post is not 
yet come in from France, on account of the extreme 
bad weather. For some days past, particularly high 
winds have retarded the passage from Genoa to 
Lirici.' Meanwhile, when Europe was in arms and 
Death was sagacious of his quarry from afar, Florence 
was stirred by the following incident : 

" I have most innocently been drawn into a contest 
about my box in the Great Theater. Three months 
after I had made use of it, when I expected nothing 
less, Ridolfi, who was the Impresario, came to me 
before the Carnival, and offered me a better box than 
my old one, assuring me that Count Richecourt had 
given orders to his Secretary to give up his. On those 
assurances I took it ; but found about ten days ago 
that the Count has been highly offended ever since, 
saying that I had shown by this, the highest mark of 
disattention in not having wrote to him at Padoue to 
know if Rodolfi had really the authority he pretended. 
Was ever anything so wrong judged ? What had I 
to do with anybody but the Impresario ? and what 
reason had I to disbelieve his assertions ? But 'twill 
be difficult to please at present. I sent Dr. Cocchi to 
Count Richecourt, as I don't go out, to represent the 
thing in its true light, but was enraged to find that 
neither that justification, or that still further conde- 

58 MANN'S HOUSE. 1742. 

scension of resigning the box to him (assuring him that 
I by no means pretended that the possession I. had had 
of it, for one Carnival, by a mistake, authorized me 
to deprive him of it any longer), met with the reception 
I had reason to expect.' 

' I told you Mrs. Goldworthy left me last Monday. 
I have received a letter of thanks which begins so : 
" as Words is what I have not Retorick to find out to 
thank you," and so on, three long sides of nonsense. 
You asked if the maids might not be useful to make 
English things for me during my illness. Their time 
I am told was employed in making, and I suppose 

unmaking, boys and girls. Never was such a 

house ! Such ointments, gallipots, and nastiness have 
been found in all the corners ; foh ! That part of the 
house is airing and will be sweet I hope in about 10 
days, against I inhabit it, while this part is mending. 

' A stop has been put to Gavi's process, and he set 
at large ; I mean, he has the whole Fortezzo di Basso 
for his prison, with a permission to receive all the 
world. All his original papers, on which his process 
was formed, have been restored him ; so there's an 
end of this. 

1 1 long to see old Sarah's Memoirs, as well as the 
Duchess of Queensberry's answer who we hear has 
wrote against her ; these two game hens must be very 
entertaining to the town. 

' I thank you for the trouble you have taken to 
transcribe so great a part of Pope's new Dunciad. I 
think it is vastly obscure in many places, but in 
general, pretty. Whilst satire is general one can 
bear it ; but I so detest that abject creature that I 

1742. LADY WALPOLE. 59 

am even prejudiced against all he can write, so far am 
I from approving all that comes from his pen, as it is 
so much the fashion to do. 

' . . . My Lady (Lady Walpole), Sturgiss, Eiche- 
court, and all that party use most provoking language 
about Sir Eobert. She has taken great pains to say 
to everybody that I am so prejudiced a creature 
of his, that all that I can say is to be doubted ; that 
either I don't know, or won't own the truth of half 
what she asserts and which is alone to be depended 
upon ; that she has the best and greatest correspond- 
ents now in England, where letters are no longer 
intercepted and, after all this, you can't conceive 
what idle stuff is vended about by her emissary Stur- 
giss, who has a crowd of hearers at the Swiss Coffee 
House near the Duomo. I say nothing to all this. 
One week generally destroys the notices of the past, 
'twould be endless and of no kind of use to enter into 

disputes. W s are always impudent. . . . She 

threatens to go to England to see for her estate and 
the title which lays dormant in her, which she will 
have, to leave the name she has so long detested. It 
is so much the fashion, my dear child, to abuse Sir R., 
that nobody can be thought a well-wisher to the 
Queen of Hungary, who does otherwise. Everything 
that was done for her when he was Minister is forgot/ 

May 1 5th. ' I have a thousand of your things here, 
bronzes, pictures, little vases, etc., and I can venture to 
send nothing away but the cats.' (These were Maltese 
cats, chronicled in the Walpole letters.) 'Did you ever 
receive the cedrati ? I have in the last week, at Mr. 
Trevor's request, sent him a jar of cedrati, in the 
same manner. 


'I cannot comprehend how I could defer one 
moment telling you that the cargo of fine things came 
safe to my hands three days ago. I cannot express to 
you the pleasure the discovery of such new beauty 
gave me on opening them. The box which I most 
particularly thank you for, is really one of the most 
delicate pieces of work I ever saw. So says the whole 
town, for it is handed about as a great curiosity. . . . 
Each person was quite pleased with their presents. 
The very morning after I got them, Prince Craon came 
with Guadegni, and Buondelmonte, and he stayed to 
drink chocolate. I told him I had a letter, which with 
his tabletts and Buckles I presented to him ; the red 
one first which he admired, then came that most mag- 
nificent one, at the beauty of which he seemed amazed. 
He cried : " Qu'est ce que c'est, Monsieur ? C'en est 
trop ; " then run into the next room to show them to 
everybody. I cannot repeat to you what each one 
said, but it was applause in different shapes, and the 
many obliging things they all said of you made me 
open my treasure of steel ware for each to furnish 
himself as he liked best. What could I not have 
parted with on such an occasion ? The Prince read 
his letter aloud ; this raised their curiosity to see the 
things for the Princess, but I thought it a better com- 
pliment to Him as well as to her to refuse showing them 
till he had seen them. This she afterwards interpreted 
as a particular finezza. 

1 Kendez vous was given me the same day at 21 
hours to see all the Jewels of Francescho which are on 
sail (sic) at the Princess's, I did not like the occasion, 
but could not defer it, though I assure you I lost 


nothing t>y displaying your presents after she had 
seen the Jewels. I gave her your letter and the little 
case, and desired she would give leave for a little 
bundle my servant had without, to be put into her 
room, this was refused and immediately called for, 
and all the things opened. Such joy ! such Exclama- 
tions. There was Antinori, Guadegni, de Sade, Buon- 
delmonte, Madame Seresini and Pugi and St. Jean and 
Forzoni and the Pages and the whole tribe that used 
to attend at Pharaoh and Lansequenet, and all were 
applied to for their approbation, and each strove to 
make his court by the strength of his expressions. 
Mme. Seresini stuck to the Indian Ink. "Eh, Madame, 
je vous prie, n'en disposez pas trop volontiers, car vous 
trouverez bien des occasions pour en faire honneur. 
Je connois le prix de a ! " I was glad of this as I 
really did not myself, nor did the Princess seem to 
think of it so highly, but her whole attention was 
taken up with the Morocco patch box, which was the 
first she had ever seen, and the Turkey handker- 
chiefs, particularly that with the small sprigs, about 
which her expressions were quite extravagant. " Je 
me leverois volontiers a minuit pour le voir. Oh la 
grande beaute!" "Ah qu'il est obligeant, et qu'il con- 
noit mongout!" "Ilfaut qu'il ait etudie pour me faire 
plaisir ! Mais c'est trop magnifique ; s'il etoit possible, 
je le gronderais ! " Here Prince Craon could keep his 
resolution no longer to conceal from her his Sardony 
and pocket-book till July, as a present on her fete, 
as he till then designed : " Ah, si vous scaviez tout, 
Madame, qu'est ce que vous diriez ? " " Comment 
tout, Monsieur ? Ne me rendez done pas confuse," 


" Eh bien I je ne vous le montrerai pas ; j'ai fini ma 
mie ; je n'en dirai plus rien ; meme, j'ai promis de 
garder le secret. Ces messieurs en sont temoins." 
" Mais qu'est ce done ? Ces messieurs sont tous dans 
un complot contre moi! Permettez que je vous dise, 
Messieurs, que c'est un peu impertinent." Every one 
excused himself on the promise given to the Prince. 
Here's a secret, you'll say, en bon train. In short the 
Prince to save his word, said : " Eh bien, Messieurs, 
soyez temoins que ce n'est pas moi. Si Madame de 
Craon veut fouiller rna poche gauche, qu'est ce que je 
puis faire ? " At this she darted her hand into his 
pocket, with eagerness, and pulled out the etui. The 
little resistance it made to be opened, for she could 
not find the clasps, seemed to augment the pleasure 
when the book presented itself : " Ah, a I c'est veri- 
tablement, trop ! Est ce que vous permettez 9a ? Mais 
c'est exceder ! et je veux etre fierement en colere ! 
Comment ! des tablettes de cette magnificence avec 
des presents si considerables que voila ! " -'" Ah, 
Princesse," says I, " ne le prenez pas sur ce ton, je 
vous supplie. Monsieur Walpole n'a pas pretendu 
vous faire des presents de prix. Ce sont des baga- 
telles qu'il espere seulement etre de votre gout." 
"Qu'appelez vous des bagatelles, Monsieur, qu'est ce 
que vous qualifiez de ce nom la ? " " Mais, Princesse, 
regardez ces souliers de femme, ces eventails, ces 
mouchoirs.'" ' Oh pour ceque vous venez de nommer, 
je lui sais bon gre " " Aliens, Madame; accommodons 
tout 9a." " Je mettrai ces boittes sur ma toilette ; ne 
laissez pas meme un morceau de ce papier Indien, car 
je ne veux rien perdre de tout a." 

1742. - MADAME GR1FFONL 63 

' I made my escape as soon as I could, not to miss 
the Griffoni, but I got to her door just as her coach 
was moving from it. She took it for a visit in return 
to those she had made me during my illness. My 
coach coming up with hers, I told her I had a letter 
to deliver her, which she desired I would give to the 
servant, to save me the trouble of returning. I told 
her my directions were to give it into her own hands, 
she must excuse me if I deferred ti]l I found her at 
home, and that I would attempt it the next morning. 
In the mean time, the presents to her cousin had been 
shown that evening to every body, so that she had 
heard of them, and on my giving her the letter, I said 
I was directed to present her a trifle in your name. 
She began to say you have favoured her too gene- 
rously before, etc. I stopped her by showing her the 
Queen of Scots's picture, and then the fans ; and then 
said there was still a trifle to show her the work of 
England ; on which I helped her to open the case. 
I saw she was surprized and would have said as many 
pretty things as the Princess had done, but I stopped 
her by telling her that I was only the porter of these 
things, and that I should give you sufficient pleasure 
by telling you only that she la aveva gradita. " Oh, 
questo glielo diro di me," etc. She staid at home that 
evening. The watch was shewn to the few ladies, and 
they sent many more the next morning to see it. 
Insomuch that nothing else was talked of at the 
Theater the next evening. The Riccardi told her 
mother who had not seen it, that she would not 
pretend to give a description of it, as it was im- 
possible, but advised her to see it, or send to ask for 
my box which might give her some idea/ 

64 FESTIVALS. 1742. 

' Last night there was a Ball at Madame Craou'a, 
being the Queen's Day. Madame Griffoni was there 
in your watch, and the whole town examined it, and 
was delighted with the workmanship. Madame 
Griffoni was the only one uneasy for fear of its being 
let fall. I had before given the fans to the little 
Albizzi, who sends you many thanks, and that 
'Monsieur Walpole non doveva far queste ceremonie 
ni darci questo incommode.' Madame Galli I have 
not seen, though I have been twice to give her the pins 
and fans. She has a child sick, and receives nobody. 
The Suareses are not come back, tho' expected soon. 
I keep the charming box, the handsome cone, etc., till 
they are here. They say Ferdinando is a Sposo to a 
rich Friulian lady. I have wrote to the Pucci how I 
am to send her silks and Giovinando's salts. I thank 
you for the books, the prints, the pamphlets, and the 
views of Houghton. Stosch told me six months ago 
you ought to have sent him the letter to put into his 
great collection, by which you would have paid him 
for the carriage of medals from Eome, and Postadge, 
etc. I asked him seriously what you owed him, and 
would have paid it, but he said he joked.' 

* There was a great Festin di Giuoco t'other day, 
at the Sposo Panciattici's, the wedding feast put off by 
his having the small-pox ; and his Brothers, meazles. 
'Twas extremely fine. She could not dance last night 
at Prince Craon's. Poor Mr. Chute was obliged to 
play at ombre with the Prince and that horrid 
Guadagni who scowled most indecently, tore the cards 
and begged God would give her patience ! and all 
this fluster for a fish or two that she lost, while Mr. 


Chute was losing twenty at a pistole a peice. The 
Prince was peevish because the violins made a noise 
and such a carillon that he could not mind his 

' I cannot observe any sign of your letters being 
opened ; but this last is of a week's later date than all 
others by the same post ; this is of more inconvenience 
with regard to my peace than you are aware of, for as 
this place and its inhabitants, and the inhabitants 
of neighbouring Leghorn, the Mantoua Gazzett, etc., 
are fertile in inventing lyes, till I know they are 
so, I cannot help being uneasy. Who is that Mr. 
Paxton, and what is his history ? He is called here a 
Secretary of Sir R., and told us a dreadfull circum- 
stance in this last week. He' (Sir R.) ' was said to be 
out of England and coming to Italy. The lye of the 
coffin and 55,000 pounds has been made much of 
here, and one would think that the Bern, Mantoua, 
and Bologna Gazzettes were furnished by those who 
supply Pannoni. The letters are just come in from 
77 ; (Rome) 'wherein the peevish Knight/ (Sir Francis 
Dashwood) 'is much mentioned. Call him in our 
list, 12. Nothing of him worth particularising. He 
discovers his inveteracy to 34 ' (George II.) ' and 
affirms that everything possible will be done to curtail 
his power, and that the inveteracy to prosecute the 
affair in hand is excessive. 

May 20th. ' It is a great mortification to me to 
know that my letters to you are opened, yours to me 
are not, though your new seal this time has given me 
some suspicion. I send it you back to see, as I am 
not convinced it is yours. You will think it odd 

VOL. I. F 


when I tell you that the only danger I think of my 
letters being seen is before they leave Florence, which 
is the reason I have so often asked you for the par- 
ticular dates of those you receive, as I make memo- 
randums of them here. 

'Lady Walpole has of late had the assurance to say 
that she has letters of Mr. Mann to show, as proofs of 
his writing ill of her ; this I don't believe. This, I 
send to Count Lorenzi's to be delivered to the Courier 
with his, so that they don't go into any other hands . . . 
Lady Walpole is actually providing travelling cloaths, 
and, in order to undertake this journey, makes pro- 
visions only from day to day. It is said that the 
motion depends upon advices from England, and that 
after they come no moment will be lost to fly thither. 
Compagni and Libri, the bankers, were I know applied 
to to furnish .1000 on bills to be given on England ; 
but on their taking a day to consider, and on their 
privately asking 202's (Mr. Mann's) advice, they have 
refused to comply with the request, though some time 
ago their correspondent at Venice furnished by their 
order .500 . . . What do you think could be the motive 
of wanting so vast a supply ? Do you think the draft 
could be designed to be upon the usual people ? ' 

' . . . What can your Opera directors mean by 
changing the Visconti for the Famagalli ? You re- 
member sure how vastly squeezing she was in the 
Via di Cucomero, and was hardly heard. She really 
would never have been thought of for the first woman 
in the Pergola, and yet is to be the first in the Hay- 
market ; and indeed as a Director or Connoisseur you 
ought to have protested. . . .' 


' . . . Prince Craon has been here this morning 
to drink Chocolate, and tells me that the Princess 
earned the patch box and tablettes t'other day to show 
the Electress, who liked them vastly/ (Anna Maria 
de' Medici.) This lady was the daughter of Cosmo 
the Third, Grand Duke ; and widow of John William, 
Elector Palatine since whose death she had resided 
in Florence, where she admired Walpole's presents 
'vastly/ She was an artist, something more than 
an amateur, and added a picture by herself to the 
masterpieces in the famous Gallery. Although she 
lived retired, it was in a retirement of the utmost 
splendour. All that art and ingenuity could supply, 
and money purchase, the aged daughter of Cosmo 
gathered around her jewels, precious metals, costly 
attire the mass of these was immense. The glitter 
dazzled the eyes of beholders, but could hardly confer 
dignity on this really last of the Medici. 

The military events of the time brought in new 
words to the language. On 27th May, Mann writes: 
' We have no news stirring yet, but we are in expecta- 
tion of a great deal. Montemar with the Spaniards and 
Neapolitans are advanced within a few miles of the 
Austrosards from whom there is a continual Andi- 
viene of couriers, and even the Orsi ' (the Italian faction 
favouring the claims of Don Phillip in Italy) ' seem 
to apprehend the overthrow of the Napolispani (these 
were all new words since you was in Italy, but greatly 
now in use), and then what will become of us 1 for 
they have to retreat, and when beaten may beat us. 
All that is certainly known here is, that on the 19th 
Monteniar began to decamp from the environs of 

G8 MONTEMAE. 1742. 

Bologna . . . and what is as ridiculous as true is 


that some days before the Spaniards left, they were 
desirous of procuring for themselves the Kingdom 
of Heaven as well as one in Lombardy for Don 
Phillip, for they all, I mean the officers, were remark- 
ably devout, took the Sacrament, deposited their little 
effects in the Banks and Convents in case of a return 
and, in case not, made their wills. There is a pannick 
fear it seems throughout the army which is most 
strangely reduced by desertion. I don't remember 
whether I told you that the number, according to 
the account that Braitwitz has given me, amounts to 
8312, to the 18th of May, and that from that day 
to the 25th, 1028 more, and others continually arrive. 
The Conqueror of the Two Sicilies, you remember 
his speech to the late Great Duke, on his return 
from Bitonto and the answer da capo ! da capo ! 
this conqueror Montemar is thought to be in a 
woefull plight. If he fight, it is reckoned he will be 
beat ; if he does not, he will have no army to fight 
with ; for if they run away from themselves, what will 
they do when they see their enemy ? All this may 
turn out well for the Queen's affairs in Lombardy, but 
may bring confusion here, against which they are 
privately taking some precautions, immediately after 
the arrival of an estafette from Milan, that is from 
their army. Count Richecourt, I am afraid, sent 
to collect all the money from all the different cases, 
which amounted they say to 600,000 crowns, and 
caused it on fry-day night to be sent to Leghorn to be 
deposited in the castle there. Whether it is out of 
fear of Spanish plunderers or others, I Ctin't pretend to 

1742. ALARMS. GO 

say. The Electress has omitted going to the Quieta 
this year ; her courtiers say she is afraid of her jewels 
in her absence; to be sure her presence will always 
command respect; there must be some very strong 
reason for her, who is very regular, not to do what she 
has always reckoned as needfull and salutary, both for 
her Soul and Body.' 

June 2. ' We are, as I told you in my last, in 
daily expectation of qualche fatto d' armi between our 
neighbouring armies ; there have been some skirmishes 
between the Hussars and Michelets, who pass and 
repass the river. The alarm was so great on Tues- 
day morning in the Spanish Camp, that an order was 
given to send their baggage to Bologna, and for the 
whole army to be, as Palombo says, in battle-ray ; in 
which manner, as two Irish deserters, (who are in the 
act of eating below more victuals than they have seen 
for a week,) affirm, they remained all Tuesday, that 
night, and till Wednesday evening in expectation of 
a battle, at which time these poor devils left them, 
and are extreme glad they are alive. The Duke of 
Modena has either declared his resolution to observe 
a neutrality, or he declared for the Queen ; the latter 
is asserted by three people, but I don't give you that 
as good authority, finding that they are strangely 
ignorant of what they ought to know ; even 58 
(Richecourt) is in the dark. I believe it is certain 
that on Marquis d' Ormee's visit, and pressing him to 
declare, and the immediate march of the whole Sar- 
dinian and Austrian army towards the Parano, so as 
to be between that river and Modena, which made the 
junction of the Spanish and Modenese troops imprac- 

70 ON SEA AND ASHORE. 1742. 

ticable the Duke, seeing no remedy, wrote to Mon- 
temar, to tell him that as he had not kept his word in 
being before Modena with his army, on the Corpus 
Domini, he looked upon himself as no longer engaged, 
not thinking that they could expect him to cause his 
whole country to be ruined for them so declared as 
I said above. 

' Here is a vile report about the town, of the King 
of Prussia having defeated Prince Charles's army at 
Czaslaw, near Prague, which has raised the spirits of 
the Orsi horrid creatures, whose hatred to their 
master makes them wish that everything may go 
wrong nay, ruin and destruction to everybody that 
belongs to him. This report of the defeat has raised 
their spirits that have been drooping ever since the 
fleet has been so ranged as to prevent more Spaniards 
coming. Their barks continually fall into Mr. Les- 
tock's hands, and they see 'tis impossible to pass. We 
are awaiting with fear and trembling, for the arrival 
of the post from Vienna this evening, with aching 
hearts, though gay outsides. 

' We have two days' Gala for the Queen's delivery. 
A propos ! I thought of it yesterday, and have made 
a coat to your delightful wastecoat and faceing which, 
on account of mourning, I have never been able to 
wear yet ; after to-morrow, I must lay it by again, as 
the mourning will last the whole summer. I shall see 
the Princess to-night, who was to have had a gown 
like it, if she could have worn coloured cloaths. There 
is nothing at their house this evening but common 
staying at home ; but, as there is no public diver- 
sion, perhaps there may be some ladies. I just 

1742. AT THE PEETAJA. 71 

saw the Griffon! this morning coming out of the 

June 17. 'The King of Sardinia, they say, has 
begun to act. His troops are entered Modena, and 'tis 
affirmed he is actually besieging the Cittadel. The 
Duke, his Dutchess, and your two friends his maiden 
sisters were, by the last letters, got no farther than 
St. Crispin o, but were to proceed to Venice. People 
attached to the Queen affirm that the Duke of Modena 
is understood with (sic) the King of Sardinia, and that 
the Cittadel was to surrender as soon as the batteries 
were fixed, and some coups tires. The Orsi say not, 
and that it will hold out as long as it can, and prevent 
the Queen's and the King's troops from undertaking 
anything against Montemar who, on his side, will 
certainly march to relieve Modena. We shall have 
something by the letters of this evening. 

'We were at the Pretaja yesterday in the after- 
noon. The Princess has been there a week. Madame 
Sarasin swears she has heard the firing cannon from 
Modena. The Prince likewise. He can distinguish 
them too. He has pressed us so extremely to pass 
some days there, that I don't know how it will be 
possible to avoid it. "Faites moi cette amitie," said 
the Princess, and on my making bows and saying 
nothings for answers, she said I appeared to have as 
much degout for the country as you had ; I must not 
absolutely refuse. What shall I do ? The Prince is 
to carry us to Castello and Toppaja and all the places 
thereabouts. The Princess has desired I will carry 
the plan of your house the first time I go there. The 
Prince (who I could see did not like it, because there 

72 FROM MADEIRA. 1742. 

was not window enough) has spoke to her about it. 
She said you had found means de 1'interesser en tout 
ceque vous regarde, not since your fine presents I 
assure you, " car je 1'aimois tout autant auparavant." 
If any considerable part of the fleet should come to 
Leghorn, I am to carry her to see it. 

' I have had a stranger, Acciajoli, here this morning 
to visit me ; a thing come from the islands of Madera 
(sic) to marry his cousin the rich heiress to Casa 
Acciajoli. He speaks nothing but Madera; not a 
word of Italian. They are to be married at Loreto 
next month. She says she doesn't mind the heats 
and won't put it off till September, or till she can 
understand him. I cannot help adding a circum- 
stance (now that I am speaking of female eagerness) 
which I have lately been assured is true with regard 
to the exploits of the Pepi. Her Night-errantry 
which I formerly mentioned, was more extraordinary 
than I thought. Her Pistols were not charged against 
Pecori for infidelity, but against the Parigi for seduc- 
ing him. She was literally taken up and conducted 
to the Bargellos to whom she gave 10 Ruspi' (new 
coined pistoles) ' to be set free. ' 

June 20th. Everybody is out of town and will 
be so till San Giovanni when we are to hear a famous 
Opera. Egizziello is our Soprano ; the rest I don't 

1 For this last week I have had complaints made 
to me which were brought by an Express, of an 
Englishman, one Wright's, design to storm the Town 
and Republick of Lucca; which horrid design was 
manifested by his obstinate refusal to deliver a couple 


of Pistols to the Guards at the Gate ; and his pre- 
senting one of them cocked at the Corporal and 
twenty soldiers that demanded them of him; threaten- 
ing to kill them if they persisted. Much mischief might 
have ensued had not a Colonel with thirty more sol- 
diers, taken this valiant Squire Prisoner. He was 
conducted with the above attendants to his Inn, where 
he found another Guard, and two were placed in his 
bedchamber, till one of the Lucchese noblemen, to 
whom our countryman had recommendations, found 
means to persuade the Eepublick that no mischief 
should ensue. He was kept three days, prisoner, 
when at 4 o'clock in the morning, just as his servant 
was setting out post to tell me, he received a message 
from the Gonfaloniere, by an officer who speaks English 
" that since he had been so daring as to endeavour 
to enter the Town by force of Arms, it was therefore 
ordered that he should forthwith leave the State, 
never presume to enter it again without leave from 
the Eepublick ; and that there were post horses at 
the door of his house, as well as a Guard of Soldiers 
to see him out of the Territories of the Eepublick ! " 
He answered a great deal, not much to the purpose. 
However, his compliance with the orders put an end 
to what had made a great noise, and for three days 
had put their Excellencies in an uproar.' 

June 2&th. ' I have received by this Post the 
Letter of the 20th May, which I should have had by 
the last, as that of the 26th came with it, which 
convinces me that there is some little irregularity in 
the people that have charge of them ; though I am 
confident that they are not opened. You continue 

74 CLIMATES. 1742. 

to tell me mine to you are. It appears strange that 
they should, for what can any one find to gratify their 
curiosity ? I have strong suspicions that it is done 
here, and cannot come to the certainty of it. 

' . . . It is as difficult here to know the truth of 
the affairs in Germany, as with you. Each side 
prints accounts of their own victory. We had really 
liked to have had a Te Deum for the almost defeat 
of Prince Charles, though things were not quite as 
bad as they were first represented ; yet such another 
victory would ruin the Queen's affairs.' 

Walpole, writing from Downing Street, to Maim, 
on the 26th of May, says : ' To day calls itself the 
26th of May, as you perceive by the date ; but I am 
writing to you by the fire-side instead of going to 
Vauxhall. If we have one warm day in seven, " we 
bless our stars and think it luxury." And yet we 
have as much waterworks and fresco diversions as if 
we lay ten degrees nearer warmth. Two nights ago, 
Ranelagh Gardens were opened at Chelsea/ 

Some degrees nearer the Equator made little dif- 
ference in the temperature this year. ' In your letter 
of the 26th,' writes Mann, from Florence, on the 24th 
of June, ' you complain of cold ; had I wrote to you 
three days ago Ishould have done the same, which 
is something more extraordinary in this climate ; but 
for the week past so much rain and hail has fallen, 
that it appeared quite winter, and I unluckily some 
days before, tempted by the fine weather, was got 
down to the Terrass. Its tollerably well to day, and 
I write with the window open, whilst all the world 
is at the Corso and horse race. Tis St. John's Day, 


but I have not stirred out, though I intend to go 
to the new Opera, to see Egiziello, whose fame is 
great ; but I know I shall not like him better than 

The joyous fervency with which John the Baptist 
was honoured by horse-races, male Soprani, and 
dancing women, was considerably damped by news 
which had reached Florence of the death of the 
Primate of Lorraine. This exemplary ecclesiastic, a 
son of the Prince de Craon, was famous for his great 
wit and his greater vices. ' I have not seen the 
Princess this week/ writes Mann ; ' but I expect to 
find everything dismal, for though she never loved 
the Primate, she must behave as though she was 
sorry for his death. The news came of it yesterday.' 
This calamity did not prevent the Prince de Craon 
from starting the horses at the Kaces, at which the 
Great Duke's horse won the Paglio.' 

'The last news we had from the armies is that 
Montemar decamped suddenly a few days ago, with 
a design 'twas thought, to get to a place called Firale, 
and so have crossed the Parano to succour Modena, 
which is actually bombarding, but he could not do it 
so slyly, for the King of Sardinia was too vigilant 
and got the start of him, so that it is now supposed 
he will retire into the Ferronese, where his sick were 
to have been sent, but most of them died on their 
passage, by rains, etc. What alarmed us most was 
that his great Baggage was removed at the same time 
from Bologna to Faenza, which might denote his 
retirement into Tuscany. The last we heard of him 
was that he was at Cento. Tn this decampment he 


has lost near 2000 men, part by the Hussars who 
attacked them in the Coda, and part by desertion. 
We have now three ships of war at Leghorn, taking. in 
provisions, and seeking Pilots to go into the Adriatick, 
so that if Montemar gets into the Ferronese, he may 
find it difficult to be supplied with provisions, when 
these ships secure the entrance of the Po. Disgusts 
have happened at Leghorn, and things are carried 
strangely high by our folks. Captain Lee sent 
Eichecourt word as to the letter he wrote about it to 
show the impossibility of giving him the Pilots out 
of the Gallies, as it would be a manifest breach of 
the neutrality, which the Great Duke was not in a 
condition to break. Lee bid these Gentlemen who 
showed him Eichecourt's letter to tell him, it appeared 
more like one dictated by a Spanish agent than by the 
Minister of an Ally whose interest was the chief 
motive of sending these ships into the Adriatick. It 
is strange things cannot be managed with a little more 
decency ; but my friend Gold worthy, I hear, foments 
matters greatly. Then, it is quite impossible to beat 
into their heads the notion of a neutrality. They 
answer, as the sailors did at Lisbon, with Sir John 
Norris, when they had any quarrel with the people of 
the country : " God d n them ungrateful villains ! 
are not we here to defend them from Popery and 

St. John's day was a theme which Mr. Chute took 
up even more warmly and more in detail than Mr. 
Mann. In a letter to Walpole, dated 24th June, from 
' Charming Terrazzino, Casa Ambrosio, Florence,' Mr. 
Chute says : ' Lord ! how I wish you were at Florence 


to-day ? 'tis San Giovanni ; the whole town is a 
"Stefanier" (a low word for gluttonising), I have just 
been one of two thousand gapers to watch St. John's 
wabbling Benediction from the top of his wabbling 
Tower. If he had danced this dance before King 
Herod, I can't but think it would have hit his taste 
as well as the Damsel's, for which he swore off his 
head. We are to have races this afternoon, and to 
crown all, our Grand Opera, Via della Pergola, begins 
at night. I'll say how I like it when I've seen it. I 
have heard it partly at the Prova, but non saprei, we 
have got Egizziello, and that must content us ; for I 
doubt we have nobody else. Our first woman, Sani, 
is three parts as ugly as yours. I wish she sang half 
as well. Your Petraja friends, in the midst of all our 
Mirth, are obliged to be sorry ; the poor Primate is 
earned off by the Small Pox, the very smallest. He 
died at Paris. This will very likely spoil our Partie 
di Campagna. 

'In these perillous times/ adds Mr. Chute in his 
letter of the 24th June, ' we have very few English at 
Florence. We have only two, who, having very 
queer names, and no less queer dispositions, have 
determined us to call them Balaam and his Ass. Did 
you never hear a story of Swift and a stammering 
'Squire who carried a Bully about with him to speak 
for him. This proxy speaker, thinking to be witty on 
the Dean, said to him, one day at a full table: 
"What do you Gentlemen make of that odd story of 
Balaam and his ass ? I suppose you do not take it in 
a littoral sense." "Excuse me, Sir," says Swift, 
devilishly nettled to have Scripture ridiculed by any 

78 HOSPITALITY. 1742. 

but himself ; " the thing is quite litteral, I assure 
you ; and the plainest case in the world. Balaam, 
Sir, had an impediment in his speech, and his Ass 
spoke for him ! " This is just the case of our two 
Countrymen, a Prophet and an Ass ! However, they 
have got somebody to speak for them both for Mini 
(Mann) and we are vastly civil to them ; and Mini 
carrys them out in his Coach . . . And now my 
dear Good Sir, if I don't run away from you I shall 
lose the race ; and you'll be no great gainer if 
I stay ; so let me assure you I am whatever you 
please I should be. The Whitheds kiss the Walpoles 
with all their hearts.' 




THE Pretender lias a passing but significant notice in 
July. Walpole addressed a letter to Mann on June 
10th, which he headed, as follows: 'June 10. The 
Pretender's birth-day, which, by the way, I believe he 
did not expect to keep at Rome, this year ! ' The letter 
contains nothing of importance, and Mann, on the 
15th July, after complaining that Cardinal Tencin 
had detained the Courier several days at Genoa, refers 
to the above heading, and replies : ' I believe that 
you are in the right and that the Hero of that day did 
not expect to be musing in a villa at Rome ; however, 
whether it be in forty two or forty three, the difference 
is not great. The Cardinal has promised it shall not 
be put off longer. He is gone full of projects and has 
left him full of hopes. No persuasions could detain 
him, though his surgeons thought a journey might be 
dangerous, for he has a Piega aperta ' (an open wound). 
* His motif must be strong to risk travelling in such a 
condition. Every one here believes he has hopes of 
succeeding, if not supplanting, Cardinal Fleury.' 

July 1st. ' Richecourt's character was so publickly 
infamous, that nothing but the considering him in the 

80 AT THE PETEAJA. 1742. 

light of Lady Walpole's favourite could have sup- 
ported him so long. Sturgiss holds forth at a blind 
coffee house (for he is too much despised to venture to 
show himself at Pannoni's), and vends the poor lies 
that he and his Queen received from some of the Mer- 
chants at Leghorn ; but believe me they make a most 
abject figure. Very few now frequent them ; no ladies 
at all ; nor she them. . . . Sturgiss was so idle as to 
promise a young fellow of the Academy to get him a 
pair of colours, in England.' 

July 1st. 'I was at the Petraja when the first 
post after it was known ' (the death of the Primate of 
Lorraine) ' came in from Paris. The Prince came to 
the Princess with his own letters and said, he had 
received many on the occasion, and some for you, ma 
mie. " Helas ! sans doute, il y aura cinquante pour 
moy!" "Non, ma mie ; il n'y a que deux ; car, ils me 
prient de vous faire leurs compliments ; ils ne vous 
ecrivent pas pour ne pas renouveller votre douleur." 
"Helas! voila qui est bien, ils pensent sagement." With 
all this she is dressed out as gay as ever and receives 
company. Madame Sarasin slips out first to tell 
folks not to mention a word of the Primate ! 'tis such 
affectation ! At the same time she plays at cards, 
makes love with M. Antinori and everything as before. 
I carried the plan of Houghton. " Helas ! Monsieur, 
vous avez infiniment des bontes pour moi, en tachant 
de me dissiper dans la conjoncture presente, j'en ai, 
je vous assure bien besoin ! " They can get nobody to 
stay there continually, but Sarasin and Santo Maria.' 

' All the celebrations of St. John have passed with- 
out anything material happening. The Opera was 


performed this night only, though even then Egizielo 
was extreme ill and sang half songs ; the poor creature 
is now so bad with a fever con Petecchie ' (spots indi- 
cating malignant fever) ' that his life is despaired of. 
He has been blooded four times, and last night had the 
Communion, etc., so that it is much more likely that 
he should sing with the angels than with the vile herd, 
the Seni, Ageta, Eloi, etc. The musick was abomi- 
nably bad. They are seeking out for somebody to 
supply his place and have thoughts of getting Cares- 
terio, but I should prefer another scheme of taking a 
less performer and putting in dances. This is talked 
of, and Saufterre proposed it with a fine company that 
has performed at Bologna.' 

Since England had taken part in the war, the 
Spanish cruisers had captured no less than 450 British 
merchant vessels within the Channel and soundings of 
the British coast. Our fleet in the Mediterranean, 
after being commanded by Haddock and Lestock, was 
placed under the orders of Admiral Matthews, who was 
further dignified by being appointed Minister-pleni- 
potentiary to the King of Sardinia and the States of 
Italy. One of the Admiral's first orders was given to 
Captain N orris to destroy five Spanish Galleys in the 
Bay of St. Tropez. The result caused a joyous sen- 
sation among the English and the friends of England, 
in Florence. On July 6th, Mann writes : ' All that is 
known of this action here is contained in a letter from 
some seamen at Villa Franca, but as I don't understand 
their language, I have desired an exact translation of 
it in English. The letter says that Captain Norris (in 
company with the Spence sloop, and the Duke, fire- 

VOL. I. Q 

82 CAPTAIN SMITH. 1742. 

ship) having notice that the Gallies were got as far as 
St. Tropez, followed them, but had possitive orders 
not to attack them in any of the Ports of France ; but 
Captain Norris, going too near the Shoer, was fur- 
nished with a sufficient authority for what he did, by 
the Spaniards firing upon him, whereupon, says the 
letter, "he immediately brought to and, clapping a 
spring on his cable, gave them four broadsides, the 
Spence sloop doing the same, which put them in great 
disorder, so that the Duke fireship was immediately 
sent in and burnt the whole five with no other loss 
than two men having their heads shot off. The 
bravery of Captain Smith was very remarkable, for 
after having clapt the Gallies on board and given fire 
in his boat to the train, it did not take effect, where- 
upon he jumpt into the ship and set fire to the whole 
body of combustibles, whereby he had a very narrow 
escape, for the force of the flames beat him into his 
boat, senseless and much burnt. What the enemy lost 
is not known, (here you are to understand, men,) our 
ships taking no further notice after they saw them 
entirely consumed." So far goes the letter which you 
see still leaves room for a much clearer explanation, as 
how the Spaniards could contrive to place all their 
five Gallies so near each other as to be burnt by one 
fireship. The fact is indisputable, though 'tis said to 
be impossible.' 

July 8th. 'We are deprived of all publick amuse- 
ments by the illness of Egizielo, who, however, is 
recovering apace, and will, they say, be able to sing 
the 10th next month. He is so gratefull to some 
Saint that has cured him, that he has wrote to Naples 

1742. A CHRISTENING. 83 

for a famous Mass, etc., which he will have performed 
in a Church here, the latter end of this month with 
great pomp, the whole expense of which he is to be at, 
and will perform himself. We have nothing but the 
bridge, which is vastly frequented, and it is extreme 
pleasant. Do you remember that you used to prole 
about there after supper. I wish you could do so now ! 
' The fat Flora, Sposa Binuncini, has at last given 
an heir to that family, a son who is likely to live, 
which has given great joy. He was made a Chris- 
tian last thursday, with all the Pomp imaginable, 
though no Dame but Kelations were invited ; yet there 
were fourscore in great Gala ; men in attendance, but 
none but those invited. The Electress was God- 
mother, (alone) represented by Mme. Siristori in the 
high Court fashion. You would have laughed to have 
seen her figure ; but the choice of her was a compli- 
ment to Casa Rinuncini, as the wife of the first Camca 
of her Court : I was invited in form and went in my 
greatest Gala, your charming wastecoat and sleeves, 
which is admired beyond expression. The next day I 
put on my dolefulls again to go to the little Countess 
del Berino's, who is in great grief for the loss of her 
father, Auditor Vieri, who died some days ago, very 
oddly. He was asleep after dinner, about 19 hours, a 
picture fell down, in the next room to him, or a glass 
which was thrown down and broke. The noise awoke 
him and frightened him so much that it caused an 
immediate stagnation of his blood, and he died in his 
full senses in the evening. All the account he could 
give of it was, he was persuaded it was an earthquake, 
and that the house was in the act of being swallowed 

84 8POSO AND 8POSA. 1742. 

up. The poor Countess has reason to be afflicted. 
Her Father almost supported her, and was the only one 
that could keep the strangest of Bears, her husband, 
in any awe. Delmonte is the only comfort she has left. 

( A propos. He is a Colonel of a regiment of Horse 
composed out of the Militia which he has newly 
raised ; in order to make it compleat, he was forced to 
harangue to poor country fellows, and thought the 
best argument was to assure them they should never 
be put to the hardship of fighting or going into any 
Garrison. He said the Great Duke had promised it 
him. ' E Cospetto ! se mi manca di Parola ! Cazzo ! 
so farmi rendere raggioni anco di lui ! Cazzo ! ' He is 
kind to the Countess, and that's enough. 

'The Sposa Acciajoli sets out to-morrow with all 
the family and many Cavalieri, for Loreto, where all 
the relations from Rome are to meet, to be present at 
the wedding, which is to be performed under the 
immediate Eye of the Virgin. The Madera Sposo 
literally can't speak ten words of Italian, in as many 
months as he has been here. Her fortune, I am 
assured, is upwards of two hundred thousand crowns ; 
I am afraid to put it in figures, lest you should think 
an had slid in supernumary ! ' 

The story of the Acciajoli lovers was repaid by a 
still better story from England. ' You have no notion,' 
Walpole wrote to Mann, on June 30th, from Downing 
Street, that official residence which his father had 
not yet quitted, and which, declining to receive it as a 
gift from George the Second, he induced the King to 
attach to the office of First Lord of the Treasury, 
' you have no notion how I laughed at the man that 


talks nothing but Madeira. I told it to my Lady 
Pomfret, concluding it would divert her too, and 
forgetting that she replies when she should laugh, 
and reasons when she should be diverted, she asked 
gravely what language that was. "That Madeira 
being subject to a European Prince, to be sure they 
talk some European dialect." The grave personage ! 
It was of a piece with her saying that " Swift 
would have written better, if he had never written 

In July, 1742, a son of Prince de Craon was 
with the French army, which had taken refuge under 
the cannon of Prague ' they are all to be cut to 
pieces,' writes Mann, ' by the Great Duke who is 
gone there for that purpose. I hope he will spare 
your friend, M. de Beauvau, out of respect to the 
memory of his father, The Princess had almost got 
over the loss of the Primate, when this evil panick 
took her, which with the bad water at Petraja, has 
thrown her into most violent coliques and such epuise- 
ments that she cannot keep off her cradle. I was 
there yesterday and helped to place her pillows right, 
in order to receive a Sienna Lady, for the first time, 
with all the state of convalescence. There was a new 
set of pillows, from the bigness of a snuff box, to the 
common size.' 

July. . . ' We staid at home t'other night and had 
by way of a tryal, a little company and a little musick 
in the Garden ; a table of Quadrille, and another of 
Micchiate, and some Wanderers, and I believe we 
shall have some more of these nights, and I may ven- 
ture on better company ; instead of the Vitelli, I may 




venture to ask the Griffon! . . . The Duke of New- 
castle has most graciously condescended to recommend 
to me a Mr. Sacht-hill and Cholwich' (sic, probably 
Walpole understood who were meant). ' You may 
imagine I do what I can to show respect to such 
recommendation, but one of the men is vastly odd, 
indeed almost a driveler. I drive them to-morrow to 
Pratolero. I had almost forgot to tell you that at 
the end of my conversation that night, when only 
the Suarases were left, I distributed all my necklaces 
that were left, among them. The mother seized the 
Emerald ear-rings and hid them immediately. I'll 
swear she designs to pass them for her true ones 
which are in pawn.' 

July 2,2nd. 'The weather is charming here, the 
nights particularly, but an ugly accident has almost 
spoilt fun on the bridge ; people are afraid of coach- 
men in long whips ; two or three very noisy ones 
being there some nights ago, cracking their whips to 
the annoyance of the ladies and every body there, 
were reprimanded by Cavaliere Azzi, an extreme good- 
natured fat man whom you have seen frequently play 
with P. Craon. They gave him in return some very 
ill language, and provoked him to run after them with 
his sword drawn. When he had got to the end of 
the Via Maggio, they all pelted him with stones, and 
knocked him down, and then came up to him and 
beat him most horridly with their whips and stamped 
upon him and then made off, leaving the poor man half 
dead and most dangerously wounded in his head, with 
bruises all over him. Some fellows that were suspected 
are got into churches, and others out of the town.' 

1742. SCANDAL, 87 

In what Mann calls Walpole's Midsummer Letter, 
the writer told the Minister at Florence a bit of 
Florentine scandal, to the following effect : ' The 
Italian, (Ceretani) who I told you was here, has let 
me into a piece of secret history which you never 
mentioned ; perhaps it is not true ; but he says, the 
mighty mystery of the Count's (Eichecourt's) elope- 
ment from Florence, was occasioned by a letter from 
Wachtendonck,' (the Queen of Hungary's General at 
Leghorn,) ' which was so impertinent as to talk of 
satisfaction for some affront. The great Count, very 
wisely, never answered it, his life to be sure is of too* 
great importance to be trusted at the end of a rash 
German's sword. However, the General wrote again, 
and hinted at coming himself for an answer. So it 
happened that when he arrived, the Count, had gone 
to the Baths at Lucca ; those waters were reckoned 
better for his health than steel in the abstract. How 
oddly it happened ! He just returned to Florence as 
the General was dead ! Now was not this heroic lover 
worth coming after? I wonder, as the Count must 
have known my lady's ' (Lady Walpole's) ' courage and 
genius for adventures, that he never thought of putting 
her into man's clothes, and sending her to answer the 
challenge. How pretty it would have been to have 
fought for one's lover ! And how great the obligation 
when he durst not fight for himself 1 ' 

' What a strange story has your Italian told you/ 
writes Mann, in reply, July 22nd. ' There is the least 
truth in it imaginable. What he jumbles together is 
this. When the present Nuncio Archiuto came 
here, he was entertained by the Earl ' (Count Kiche- 


court) ' who, to amuse him told him a long story of 
Wachtendonck, as how some time before, he had, under 
pretence of visiting the Passes in the mountains, to 
prevent an enemy passing, disguised himself in a 
black wig and corked eye-brows, when lo ! it was to 
meet an antient love, by name the Princess Trielzi, 
with whom he spent two days in a little house on 
the mountains ; and who should that lady be but the 
very sister to the Monsignore he was entertaining. 
The Primate was at the dinner, and endeavoured by 
treading on the Earl's toes and many other ways, to 
prevent his going on, but to no purpose ! The thing 
had never any suite, and the Heroes in question had 
seen each other, both here and at Leghorn, fifty times 
before the Earl left Florence, the true cause of which 
was his being some time in disgrace with his Highness, 
brought about by many, chiefly by a Maid of Honour 
to the Queen, cousin to Wachtendonck ; but as soon 
as his Highness went to the army, he made up matters 

As a sample of the religion and philosophy and 
refinement of a fine young English gentleman, lotos- 
eating at Florence, at this time, a letter from Mi- 
Chute (who with his brother resided near Mann) will 
afford an extract or two. 

Florence, July 29th. ' By a Circumstance of good 
Fortune, which I no more comprehend than I deserve 
it, I am in possession of two charming letters of yours, 
as yet unanswered. I say, good Fortune, because my 
conscience assures me I don't owe them to what I most 
naturally might, the neglect of acknowledging any 
one of your Favours : that's a silly word and smells 

1742. MB. CHUTE'S LETTER. 89 

of Goose and Sausages ! . . . Sometimes I think or 
rather fancy that you have mistaken one of our 
Dear Mini's (Mann's) for one of mine, and that ac- 
counts for your loving me so much better than I 
deserve. I love the thought. Why may it not be so ? 
We are three Persons in one mind, and what more 
natural than a little confusion about our Operations ! 
Forgive me this once for independently figuring into 
the place of the Dearly Beloved. I am fully sensible 
I am nothing but PROCEEDING, and as fully contented 
with my station ; in my opinion, you have more merit 
than if you had begotten me. 

'Now which of your charming Letters shall I speak 
to First. Jesus ! if all terms are too common to ex- 
press your Friendship, what can be particular enough 
for my Gratitude ? If I might but once express it, I 
would be content to be the oldest fellow breathing 
ever after. . . . Dear Sir, you can't think how it 
pleases me that I made you laugh so ; that is, that I 
made you happy ; for every man's happy while he 
laughs ; 'tis the Philosopher's Stone, the universal 
Medium, the Summum Bonum while it lasts, and I 
should scarcely give the preference to a Turkish 
Paradise, if I had my choice to laugh to all Eternity ; 
nay, 'tis a Christian one, for what's the reverse of 
weeping and wailing and nashing ? (sic}. Why, un- 
doubtly, laughing and giggling and cracking the sides I 
Lord, T didn't think I was good for so much, and 
the poor Primate ought (if possible) to be in Heaven, 
for leaving us the occasion. In the mind I am in, if 
you were a King, guess what Post I would choose 
under you ! Not your Prime Minister ; for I want 

90 FOOLING. 1742. 

capacity, love ease and hate the Inquisition ; nor your 
General, for I should never see the Danger till I had 
lost my Breeches' (allusion to the capture of Marechal 
de Broglie's baggage, at Prague) ; ' not for Archbishop, 
for I can't swear and stare for what I don't believe a 
word of; besides an Archbishop is a sort of a Prime 
Minister, too. No, I would be nothing of all their 
fine things, but you should revive an ancient laudable 
usage in my Favour, and make me your good Majestie's 
Fool. Lord ! 'twould be vastly pretty, and Dear Mini 
should be your Plenipo, and have a peace to make 
with Prussia. We would hang him round with Blue 
and Green and red Ribbons, and I'd make you laugh 
at those who doubted if he deserved them. Now, 
Dear Sir, let me hear from you often; you would make 
me happy even though you were to copy Tom Thumb. 
I won't print you in the Jest Book, but I believe I shall 
bind you and letter you with Gold. Mr. Walpole's 
Tom Thumb ; Mr. Walpole's Jack the Giant Killer, 
Pilgrim's Progress, etc., and you shall stand in my 
Library in the Post of Honour.' 

July 29th.' The Countess del Bellino came here 
this morning to say how sorry she was she could not 
come here to-morrow night. I am to have all the 
town in my garden, and all the musick I can get to 
entertain them, and Copiosi rinfreschi to feed them. 
I can't tell you their names, and the number, yet, for 
it is no invitation. The first I spoke to about it was 
told that other ladies having promised to take the air 
in my garden, instead of on the Ponte, she was desired 
to come too, and so on. Twelve or fourteen have been 
sent to by Madam Suares who directs, with the same 

1742. COMPANY AT MANN'S. 91 

message, and to desire they will bring their friends. 
I, in discourses, have spoke to others ; so that I 
reckon the number will be large. I will tell you how 
it is to be. 

1 A great large table is to be placed in the middle 
of the garden, with many lights, for about 20 Suona- 
tori of diverse sorts. All the alleys will be lined 
with Chairs and Benches, but no lights in any other 
parts of the garden, which I am told will please, 
per il commodo delle Cicisbeatore. The Hall is to 
be well lighted and the whole row of rooms, the 
windows of which are made into doors so that the 
walk under the orange trees will receive light from 
them. This is allowed to be better than sticking a 
light in every orange tree, or a torch at the end of 
the walks which, if the wind did not, I should expect 
would be blown out by those who prefer moonlight 
to artificial (sic). There's nothing that pleases so 
much in this country as a Cocchiata' (originally a 
serenade listened to from carriages) 'in a garden. 
Everybody is in expectation of it, and I don't doubt 
but I shall be commended. If the Crimine di Purga- 
torio had not disappointed old Riccardi, when he spent 
much in Masses to engage them to send him a fine 
night on the like occasion, I might have been tempted 
to have laid out some Pauls to have been sure of a 
fine evening. If the wind blows, it will drive us all 
in doors, and then we must ride on each other's backs, 
for there won't be room for half the company. 

' I forgot to tell you that some of the ladies have 
asked leave to come in constuccios' (?) 'so that that 
was added to the message of invitation. Mme. Griffoni 

92 WAR BULLETINS. 1742. 

has lent me all her (illegible), and will leave her sister 
Antinori to come, though she was brought to bed of 
a son two days ago. 

' . . . I would not for the w r orld avoid telling you 
that the letters bring notice this instant from Bologna 
that Lord ! I forgot to tell you that the Miran- 
dola surrendered the 22nd, on the only conditions 
that were granted them, Prisoners of War, and 
this was necessary to introduce what the Bologna 
letters say, that the King of Sardinia and M. de 
Traun were at a little place called Ponte di Nero, a 
very small distance from Bologna, with 30,000 men, 
that eight great Bolognese were sent to compliment 
his Majesty, and four to M. Traun, attended by 
presents and refreshments of all sorts. The Austro- 
Sards were marching forced marches to intercept the 
Neapoli-Spani, and prevent perhaps their retiring 
into the Kingdom of Naples. They will oblige them 
perhaps to retire and so strengthen them prodi- 
giously. Did I ever tell you that Montemar gave 
7 zecchini to every deserter from the King of Sar- 
dinia's army ? And many they have been. Is it not 
unaccountable how they go on making such expenses?' 

'All the letters mention how extremely surprised the 
Court of Spain was to hear of Modena's being taken, 
as a Courier arrived at Madrid a little before to say 
that such a day Montemar was to march to succour 
it. The burning of the Galleys has alarmed them as 
much, for according to their accounts, those Galleys 
were to have brought up the great artillery with 
which the Spanish Admiral promised to force his 

1742. PLEASURES. 93 

' The Court of Naples is frightened out of its little, 
very little, senses ; and is as much afraid of the 
Neapolitans and some Ghost of Massaniello as of 
the English fleet or the Austro- Sards. It is affirmed 


that most of their precious matters have been sent 
away to Rome. The little Queen swears she won't 
stay at Naples.' 

August 5th. ' I would have given anything that 
you had been here last Monday, at the Cocchiata. 
Mr. Chute and I said so twenty times. Madame 
Griffoni said she was sure you would have been vastly 
pleased. " Yes, Madame," said I, " I am so well con- 
vinced of it that I am persuaded he would have had 
it repeated once a week during the fine weather. The 
evening was charming, very dark, without the least 
wind. The lights up and down the garden had the 
prettiest effect immaginable. Those in the middle, 
for the Musick, were quite hid by the crowds that 
pressed about the table. This I would have remedied, 
but 'twas impossible, for though there were benches, 
chairs, and stools for 300, there were not near enough. 
I can neither tell you the number nor the names of 
the Dame. I gave strickt orders to the Porter, to 
write them down. He soon found he could not write 
fast enough, so would have contented himself with 

O ' 

counting them only ; but this too he was forced to 
give up, for when he came to 75, such shoals came 
in together that he lost his number. Mme. Snares 
says that there were close to 160 Dame, which I don't 
believe ; Cavalieri innumerable, which I do believe, 
by the number of rinfreschi, 1240 jars! Everybody 
was extremely well pleased, and it still serves for 


conversation ; but, would you believe it ? because it 
was on a monday night, our former day, many took 
it into their head that it was to be continued. 

'The Opera is begun again. Egiziello is quite 
recovered, and sung most charmingly ; though, not to 
fatigue himself, he sang only half airs. To night 
perhaps he may add their second parts. 

'We have got off the party the Prince proposed, 
by going there last Friday, early. He carried us to 
Castello and some little places about. We got away 
at 24 hours. The Princess was quite abominable with 
her lassitudes and epuisements, and will not be in a 
good humour till Prague is taken and her Son safe. 

' We are told not to expect the taking of Prague 
till this day sennight, unless something extraordinary 
should happen. They talk of great dissensions since 
91' (the Grand ;Duke of Tuscany) 'arrived there. 
His brother' (Prince Charles of Lorraine) 'did so 
well and is so extremely beloved that most people are 
persuaded matters cannot be mended by the former's 
arrival. I wish with all my heart there was any way 
to come to the knowledge of what may be designed 
with regard to 42 ' (Tuscany). ' You cannot conceive 
what a pleasure they would have if 91 was to resign ' 
to his brother (whom call 15) and nobody would 
blame them. Surely it would be the interest of 130 ' 
(England) 'and others to have 42' (Tuscany) 'separate 
and not dependent either on 86' (Germany) 'or 168 ' 
(Spain) ' or any other. Even the Orsi ' (the Spanish 
faction in Tuscany) ' would rejoice, but they cannot 
bear 91, or his ways, nor can flatter themselves (for 
interest sake, only) that he will or can reside among 

1742. ALARM AT NAPLES. 95 

them. This makes them foresee much misery if 130, 
who in all probability has the power, was to put 15 
on the first foot here (and somewhere he must be 
placed). It would be esteemed next to giving 42 its 
full liberty, nay I believe preferred to it, for they 
would not know how to settle that matter now. It 
would be a pity that this should be totally neglected, 
both for the sake of making Tuscany happy, and the 
real interest of England. If you can hear anything 
about it, pray inform me. 

' By the last accounts from the armies, M. de Mon- 
temar was running away as fast as possible, and the 
King of Sardinia running after him, though not so 
fast as these people could run. The former was near 
Rimini, where some suppose he will fortify himself, 
whilst others believe he will retire into the Kingdom 
of Naples. The King of Sardinia and M. de Traun 
were near Faenze, and may before this have been up 
with them if they are stopt at Rimini. All agree 
that Castropignero ' (?) 'is undoubtedly to go imme- 
diately with his Neapolitans to Naples, and that for 
several days together he received couriers with re- 
peated orders. There is infinite confusion there, and 
their Majesties are not a little alarmed. Their ministers 
pretend to know for certain that an 100 chaises are in 
constant readiness to transport the Court to Rome, 
and that the Queen has declared that she will not go 
to Spain. This month, in all probability, will decide 
matters wonderfully, especially if what they say be 
true, that the Great Duke of Tuscany will, after he 
has put an end to the present affair in hand, set out 
for Florence, in order to go to Naples. Directions 


came last week to compleat with all haste and privacy 
many things necessary to put this scheme in execution, 
though Eichecourt won't own a word of it to me. . . 

' They talk of a number of men actually in March 
for Trieste. The names of the regiments have been 
told me, amounting between horse and foot to about 
11,000 men. These may from thence go to Naples 
with the English Fleet. They say 'tis settled so. The 
King of Sardinia to be sure will come in for his share. 

'A most woeful accident has befallen poor Mr. 
Whithed, whose valet de chambre, Ferrari, has robbed 
him of some money and pawned all his winter Cloaths, 
some too have been sold, and what afflicts us all 
still worse is that things have been carried so far that 
it will now be difficult to pardon him or save him 
from the Gallies. He was put into the common jail 
last Wednesday, and by that step delivered over to 
the Justice of the country. We hope to be able to 
save him from all punishment but banishment. 

' I forgot to tell you that I have been blamed by 
those who are not acquainted with my reasons, for not 
inviting Lady Walpole to the musick. None were 
invited, but if they had, what measures need I keep 
with one who keeps none with those I respect, or. 

The description of Mann's gay doings brought back 
the memory of old pleasures to Walpole. In a letter 
from Houghton, August 20th, 1742, he writes: 'As 
much as I am obliged to you for the description of 
your Cocchiata, I don't like to hear of it. It is very 
unpleasant, instead of being at it, being prisoner in a 
melancholy, barren province, which would put one 

1742. GRATITUDE. 97 

in mind of the Deluge, only that we have no water. 
Do remember exactly how your last was, for I intend 
that you shall give me just such another Cocchiata 
next summer, if it pleases the Kings and Queens of 
this world to let us be at peace, " For it rests that 
without fig-leaves," as my Lord Bacon says in one of 
his letters, " I do ingenuously confess and acknow- 
ledge that I like nothing so well as Italy." 

Walpole's gifts there were warmly acknowledged. 
The Princess du Craon was no less profuse in epithets 
magniloquently grateful to Walpole by post, than she 
had been to Mann by word of mouth. ' I have just 
now received yours of the 15th July,' writes Walpole, 
' with a married letter from both Prince and Princess 
Craon, but sure nothing ever equalled the setting out 
of it. She says : " The generosity of your friendship 
for me, Sir, leaves me nothing to desire of all that is 
precious in England, China, and the Indies." Do you 
know,' he adds by way of bantering comment on this 
burst from Florence, ' after such a testimony from the 
hand of a Princess, that I am determined after the 
laudable example of the House of Medici to take the 
title of Horace the Magnificent. I am only afraid it 
should be a dangerous example for my posterity, who 
may ruin themselves in emulating the magnificence of 
their Ancestors.' 

VOL. I. 




THE Autumn of this year affords strong contrasts in 
the Minister's Chronicle. The ball rooms of Florence 
were not the less gay for the roar and devastation of 
battle elsewhere. 

August 12th. * For want of room last post, I 
omitted telling you of our concert. Arrigoni has set 
it on foot. There are 16 Cavalieri who pay about a 
Zecchino a month. I could not refuse subscribing, as 
he was Molly's master. The subscribers may transport 
it to their own houses. I was the first to invite it to 
mine ; and at the same time 8 ladies only and their 
Cicisbeos, with about 12 Scotchmen and some few 
Cavalieri. It was performed in the Hall. As many 
of the subscribers are likewise performers, the Ladies 
may sing, and will, they say, the very next time. 
There was Madame Griffoni, because she is the finest 
woman in Florence, and whom you would have asked. 
There was little Albizzi, for the latter part of the 
above reason, and because she brings little Colonel 
Pandolfini, who did sing most agreeably. There was 
M. Bagneri, who can sing finely, but would not 
because Guido is very ill. There was Madame Gerini, 


because she is a good fat creature and brings the 
Countess Marcolini, a foreigner who sings most admi- 
rably, but would not that night, because the others did 
not. Then there came the three Suareses, because 
they have a right you know, to come. The Vittorina 
will sing next time, and Cecco will play upon both the 
fine flutes you sent him. 

'The thing was private but pretty enough, and all 
were well pleased. I may have it again whenever 
I please. The Chutes are both subscribers. I have 
promised for the benefit of the Accademia to get from 
England Handel's overtures and Corelli's concertos, 
and in return I'll send you all the pretty airs I can 

' . . . The Spaniards are, they say, still at Eimini ; 
though some believe they begin to advance. The 
King of Sardinia and M. de Traun were, by the 
accounts of yesterday, still at Cerina and its environs. 
They say these are to march on, though most people 
are surprised that they have not already. The ardour 
of M. de Traun is curbed by the prudence of his 
Sardinian Majesty. 

' . . . Mrs. Goldworthy sets out from Leghorn, next 
week, for England. She will persecute the Bichmonds 
to intercede for her husband. Sir Charles (Wager) 
will do what he can ; so would I too to provide for 
them better out of Italy, that they might abandon all 
thoughts of Florence. 

' . . . Prince Craon, by his own invitation, dined 
with me last Thursday. He is at the Petraja, so begs 
dinners every thursday, the days of Council. He 
named his company, Camilla Capponi, Buondelmonte, 

100 MANN, NEGLECTED. 1742. 

Antinori, and de Sade. There was besides, Mr. Gold- 
worthy and his friend who came to Florence at two 
o'clock that morning, not being able to bear Leghorn 
without his Deary ; so he is come to me as his next 
deary, to comfort him. He is lodged with me. Of 
what length his visit will be, I cannot yet judge. 
There were the Chutes, etc. A propos, Mr. Chute 
insists on your pointing out to him, the exact room 
you inhabit at Houghton, that we may tap at the 
window and peep in on you and Pattipan ' (Walpole's 
dog). ' My dear child, what will you do at Houghton ? 
I foresee you'll never stay there, and yet by the plan I 
think one might live there for ever.' 

' . . . I have been swelling with indignation 
against Bichecourt for a long time, as he has seemed 
to take all opportunities to revenge Lady Walpole's 
quarrels, and indeed, in things that regard business or 
recommendations, seemed to make it a rule to cross me 
in everything ; in so much that in this affair of Mr. 
Whithed's servant, whom now we want to save from 
hanging on the Gallows, and in which I had publickly 
interested myself so as to go to all their houses to beg 
him off, he alone in Council opposed the strong argu- 
ments that the Prince Craon, Braitwitz, etc. etc. made, 
to shew the regard that might be shewn to my recom- 
mendation ; so that it gave occasion afterwards to Brait- 
witz to ask Binuncini what could the reason be that so 
soon as my name was mentioned either in publick or 
private affairs, Bichecourt seemed to have made it 
a point to oppose me, to which Rinuncini and Torna- 
quira answered that they had remarked it too, that 
great regards had indeed been used to be shewn to the 


recommendations of ministers, but that nobody doubted 


but Lady Walpole was the occasion of it all. This 
you will believe nettled me, and made me resolve to 
take the first opportunity to shew how little I regarded 
Richecourt or Lady Walpole's favour. 

'I did not foresee it would be soon, but the same 
evening, after I had received the letters from England, 
I went to the Electress to wish her joy of being the 
next day 75 years old. Richecourt was with her and 
waited my coming out, to ask what news from England. 
I shewed him the King's speech and then told him 
the changes. I knew I had him, but could not believe 
he would give me such fair opportunities. " Mon Dieu, 
est il possible," dit il, " qu'il ait fait cette demarche ? " 
" Why, not ? Surely, you are not acquainted at all 
with affairs. What ! do you think what he and they 
have been working so long for is not good for your 
school?"-" Comment vont les affaires de Sir Robert 
Walpole ? " Here I had him. " Why, as every one who 
knew him well was persuaded they must go, if they 
did him justice ; " I could not conceal from him my 
surprise that many here had been so indiscreet as to 
talk so freely about things they could not understand. 
' Here he began to give me the definition of our 
government of King, Lords, and Commons, which 
strangers could not indeed comprehend. " How great, 
therefore," said I, " must be their malice or impudence 
to talk as they publickly did. Had it been confined 
to the people, I should not have been surprised ; but 
that people of an higher rank should have encouraged 
it, nay, talked so, was astonishing." Here he blushed 
and was uneasy, and then argued some time on the 


nature of common reports, and that we must not 
credit all that is said ; and most luckily he happened 
to add that he could not pretend to say whence they 
proceeded. "Je ne vous le demande pas," said I 
abruptly, " that is the easiest part of the discovery. 
I know the Source, and both you and I know that 
clear waters cannot come from it. It is surprising," 
continued I, " that people about here do not first 
doubt of the truth of all she ' (Lady Walpole) ' says. 
Such low malice to seek out old vile satyrs' (against 
Sir Robert) ' to get translated into Italian. It could 
not be for her own use," said I, " who could they 
be done for ? " " Mauvaise Poesie 1 je n'en sais rien," 
quite confused. " I'll shew it you in Italian," said 
I, " if you will, in the original handwriting of the 
translator." (It had been brought me but two days 
before. One Pasquale is the Poet, but he does not 
understand English ; so I conclude it was translated 
into Italian prose by Lady Walpole and her friend.) 
" Indeed, indeed," said I, "it is not enough not to 
encourage, but such insolences ought to be discouraged. 
Reflect how respectfull a name is ill used ; one on 
whom the King has conferred the highest honours to 
reward his services, and, if all that was not enough, it 
was insufferable here, as it was a person for whom the 
Great Duke had professed a personal friendship." 

' A thousand other things I said in the heat of my 
discourse, as "the joy that some folks (for I never named 
Lady Walpole but as a third person) had shewn on 
the certainty they were in of Sir Robert's being to be 
beheaded ; and to crown all," said I, " do you know 
what scandal they have employed at last ? c'est verita- 

1742. ENGLISH FLEET. 103 

blement impitoyable ! (though I knew it came from 
him and them that Sir Robert had spent vast sums to 
get clear.) Whom must he have bribed?" said I, "such 
and such a one, much richer than himself ? " " Ca est 


vrai. Ah, Monsieur, il faut mepriser tout cela ! "- "Oh, 
Monsieur I " said I, " ce n'est pas a cette heure que je 
commence a le faire ! " 

' What think you of this dialogue ? It lasted a 
long while in the Electress's antechamber and all down 
the stairs to our Coaches. His carried him to his 
Deary's, to give an account, I don't doubt, of so un- 
expected a conversation ; and mine carried me, much 
easier than I had been for a long time, to the Opera, 
to hear Egiziello, and to brag to the Chutes, between 
whiles, of what I had done. I must expect that all 
this malice combined will be set to work to ruin me.' 

August 19th. 'Admiral Matthews rides triumph- 
ant before Toulon and prevents its stirring. What 
pleases me much is that the Turkish Ambassador is 
there a witness to it, and that M. Caylus, who has 
been rewarded for being beat by Captain Barnet, and 
who has the care of the Ambassador, must submit to 
strike to our ships if he does venture out. The fear 
of not being able to tell his story so well now, may 
make him wish not to come to blows again. 

' The Lord of the Mediterranean has sent a con- 
siderable detachment of his fleet to Naples, under the 
command of Captain Martin, with a compliment to 
King Charles, as how he wishes his Majesty would 
withdraw his troops from Lombardy, or else ! I 
really don't know what else, but they say, the four 
bomb vessels that make part of the 17, have about 


6,000 shells on board. These passed by, Sunday last, 
and must have been long since at Naples, though we 
are as yet unacquainted with the consequences or the 
effect it has had on the people. If the withdrawing 
the troops is all we ask, they were so obliging as 
to prevent our request, since orders had sometime 
been given for their return to Naples, to make their 
Majesty's sojourn there secure.' 

' The combined armies quitted the advantageous 
post they had begun to fortify at Eimini, and without 
once encamping or taking but little repose, continued 
their forced marches to Sinigaglia. ... It is much 
suspected Montemar will cross away to Orbitello, on 
which account we are here again in a mighty fuss, 
for the prudent cannot think he will carry his folly 
to perish by the bad air of that place, but suspect, 
after a few days rest and some preparations, he may 
invade Tuscany, and by that means excuse the shame- 
ful campaign he has made, and make a merit at least 
of having gained that footing in Italy for the Infant.' 

August 19th. ' Estafettes fly about at present 
between the above Ministers (Admiral Matthews and 
me). Mr. Matthews is desired to be ready to come 
when we call for help. I cannot help being persuaded 
that we shall have no occasion for it, and that the 
present Neapolitan scheme will have altered their 
views, and produce orders to Montemar as well as 
to Castropignero to return to Naples. Pray, Sir, 
recollect, did I not say to you in the begining of 
February last, that a few ships being sent to Naples 
would produce this consequence. I then wrote to Mr. 
(Admiral) Haddock, - - poor man ! his name makes 


me melancholy. They say he is mad, though none 
of the fleet blame him, but lay the fault on Harriss, 
his secretary, who totally governed him. I could tell 
you a long story about him ; but it is too long.' 

August 26th. ' I told you Estafettes fly about 
wonderfully. We are strangely busy, but in the 
midst of it all, I cannot persuade myself that there is 
any occasion to be alarmed, but some folks love to 
make a fuss. In consequence of the Express that my 
brother Minister, who is with the King of Sardinia, 
sent to Mr. Matthews, with his and their suspicions 
that the Spaniards would invade Tuscany, the Admiral 
has sent a ship post to me to say he will cut them all 
to pieces, if they offer to put their noses into Tuscany ; 
and, that if I saw occasion for it, I was to direct the 
Romney to land his men at Leghorn and fetch Captain 
Martin with his Squadron from Naples (of whom we 
have heard nothing yet), and that the Admiral himself, 
in case of need, would come in person, with his troops 
and his marines, for which he desired preparations 
might be made. 

* . . . I communicated the contents of his letter 
to the Count, in a conference, yesterday, which ended 
by our persuading each other that we did not perceive 
any necessity to take any part of the fleet off any 
other service till Montemar should give more peremp- 
tory signs of his evil intentions against us. They 
are all at Foligni where, by not being followed by his 
enemies, he has leisure to rest his troops and look 
about him, and seems to prefer that plentifull country 
and advantageous situation to that of Orbitello, where 
he at first designed to go, had he been followed. He 

106 WAR. 1742. 

is now ready for all events and can proceed from 
thence as circumstances may require, either with 
regard to Don Phillip's army on t'other side, or the 
orders he may receive from Spain and Naples. 

' If the Neapolitans retire home, Montemar won't 
have 10,000 men left. If the confusion at Naples 
should produce orders for him to go there too, he must 
leave at least 3000 men to garrison Orbitello, etc. 
If he should throw his troops into Tuscany, he cannot 
do it without giving some indications in time, it is 
to be hoped, to send proper notices to Mr. Matthews ; 
so that in all this uncertainty, I have not advised 
Mr. Grenville, of the Romney, to execute any of his 
orders, as I think it will be sufficient to have a ship 
or two at Leghorn which, with the merchant ships in 
the Mole, will be always sufficient to receive the 
English and their effects now the Sea is secure. Let 
the Regency therefore, who are so fully acquainted 
of the King's intentions to protect this country, make 
applications to me for assistance when they want it. 
This, I told Richecourt, I should expect, and in this 
stile I have wrote to the Admiral, of which I have 
acquainted His Grace ' (the Duke of Newcastle) ' so 
that I hope it will not be necessary to recall Mr. 
Martin till he has executed his commission at Naples 
and that at Brindisi, if it be true that he is to fetch 
the Spanish Artillery from thence. We are told that 
when the Squadron returns, it is to put into Leghorn. 
If so, we shall all go there, the Prince and Princess 
and the Chutes. 

' A most dismal affair has happened at a little 
place they call Merciana, belonging to the Princess 


of Piombino, in the Isle of Elba, near Porto Longone, 
which you know belongs to the King of Naples. 
Captain Osborne and another man-of-war were cruizing 
thereabouts, and would have visited some barks that 
refused to come to, and which escaped into St. Andrea, 
a little port where there is a tower and a small guard. 
The men-of-war's boats followed but were fired upon 
by the guard. This so provoked Captain Osborne 
that he made a descent, took the Castle and its gar- 
rison, and put up the King's colours, demolished the 
little village, and carried away everything that could 
be found, with which he would have gone off, but on 
the people coming down from Porto Longone to the 
assistance of those of Merciana, the English went 
ashore again and set fire to all the houses and, they 
say, consumed everything they had before left higher 
up in the country where the inhabitants were fled to 
save themselves. . . . Captain Osborne wrote a letter 
to Mr. Goldworthy, very confused. He said only, 
that he was in the act of burning and destroying all 
that country in return for great provocation he had 
received, and was warming himself by the flames he 
had raised I At the end of his letter he says that the 
fools are now come down, so that I am just going to 
work again, with all my cannon. What followed we 
cannot tell, but the next day a continual firing was 
heard from 15 to 24 hours, at Leghorn. I pity the 
poor inhabitants, and am very much afraid that the 
King of Naples may do some rash thing in return. 
We have many merchants sent from Leghorn hither, 
when they were afraid of the Spaniards. It is true 
that his Sicilian Majesty would perhaps bring his own 

108 MERRY-MAKING. 1742. 

town about his ears. What a trifle has raised this 
bustle ! ' 

' In the midst of all this (though we did not then 
know it) we had merry-making at the King's Arms/ 
(Mann's residence, in front of which was displayed 
the shield of arms of Great Britain.) ' I invited the 
Academy to it, and four more ladies to the 8 I had 
the first night, as I found the Hall would hold them 

O ' 

and their men. They were the Ricardi, Ginori, 
Panciaticei, and the Galli. The ladies only sang, 
except Pandolfini, whose Cicisbea, Albizzi, grows in 
spirits as her husband grows better, about whom she 
was drolly confidential . Here is an odd sort of a very 
heavy fat fool come to town, about 18 years old, and 
almost as big as Gerini ; Moleniari by name, extreme 
rich, and of a great family of Milan. He is vastly sweet 
upon the Vittorina Suares who, I assure you, is grown 
mighty pretty, and seems to enter into the affair as 
well as anybody. I believe it might be brought about 
if rightly managed ; but I am afraid the mother will 
be too eager and cloy the young man instead of 
making him eager. I seldom see Madame, except at 
my box at the Opera. Whenever I go to her house, 
she is always busy in the top appartment looking for 

Mann got so perfectly bewildered by the marches 
and countermarches of the armies ; by the crossing of 
despatches contradictory in sense and instructions ; 
by reports of the Spaniards being about to ' devour 
Tuscany ' in spite of its neutrality, or on the ground 
that the neutrality had been broken, that he quietly 
resolved to have at least his nights undisturbed : ' I 


was obliged to give orders not to be awaked by their 
packets, which, after one or two. I was convinced 
ought to stay till morning.' When morning came, 
and the despatches were read, full of instructions to 
the Minister as to how he was in his turn to instruct 
the English naval Captains at Leghorn, Mann again 
consulted his own tranquillity amid the general con- 
fusion. ' I was resolved/ he says, ' to cut that, and 
not to take anything upon myself,' he left these 
matters to Admiral Matthews, and advised him to 
do nothing for the Regency at Florence till his aid 
was asked for by the Regents. Mann had more 
trouble with the rough and ready English Captains 
who were with their vessels before Leghorn, and longed 
to be doing something in their professional way. ' I 
could not say,' writes Mann, ' to the Squadron at 
Leghorn, that it had come too soon and might go 
about its business, neither could I make the Cap- 
tains behave as they should do. One of them wrote, 
that "for his part (and Goldworthy appropriated 
the expression) he did not pique himself upon 
understanding neutralities, but as they came to save 
this country, they would do so and so, and would 
assist the Government against their will." Imagine 
to yourself a pack of Captains, with a Goldworthy at 
their head, getting drunk and confirming each other in 
their nonsense, that the Italians^ are all cowards, and 
God damn the Spaniards.' 

Captain Martin sailed to join Admiral Matthews, 
leaving four ships for the defence of Leghorn, ' that is 
for the (English) merchants.' The Prince and Princess 
de Craon were to have visited the English Squadron, 


but Martin's departure gave them welcome excuse 
for remaining at Florence, to move from which they 
lacked pecuniary means ! ' They dirtily resolved not 
to go, after preparations had been made to receive them 
enPrincesse (sic], on account of the expense. De Sade, 
who had lent the Prince, some days before, fifty 
zecchini, dissuaded them from it, though I never saw 
Her so much set upon anything before. Don't you 
pity them extremely to be obliged to borrow a poor 

fifty from De Sade, whom the Dutchess of M is 

not in a condition to supply abundantly at present, 
as I believe the King of Sardinia does not allow her 
Highness much for her menus plaisirs. 

1 There has been the most extraordinary discovery 
of an half Prince, who would have made a very good 
Great Duke of Tuscany, had he come into the world 
a little sooner. He is a young man of twenty years 
old, son of the Princess Leonora, and one of her foot- 
men, and brought into the world under the nose of the 
Electress. Can you ever forgive her that all the 
entreaties, which handsome young fellows put in her 
way during the Cardinal's lifetime, should not prevail 
upon her to procure such an advantage to Tuscany ? 
... The child was absolutely put into the (Foundling) 
Hospital till he was 12 years old, and then got out 
with much difficulty, by the means of two worthy 
Priests who put him in, and by whom the discovery as 
well as the forthcoming of the young fellow to dispute 
his mother's inheritance with the Great Duke (whom 
she made her Heir) has been made. I am assured the 
matter is quite clear, and the man has letters from the 
Princess which, in the abundance of her tenderness, 

1742. A MAD BISHOP. Ill 

she wrote to him when he came out of the Hospital of 
the Innocents. She allowed him 15 crowns a month, 
only, for his maintenance, and, in her will, she left him 
3000 crowns, under the denomination of her God-son ; 
but, in order to hush up the matter, it is believed they 
must give him a good deal more. It is said that the 
examination into this affair has led to the discovery 
of four more children who, instead of being Cadets 
of the House of Medici, are confounded among the 
other Bastards of the Hospital. Hard fate for them 
and Tuscany 1 ' 

' The Suares family are in great distress. The 
poor foolish Bishop is turned mad, occasioned, they 
say, by some very unjust persecutions of Richecourt 
and Rucellai. He was brought from San Mignato, 
a few days ago, and they have obliged him to renounce 
his bishoprick. He raves often that all his family are 
in a plot to marry the two girls to the two above- 
named people against his consent. Yesterday, in a 
great rage, he showed all his disreputable possessions 
to Madame Suares, who blessed her stars the girls were 
not by. They are however sensible that it may be a 
great prejudice to their getting husbands, and indeed 
the whole family is strangely disconcerted. Madame 
Suares is fully convinced that his disorder must be 
concealed, so that she only whispers to everybody that 
she wishes to make it pass for any other illness, the 
pain of which makes him rave/ 

' We have had a strange pack of English here, 
whose names 1 don't recollect. They were at Stosch's 
one day, to see his things, and a parson who was 
among them was made believe that the large picture 

112 CENSORSHIP. 1742. 

of Cataline's Conspiracy was the Last Supper. He 
was desired by the company to say which was Christ's 
figure ; he instantly pitched upon Cataline, but con- 
fessed it was the first time he had ever seen our Lord 
and Saviour with a sword by his side. 

' Among the foolish Bishops and Parsons, I must 
tell you what the Archbishop of Florence, (who, by 
the instigation of the Jesuits, had absolutely forbid 
Cavaliere Pepi to let " Don Pilogio " (a sort of 
Tartuffe) be acted,) said on the occasion, when 
the Impresario expostulated the matter with him. 
Pepi desired he would consider the expences he had 
been at, and the Opera was to begin in a few days. 
" What expenses ? " says the Bishop. " Why, the 
musick." "Ah, Signor Cavaliere! you are mocking 
me. The Musick may serve for any other Opera. 
Besides, I cannot bear that mixing together of men 
and women in these pieces ; away ! away I with it ! 
it is unbecoming ! " Pepi replied, " I expect then 
that you will order all the men to go to Mass at the 
Duomo, and the women at Santa Croce." Pepi's 
arguments could not prevail, so that he was forced to 
chuse another burletta, very bad indeed. 

' When I began this letter I had determined not to 
go to a great Function in a Church and Convent, to 
which I was invited yesterday ; but being told it 
would be taken ill, I hurried on my Cloaths and have 
made my appearance for half-an-hour. It is what 
they call a Sacramento, or a Confirmation of several 
Nuns, in the lump. One of Casa Gruadigni, another 
of Aguiccioni, and four others. All the world was 
there ; and a most magnificent Rinfresco.' 


September . . . 'Prince Craon was deputed to 
bring me the Great Duke's thanks for the attention 1 
have shown to his service, etc., etc. I have desired 
him to make a proper return for so great an honour, 
which he promised to do in the best and strongest 
manner ; for, says he, it will be neccessaiy, as I know 
Richecourt has put you in an indifferent light with 
the Great Duke, and described you as a creature of 
Lord Orford, therefore no friend to the Queen of 
Hungary or the Great Duke. The Prince added that 
Richecourt assured him, in the beginning, that Mann 
was not of long duration, as your father was concerned 
in all that was to be discovered, and therefore Mann 
would be demolished with him and the rest. Things 
are greatly changed now, Richecourt is, in appearance 
the civilest creature alive to me, and I correspond full 
as much as is necessary and no more. 

September . . . ' I am threatened with a visit from 
the Captain who has the command of the ships at Leg- 
horn, which, by the Admiral's directions are to be at 
my dispositions, and indeed I have desired the Captain 
to defer his departure from thence as he designed, as he 
said, to look in at Civita Vecchia and Gaeta, to see 
whether any clandestine doings were carrying on by 
the Pope and the King of the Two Sicilies, for as 
everything is in motion in the Romagna, who knows 
that before or after defeat the Spaniards may take 
refuge here. I don't believe they will, but since it 
has been thought necessary to leave ships at Leghorn 
for this service, this undoubtedly is not a proper time 
to remove from that place on such a foolish errand.' 

September . . . * Montemar arrived safe at Genoa 
VOL. i. i 

114 . THE DOMUNICHINO. 1742. 

by land. He did not care to trust to the sea, for fear of 
our ships, which likely would have snapped him up ... 
The King of Sardinia set out the 29th of last month, 
at the head of his army to cross the mountains, to drive 
Don Phillip out of Savoy, who has taken the title of 
Duke of Savoy, and obliged the inhabitants to pay 
him homage as their Lord, which has greatly incensed 
the King of Sardinia.' 

September . . . Montemar's disgrace was public at 
last. Maun states that he wrote to Prince de Craon for 
passports for himself and Castellari, to return to Spain 
through Tuscany. ' He is recalled and, they say, in 
high disgrace. The command of his army, which is 
about twelve thousand, was, by the same courier's 
despatches, given to M. de Gages, who immediately 
gave order for his troops to prepare for a march. They 
are all going back to Lombardy.' Mann had at this 
time bought for Walpole the Domenichino of which so 
much is said in Walpole's Letters ; and had got it safe 
into Florence. ' I was forced to defer sending for it,' he 
writes, ' till all the troops were out of that road, and 
now must make haste, before they infest it again. . . . 
Many foolish people of Florence gave out that Monte- 
mar, at the same time that he asked for Passports of " 
the Regency, sent to desire one of me, to be secure at 
Sea, and to prevent his first making a visit to the 
King at St. James's before he obeyed the summons 
of the Queen of Spain : " Venez id ! venez Due de 

September 23rd. ' Perhaps Montemar may be put 
into arrest on his arrival in Spain. His reluctancy to 
get there seems to denote his fears. He travels .about 


10 or 12 miles a clay, and stops in the strangest places. 
He is now at Empoli, a dirty village about two posts 
and a half from Florence towards Pisa. They say he 
absolutely will not embark till he receives a courier 
from Spain, with private, instructions from his friends, 
that he may judge whether it may be prudent to 
-present himself there or not till he has justified his 
conduct, which he says he is fully capable of doing. 
M. de Gages is now the man who begins the dance by 
leading again up to the Parano, but I believe he will 
observe the rules of country dances, and return to the 
place from whence he came. 

' The Pope is on the point of breaking into an open 
quarrel with the Queen of Hungary. Her Apostolick 
Majesty's General has seized two Abbies in the State 
of Milan belonging to Valenti Gonzaga, his Secretary 
of State, which the Pope so resents that he has 
wrote a thundering letter to Vienna to tell her that he 
looks upon this step as an open affront to his person, 
and insists upon restitution and satisfaction ; and, to 
indemnify the Cardinal, ordered the income of those 
Abbies should be made good to him out of the 
Chamber. Whilst this affair was depending, and they 
were waiting the return of the Courier, an accident 
happened that will not, it is thought, help towards 
getting his Holyness satisfaction, but may widen the 

' Cardinal Acquaviva, who is omnipotent at Rome, 
taking it into his head that a ' Neapolitan Abbe,' 
culled Don Cicio Pontero, was carrying on an illicit 
correspondence at Naples, procured an order for 
him to be seized, and gave his consent that the Pope's 


Sbirri might enter the Place d'Espagne, to do it ; so 
that Don Cicio was taken in bed. He immediately 
produced a Patent of Protection from the Queen of 
Hungary ; notwithstanding which he was sequestered 
and his papers seized and sent to the Governor of 
Kome. M. de Thun being soon informed of what had 
passed, publickly claimed the prisoner, but in vain ; 
on which he instantly despatched two Couriers, one 
to Vienna and another to M. de Traun. On a strict 
examination of Don Cicio's papers, nothing was to be 
found to justify such a step in a country where Pro- 
tections are of such mighty weight. The Governor of 
Rome swears he gave no orders for taking him up. 
The Pope says the same ; so that all the fault is lain 
upon Cardinal Valenti, against whom the Queen, it is 
supposed, will turn her whole resentment. The Court 
of Rome is apprehensive that she will turn their 
Nuncio from Vienna, if the Pope should support his 
Secretary any longer. 

' The poor Pope is made to be a Spaniard, against 
his will, by those that are about him, though he is 
really Austrian. He is buffeted by both. He has 
lately sent Mons. Bussy, Commander of his Gallies, 
to M. de Gages, to threaten to excommunicate the 
Spaniards, in good earnest, if they do not evacuate his 
ruined State.' 

September 3Qtk. 'Montemar loiters still about 
Reggio, Massa, etc. They say he flatters himself still 
to be restored to the command of his army, though 1 
can't think it at all probable, for the Courier that 
brought his dismission had letters to each of the 
principal officers, from the King, to acquaint them 


with it, and to exhort each of them to recover the 
honour of his arms. 

' . . . I flatter myself that at last our sea-folks see 
the absurdity of forcing assistance upon people that 
don't want it. They have hitherto seemed to think 
that because a man was sure of a good Physician, 
he ought to wish to be sick ; but these people have 
been too wise to accept this offer, as such a step alone 
could put them in the necessity of wanting their 
assistance. Mr. Matthews has in the last week given 
orders to the Commanders of the few ships left at 
Leghorn not to take any one step without my direc- 
tions. Had I been his Governor before I would have 
prevented him committing so many cruelties upon 
the poor innocent inhabitants of Marciana, and I. 
am endeavouring now to persuade him to divest his 
Monkey of the honours he has bestowed upon him, 
and of the ensigns of the Catholick faith which he 
robbed their churches of, and with which he has 
adorned him. Imagine to yourself how much the 
true believers must be offended, to see Pug with a 
Crucifix about his neck, and their god pasted on his 
forehead ! Don't you think there is as much supersti- 
tion in this man's thinking it his duty to show his 
publick contempt of these things, as he thinks they 
shew in their adoration of them ? for, in short, Pro- 
testant and Roman superstitions are just of the same 

The September record is thus brought to a close : 
' Madame Bolognetti is here, and graced my Hall. She 
is returned from Bologna with her sister, Frescobaldi, 
and stays to meet her t'other sister, Madame Acciajoli, 

118 FESTIVITIES, 1742. 

who (I told you) went to Loreto to marry her daughter 
to the Madera man ; but I never told you that the Sposa 
immediately after fell ill of the Small Pox, by which 
they say she is ten times more ugly than before. The 
Princess fell ill too on Madame Bolognetti's arrival, 
but it would not do, for the latter would not go to her 
first ; so they have not seen each other.' 

September 12th. ' Richecourt is now sick and goes 
not to the Council meetings. Lady Walpole is tender 
to a degree, and always attending to give each glass of 
water with her own hand ; and makes the Tisanne at 
home, which she carries regularly in her chair every 
morning, in a Pentolino ' (small pot). 

September . . . 'We have had many Festinos 
for the Sposi in this last week, which have greatly in- 
terfered with our Opera. Count Delci has taken to 
wife Nicolini's neice ; and Count Bardi, a Malaspina. 
There was a most magnificent Ball at Casa Jacontri' (?) 
' to which, as to all the other di giuoco, I have been 
invited. There was one of the latter at Ridolfi's, 
another at Strozzi's, a third at Count Bardi's, and this 
evening, which is the last (as well as the last Opera), 
at Count Delci's. I shall be at both.' 

September . . . Many days have been taken up 
by my attendance on Mrs. Prat and one Mr. Bethel 
whom I formerly knew, and who, though extreme ill, 
passed by Florence to see me. He is going I believe 
to dye at Venise, for I cannot think he will get to 
England, as asthma is his disorder, in regard to 
which, he says, he hates to go Vetturino, but wishes 
to go post, at least, into the next world. 

174 A LAZY LADY. 119 



October 15th. October opens with a joyous note. 'We 
are now in the height of the Yillcgiatura, notwithstand- 
ing the coldness and the badness of the weather ought 
to have drawn everybody from the country that was in 
it. I had the last appearance of those worth seeing, 
last Thursday evening, to the number of thirty of the 
most chosen. It was the solito concerto, which they 
soon turned out, to make room for minuets, but pre- 
ferred eating gras to both, which you know the terrible 
mezza notte would have deprived them of ; and you 
may remember how voracious the Italian Dame are of 
a bit of gras, else I dare say many of them would have 
danced till morning. Madame Griffoni was not there. 
. . . She is perfectly well, though for State or Laziness 
she lays in bed. I told her 'twas the latter, and she did 
not contradict it. She has always a great deal of com- 
pany, with Ottavio Manelli at her bed's side ; and by 
keeping up, keeps off the horrid day of going into the 
country, which she hates as much as you do/ 

October 23rd. ' I am invited this morning to a 
breakfast at the Princess's, on the opening her new s 
appartment, or rather her old one new fitted up. It is 


truly pretty and convenient. All those strange little 
partitions and closets through which one passed, where 
the maids and the parrots used to make a thousand 
odures, are all removed. She sleeps in the first room, 
which is large ; in the next where she used to sleep, 
she is only to repose. There is a new cradle and all the 
lazy machines you can imagine, with all her Saxon, 
China, Walpolian India cabinets and everything that 
is fine crowded on the tables. I told her I would write 
you word how fine it is.' 

October 30th. 'Florence is quite deserted. Every- 
body is making merry in the country, for which reason 
you may easily conceive how dull the town is. Bali del 
Borgo, alias the old Duke of Grog, gave a grand ball 
at his villa, near the Snares, last Monday, at the same 
time that Binaldi did the same at his villa, quite on the 
opposite side of the country. The former was most 
frequented. There was all sorts of people in all kinds 
of foolish dresses which they call da Villa. The Sposa 
Delci, Nicolini's sister, whom we have seen dressed like 
a Queen, was, they tell me, in a sort of an English 
riding habit which con Id not set strait, because she 
is vastly crooked. Then she' had an horrid black 
velvet English cap on a very wry head which is on a 
wry neck, and danced extremely for the first time 
with one leg considerably shorter than the other. The 
Teresina who grows beautiful to the greatest degree, 
was full as ill-bedecked. All the old- folks bestirred 
themselves wonderfully. Che vuol Ella? In villa 
bisogna star allegro ! However, they divert, and I 
can easily forgive them. I sent the Chutes to perso- 
nate me, as the trouble of getting home, and the 


hazard of catching cold is too great ; and then I don't 
care to be out of the way, for who knows that the 
Spaniards would not take that opportunity to come. 
I can assure you people think they will. I can't say I 
am one of them/ 

October 23rd. ' I have a hundred letters to write 
to England, the Admiral, and the Captains at Leghorn. 
The latter are becoming very pliant, notwithstanding 
the foolish notions our Console' (Goldworthy, the British 
Consul) ' put into their heads. They are all, by express 
orders, to depend upon the directions I send them. 
Chatelet is returned from Leghorn much regretted by 
our Captains, as he feasted them daily. He gave a 
ball on the Queen's day. One of them, about 60, 
danced more than any of the young ones at 20. On 
my shewing in joke some surprise, Chatelet answered : 
" Mais il dansoit pour lui ! " The Great Duke has 
ordered a very handsome gratification for Chatelet for 
the expences he has made during the stay of our Cap- 
tains. I could not avoid showing him some attention, 
so I have invited him, with Prince Craon, Braitwitz, 
etc., etc., to dinner to-morrow ; nobody, however, will 
give me any gratification, though I protest I ruin myself. 
Patience ! there is no avoiding these things. Some- 
time ago, a medal, I had heard of was sent me from 
Rome. I can only let you know what it is by the 
design of it. On one side, there is a robed figure, 
with the words above it, "The Generouse Duke of 
Argyle." Beneath the feet, is the word " Pentioner." 
On the other side, a Devil, in fantastic dress, calls to 
the open mouth of a monster (the mouth of Hell) 
" Make room for Sir Robert ! " That gentleman is 

122 ,1 LIVELY NUN. 1742. 

close behind, with a look of great indifference ; and 
beneath his feet is inscribed, "No Excise," Never 
sure was such a low idea ! The same spelling of the 
word " Generouse " convinces me that it was made by 
some Irish Jacobite. The workmanship is abominable. 
It is the nasty est brass thing you ever saw.' 

October 30th. ' You know no doubt the first part 
of the history of the beautiful Venetian Nun of the Reira 
family, as how she was debauched by M. de Trouby, 
the French Ambassador at Venice, who by means of 
false keys had free entrance into her convent, which, 
being at length discovered, the Nun was most closely 
confined, but not being able to bear the treatment of 
her Sister Nuns who upbraided her with her broken 
vows and past pleasures, she found means to get the 
Pope's permission to be transported into another con- 
vent at Ferrara where she soon gained a Suora con- 
versa, by whose assistance she made a second escape ; 
and, thinking to legitimate her second infidelity to her 
first cold Sposo J. C., she married a Colonel in the 
Spanish service and remained at Bologna with him ; but 
lo ! as the vengeance of nostro Signore always overtakes 
the unfaithfull, an order was sent from Rome to arrest 
her, and M. de Gages was induced to do the same by the 
officer. She was, at th.e departure of the last letter, 
gar dee a vue and her husband under arrest, so that it 
is greatly feared the povera Colonella will pay most 
severely for her past pleasures.' 

' Now I am mentioning unfortunate wives, I cannot 
omit acquainting you with the unhappy state of a poor 
Florentine Dama of your acquaintance, the Gondi, on 
whom the poor, pale-faced Abbi Neri used to be so 


sweet in the face of the Opera. She is so sorely 
afflicted with the scurvy that there seems to be no 
remedy .... Doctor Tyrril, famous for great cures, 
lias refused to assist her, saying that though his mer- 
curial unctions have been so efficacious, yet the scurvy 
of Madame Gondi has taken such deep root and is of 
so bad a nature that i he de'spairs of giving her any 
relief. I pity the poor creature vastly, but you would 
laugh to hear all the ladies talk of the Scorbuta with 
such compassion.' 

November 6th. 'I must not conceal to you a strong- 
suspicion of the Dominicallity of your Madonna ! not 
from the beauty, for nothing can exceed it, but on my 
unpacking it, I found wrote on the back, Sasso Ferrato ; 
whose name is not to be found in the Abecedario 
Pittorico, or in any Lives of the Painters that I have 
seen ; but I find his name is well known in Florence 
as a famous painter of Madonnas. Nunziato Baldocci 
has one ; Marquis Corsi, another. Nobody can tell 
me where or when he lived ; but there is a little place 
somewhere in Italy, called Sasso Ferrato. I would 
willingly erase those words, but am afraid that ink or 
anything else I should use might in time eat into the 
picture. If I were you, I would line it. The canvass 
is rather too dry, so that a lining would both preserve 
it and remove the scandal. I have a little Madonna 
and Child now in my house which has been called by 
the same author. It is as much inferior to your's as is 
possible, but it cannot be denied that there is a great 
resemblance in the manner of painting.' 

November 6. ' More Captains came to take care of 
us, though we don't want 'em ; and all talk of protecting 


the Great Duke and his dominions. 1 always answer, 
the Merchants of Leghorn ought to be fully satisfied 
with the care the Admiral shews for them, on whose 
account they are solely there ; and that when the 
Great Duke wants the assistance of the Fleet, he will 
apply to me for it ; that his accepting their assistance 
before would give the Spaniards a pretence likewise to 
break the neutrality which the Great Duke has so 
much interest to maintain. This, they say, they 
don't understand. What need he be afraid of ? Are 
not we come to save him from Popery and Slavery ? 
etc. etc. 

' I despair of convincing them that the Great Duke 
ought not to wish to have his country invaded, because 
he is sure of having their assistance at Leghorn. Is 
not this terrible ? I do assure you that II Furibondo' 
(Admiral Matthews) 'wrote me that the answer which 
was given to one of his Emissaries seemed rather 
dictated by a Spanish Agent than a Minister* of the 
Great Duke ; and that he was sorry to see some of the 
Lorraine Eegents more friends to Spain than to their 
Master. Had he said the Florentines in general, he 
would not have been mistaken ; but the Admiral is as 
wild as they (the Captains) are all ignorant. Four of 
them want to have the honour to kiss the Regency's 
hand and pay their respects to me ! For which 
purpose, they set out from Leghorn to-morrow 'morn- 
ing. Pity me, dear child ! I shall be devoured by 
these sea-monsters ! I am making my will, and be- 
queathing to you my Magdalene, to Sir Robert, my 
Sabine ; and my debts to my father. All the pretty 
bijoux you gave me shall be divided among my 


brothers and sisters, as the chief marks of my favour.' 
In a subsequent letter, Mann writes : ' Captain Cox, of 
the Newcastle, says he has the honour to be known to 
my Lord (Orford) and will take care of the Domini- 
chino ; he adds that he has won master Suckling a 
great nephew of Sir Robert's on board ; he is the 
strangest illiterate man I ever corresponded with.' 

November I3th. 'A miserable head-ache has till 
24 hours confined me in bed. The cause was a horrid 
door against which I sat at supper last night, at Casa 
Craon, a great supper for our Captains. Oh ! the life 
I have led for a week past ! The first day they came 
I was ill with a cold, they dined and supped here. 
The next day we dined at Braitwitz's, and I went 
with a fever. The next day, a great dinner at the 
Cascina, where there was an encampment of 800 men. 
This was done by Chatelet, but the rains in the after- 
noon prevented the exercises and disappointed vast 
crowds of people who, notwithstanding the bad 
weather, were as foolish as we to go there. "We dined 
under some open lodges, and though I had my cloak 
on, etc., I was almost killed. Every day since we 
have dined out. They are all now in the next room, 
where there are three tables, at cards. Mesdames 
Suares and Frescobaldi are the only ladies. 

' Amongst the Captains, there is a man of admired 
good sense, quiet and easy, and who rails with me at 
the lowness and horrid meanness of his companions. 
His name is West, a nephew, I believe, of Lord 
Cobham. I have had no difficulty to show him the 
nature of our situation and that II Furibondo has 
never understood it. The Princess has not shewn 

AXD AT <: 

herself hut once. She has always taken medicine, of 
the operations of which all the town has had an 
exact account.' 

November -QtJt. '\ am extreme ill. though 1 have 


been very quiet since the departure of my Captains. If 
any more should come to /tvxx the Reyenci/s l>.an<l, 1 
will not take to them as 1 have to these, hut I thought 
myself obliged to do a good deal to recover the good 
graces of the Fleet, which I believe I lost by my not 
letting Mr. Martin protect and vxxixt tie Great Du.h' 
of y ortd Itis Territories and fJiat important 
Citij of Leghorn, when there was no occasion for it. 
. . . I forgot to tell you the finest part of all, which 
was that we went to the Camp dans mon attellage, 
the harness of which only was my own.' 

'Poor M. Chute pays dear for the small liberties he 
took during their stay here, in drinking one little glass 
of rich wine at each meal, and now is forced to turn 
more rigorously to the Turncps and water, in hopes of 
driving awav the gout the above excesses brought 

o o o 

upon him. He is not, however, very bad.' 

November 20/A. ' \\ e are forced to go oftener 
to Prince Cra oil's than we chuse. He torments us to 
plav at Quadrille-niediateiir, which is become the most 
fashionable game at the Court of Florence, and has 
banished all other games. Prince Craon literally 
plays from morning to night. The Princess still 
Clicks to Ombre and Autiuori.' 

Xorcmlx'i' 2<>///. 'Al. de Than writes word that 
great preparations are making for the departure of the 
Pretender's elder sun to France, and that the Pope 
is to furnish money for it. I own 1 can (not) 'believe 


ii word of all tliis, us the present occasiou does not 
seem at all favourable especially for the Pope to bear 
the expense.' 

November 27th. ' I told you all my Captains were 
gone, but I did not tell you half their absurdities. 
Others are come, quite as bad, and I have to teach them 
what Neutralities are. Those I had with me went away 
amaestrati, as I would wish, and have changed their 
tone. One of them, on the arrival of more ships said 
to Goldworthy, that he could not conceive the mean- 
ing of the Admiral's sending so many ships up, as he 
must be convinced 3 instead of 7 that were at Leg- 
horn were sufficient for that service (for the security 
of the Merchants only, which was the only one 
to be considered till the Great Duke should ask 
for assistance), and that he could not conceive where 
he had his intelligence ; which piques my friend so 
much that he said, neither the Great Duke's Regency 
nor any one else at Florence (meaning me) was a 
judge of the danger Tuscany was in. To which the 
Captain replied that Goldworthy must excuse him if 
he couldn't be persuaded that he (Goldworthy) was 
the only wise man in Tuscany. Was ever any thing 
so silly; to support so ill the alarms which II Furi- 
bondo puts hi his despatches ! What must you think 
of the other, to be thus alarmed and not to see that this 
creature has his own private interests in causing many 
ships to remain there, in order that he may furnish 
more beef and peas, etc., by which his profit was 


November 27th. ' Lord Forrester who carried the 

last money for the Queen ' (of Hungary) ' to Trieste, 

12S ROYAL H1FTX. 1742. 

went from thence to Vienna, where, you will imagine, 
he was well received. She made him a present of a 
cristal snuff-box, very rich with jewels ; and to the 
officer who accompanied him a diamond ring. Eiche- 
court's brother, who has latdv been sent to Berlin, 
carried the Queen's picture richly adorned with dia- 
monds to her Plenipotentiary, Lord Ilyndford, to 
whom we hear the King of Prussia has given a fine set 
of plate, and the eagle to put into his arms; with 
"Pro bene merito," for its'motto. Surely Mr. Eobinsoii 
deserves a good deal, as his task was the hardest to 
persuade the Queen t> give up all Silesia instead of 
about half of it that the King of Prussia asked only, 
about a year ago.' 

December \Stlt. 'The Great Duke has sent his 
absolute orders to General Braitwitz to march, and a 
strong " miramur ' that he had not done so before ; so 
that in blind obedience to his orders which he supposes 
were planned by Kichecourt, he sets out for Firen- 
zuola in a day or two, and will have with him, if his 
men choose to stay, about ooUO: the rest are quartered 
in different places on the mountains, equally advan- 
tageous to desert from. . . . \Ve shall see what it all 
ends in ; desertion, I believe, and the increase of 31. de 
Gages' army. The above orders were given to protect 
Tuscany from a suspected design on the part of the 
Spaniards, to lireak the neiitralitv by an invasion of 
the duchy. Braitwitz, however, declined to obey com- 
mands which would bring on the verv evils for pre- 
venting which thev were issued.' 

December \\f//. 'I was deprived of the pleasure 
of writing to you last post by a violent head-ache, 

1742. COLD CEREMONY. 129 

which I caught at the Princess's the night before. This 
is a tax I constantly pay for going there now 'tis so 
excessively cold. They carry on the same foolish whim 
of not permitting any fire in any part of the house, 
and as I am not muffled up like them, it is impossible 
to resist, after having been used to my good room with 
carpets and fire at home. I must tell you the garb of 
the poor Prince who has done all he can to procure a 
little warmth. He sits in a great rug, horseman's coat, 
and about his arms has literally sleeves made out of 
Doncaster stockings which, for finery, are tipped with 
silk, the better to join with cotton mittens, which are 
sewed on. The Princess shivers under fur tippets, 
short cloaks, and a horrid thing she calls ma capuche, 
which gives her the air of a Capuchin. I told her 
t'other day that I was convinced her ails proceeded from 
her pores being constantly shut, and the perspiration 
hindered, except when she is in bed, which she takes 
to, much of late, to be warm and to shew her pretty 
appartment. The Prince came to see me when I was 
ill, and the cause was much enlarged on by de Sade, 
so that I do not despair of raising a flame, otherwise 
I must totally abstain going there the evenings.' 

December llth. 'A most important affair has 
happened to one I interested myself for, by order of 
Lord Harrington, and for whom I had the Great Duke's 
promise a long while ago, that he would show all regard 
to that recommendation. The person I am speaking 
of is Marquis Nomis, whom, I believe, you knew ; 
whose mother is Madame Bothmar of Hanover. This 
is a sufficient key to the recommendation. He, some- 
time ago, very foolishly engaged himself by writing 

VOL. I. K 

130 A QUARREL. 1742. 

and all the outward functions of a Sposo in this 
country, to marry the eldest Franchini ; and, after 
having exhibited himself with her in this light, at 
all the publick places, for several months, he repented 
of his folly, and in order to get off, has drawn himself 
into a much worse scrape, if possible, (though they must 
have starved together). He retired to his regiment at 
Leghorn, hoping to drop his Sposa ; and, though 
called upon very frequently by her brother, a young 
fellow about Nomis' age, did not chuse to answer 
any of his letters. The brother, knowing that when 
he was thus surrounded by his officers, nothing was to 
be done, waited till the troops came here, and then 
began his stronger application in person and by 
letter, but these being rendered ineffectual, Fran- 
chini resolved to wait in the street, to meet him and 
demand satisfaction. This likewise was difficult to 
execute, as Nomis was apprized of it, and always took 
care to be in company with his officers and in a coach. 
However, about a fortnight ago, Franchini stopped his 
coach when in company with Monsr. Vincent (whom 
the Primate ruined, you will remember him.) The 
latter got out only, and told Franchini that if he 
had any quarrel with his friend, he would answer 
it. T'other replied, he had an affair of consequence 
to settle with Nomis, protesting he had no quarrel 
with Vincent, but that, however, if he obliged him 
to it, he was ready to give him what satisfaction he 
pleased, and so drew his sword. On which Vincent 
put up his, and returned to the coach, saying that was 
not a proper place (Ponte di S ta> Trinita). Franchini 
had time to abuse Nomis extremely, to challenge him 


arid bid him appoint a place to fight, but they drove 
off. The affair soon made much noise, and all the 
officers were in an uproar against Franchini, who was 
forced to retire to Bologna. 

' In the mean time, Nomis caused a writing to be 
published, wherein he asserted that, as an officer and 
Christian he could not fight ; with all the foolish 
arguments the latter character could dictate. If they 
kick thy right side turn thy left also ! However, this 
supported him among his officers, as his adversary was 
fled, and afterwards banished by the Government for 
not obeying their summons to return ; but a pompous 
writing, drawn up by Abb^ Buonacorsi, turned the 
tables quite. Franchini exposes in this, the reciprocal 
promise of marriage between Nomis and his sister, 
underwritten by both ; then he lays open the whole 
proceedings, the necessity he was under, as a Cavaliere, 
to call Nomis to account in this manner ; appeals to 
all the officers as men of honour, and he concludes by 
telling them that their honour cannot permit them to 
serve with one so vile, etc. 

' This writing being penned with a great deal of 
eloquence, and, they say, truth, as witnesses were 
quoted for every article, no objection was made to it, 
and the officers began to consult how to behave. They 
all agreed Franchini was in the right, and Nomis 
had an intimation he must resign his commission, 
which he has done, and has resolved to cover all the 
infamy he has contracted, under the habit of a Priest ! 
The good fight of Faith will not expose him to such 
dangers as the point of Franchini's sword ! . . . He 
is quite ruined by this accident.' 


Walpole's remark on this, written in his letter of 
January 8th, 1743, is, 'What an infamous story that 
affair of Nomis is ; and how different the ideas of 
honour among officers in your world and ours.' 

December llth. 'Two important matters have 
lately so fell out as to shock the whole formidable body 
of Cicisbeos. The Vernaci, noted for many exploits 
both in her youth and riper years, you may recollect 
the affair between her and Crudeli, and to what strange 
offices she obliged him, and which ended in the total 
interruption of his former amusements and obliged 
him to abandon her, has been attended of late by 
Cavalieri Pitti and Garvi ; and, through her husband's 
retiring for good to his villa, she has had all the 
opportunities to do as she pleased. But lo ! some 
secret complaints reached the ears of the solemn 
interrupters of honest folks' pleasures, and when she 
least expected it, a chair, one dark night was carried 
to her door, into which she was forced to get, in order 
to be conducted to a place called Le Male Maritate, 
where she is like to spend the remainder of her time. 
How shall I describe to you the tears, the anxieties, 
and the rabbia of the bella Vernaci ? 

' I come now to the second matter. You have seen 
the Senator Guadagni and the bella Pucci bill and 
coo, and make believe they had great joy in so doing. 
But here again somebody has been busy with odious 
complaints, which proved successful! Madame re- 
ceived a terrible order to remain at her villa, and the 
Senator, with equal authority, was forbid going near 
her. For my part, I cannot tell what it all tends to, 
for to pretend that the ladies will or do care for their 

1742. 8P08I E SPOSE. 133 

indifferent husbands is ridiculous ; and to suppose 
that the many young fellows (who by the custom of 
the country have no other provision for them but the 
tables of the one single chief of each family) should 
not make love to them, is equally absurd. The con- 
sternation is at present, however, great. Nothing but 
a Carnival can set all to rights again. Well, this is 
near, and our hopes rise as it approaches. No matter 
what opera ; the theaters will be open and masks per- 
mitted, and so we bid defiance to all.' 

' I figure/ wrote Walpole in his reply, ' a parcel 
of lovers who have so many things to dread ; the 
government in this world ! Purgatory in the next ! 
inquisitions, villegiaturas, convents, etc.' 

December 18th. ' All the news that I have to tell 
you of your acquaintance is that the Sposa Panciatici 
(Corsi) was brought to bed of a son t'other day, to the 
great joy of the congiunti. You know 'tis the custom 
here to make the women presents on such occasions 
quando ci sono portate bene. Her father, Marchese 
Corsi, gave her a hundred zechins ; her mother, forty 
braces of velvet ; her own husband, for so soon bring- 
ing an heir to his family, 80 zee ; and your friend the 
Cavaliere de Malta Panciatici, 35 zee. ; the latter, I 
think, might have been excused, as it is hard a man 
should give his sister in law a present for having 
excluded him from all hopes of succession. Young 
Marquis Corsi is declared Sposo to a daughter of the 
Princess Corsini at Eome, for which place he was 
preparing to set out, but was prevented by the meazles. 
The Cardinal made this match when he was this last 
summer in Tuscany, There was a violent Christening 


last Friday, for the young Panciatici. The excessive 
rains prevented my going ; however, all the town was 
there, and was drowned.' 

December 18th. 'It is now thought the Vernaci 
will be got out of the Male Maritate. Her husband 
has presented a memorial to the Regency, setting forth 
that he was a mighty fool for desiring her to be put 
in. ... The Pucci's husband is not tired yet of 
living with her in the country, nor is yet persuaded 
that he was mistaken.' 

December 18th. 'The Princess has a thousand 
ails, and never gets up but at 12 at night to sup by 
her bed's side. Madame Sarasin is extreme tired of all 
this, but creeps out sometimes to get two or three 
rounds at Quadril-Mediateur. There's a great reform 
in the family. The Prince has farmed out his Table. 
When I go there, the fine cook commonly asks me if I 
stay supper ? to which I always say No, so that none 
is provided.' 

While Mann was repeatedly accusing the British 
Consul at Leghorn of meanness, avarice, and disregard 
of his country's interests, he was under considerable 
anxiety lest the political changes at home should drive 
him from his ministerial post, at the Grand Ducal 
Court in the capital of Tuscany. When his mind was 
more at ease on this point, our Envoy became very 
eager for increase of his salary. Walpole sympathized 
with him, and Mann, stimulated by the sympathy, sat 
down and had the impudent audacity to address the 
following astounding lines to his correspondent. 

'Your advice about the Captains has determined 
me to impart to you a thought that is come into my 


head which shall be nothing till I receive your appro- 
bation. Mr. Chute approves of it and would remove 
my scruples on your account; for my own part, I have 
not got over them quite. 

' You know that though I have no particular 
reason to believe that the Duke of Newcastle' 
(Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs) 'is not my 
friend, yet I cannot brag of having any certainty 
of the contrary. . . . Now, I have been thinking 
whether it might be improper to endeavour to obtain 
the Duke's permission to send him any thing. Let 
me speak out. I mean your fine coffee-pot. The 
only objection, after bringing myself to part with any- 
thing that came from you, is the intrinsick value to 
one like him. But I might give it this turn, in order 
to waive that objection, and call it a peice of fine 
sculpture by Benvenuto Cellini or John Bologna, 
saved from the general meltings. The thing in itself 
can fit nobody better than the person I am speaking 
of, and if it were to be done, one of my brothers 
might, in the stile above mentioned, go there and ask 
leave. Do you think it could offend, or, do you think 
it proper ? You know the nature of things at present. 
If the Duke could be pleased, it's right to do any- 
thing, for even his indifference might be highly 
prejudicial to me, and it would not be at all surprising 
in the present circumstances if some one or other 
should try for my post. My dear Child, answer 
this thought, if you disapprove it ; and in case you do 
not give my brother directions how to execute it pro- 
perly out of hand, I shall be impatient for your answer, 
which shall determine me how to act.' 


Walpole was not shocked at the idea of bribing a 
Minister with the silver coffee-pot he had given to 
Mann, he only thought it would be fruitless, and that 
the Minister could not be deceived by the He that was 
to make it pass for the workmanship of Cellini or 
Giovanni di Bologna. ' In the first place/ wrote 
Walpole, January 6th, 1743, 'I never heard a sus- 
picion of the Duke's taking presents ; and should 
think he would rather be affronted. In the next 
place, my dear child, though you are fond of that 
coffee-pot, it would be thought nothing among such 
wardrobes as he has of the finest wrought plates. 
Why, he has a set of gold plates that would make a 
figure on any side-board of the Arabian Tales ; and as 
for Benvenuto Cellini, if the Duke could take it for 
his, people in England understand all work too well to 
be deceived. Lastly, as there has been no talk of 
alterations in the foreign ministers, why should you 
be apprehensive ? ' 

But, if a Secretary of State was not to be bribed, 
the Secretary's secretary might be. ' As to Stone,' 
(says Walpole) 'if anything was done, to be sure it 
should be to him, though I really can't advise even 
that : by no means think of the Duke.' 

1743. THEATRES. 137 


January 1st. ' Our Carnival began last Wednesday 
with the very worst Opera in the Via della Pergola 
that ever was heard. " Andromache " is its name, 
personated by the Bagnolese in a black velvet gown 
covered with bugles. Andriani is our first man, 
very bad in my opinion ; all the rest are worse still. 
The second night, they took but 17 tickets at the 
door, though Ridolfi undertook this on condition there 
should be no other Opera in the town, which was 
granted ; so that in the Via del Cucumero, there is 
a most horrid representation of " Agamemnon " in 
prose 1 Judge what it can be by people who never 
acted before in their lives. The translation is abomin- 
able, and indeed the story so old and out of fashion 
that one can't bear it. Lady Walpole was a great 
promoter of these tragedies, where, she says, noble 
sentiments are not disguised by horrid musick ! 'tis 
such affectation that makes one sick. 

' The weather is colder than ever I knew ; though 
I write by the fire-side I am so benumbed that I can 
hardly form any letters ; 'tis incredible what one 
suffers abroad at nights, tho' my box, the famous one 

138 ITALIAN FEVER. 1743. 

of Count Bichecourt, is so lined and matted that no 
air can penetrate but from the front.' 

January 6th. 'My constant attendance upon, 
first Mr. Chute and then Mr. Whithed, who have been 
ill of the common fever, prevented me writing to you 
by the last post. It's quite shocking to hear how 
many people are ill of this disorder all over Italy ; 
many dye ; a person who returned a few days ago 
with Ginori, from Vienna, died twenty four hours 
after. The poor sickly Countess Guicciardini went off 
yesterday. The Count must marry again, having no 
Heir to a very great Estate which, otherwise, goes to 
the Certosi. We want him much to take the Teresina, 
who is as likely as any girl in Florence to bring him an 
heir in nine months ; neither would we have him 
observe the common rules of decency, as the Vittorina, 
her sister, is in great haste to be married. Marquis 
Malinari of Milan, a young man of 1 8, almost as big 
as Sinisani, has made his addresses to the latter for 
some time, and has declared that he will never marry 
any one else ; he is said to have of his own 1 8 
thousand zecchins a year. His uncle is Vice-Legate of 
Bologna, and very rich too, which must in the end 
come to Vittorina's children. Things are so forward 
that Madame Suares tells me, they waited only for 
the last answer from the Legate to conclude and con- 
summate in this very Carnival ; but then again they 
are all melancholy about the poor disconsolate Tere- 
sina, who bears it extreme well, but has once declared 
she will go into a convent, though they are in hopes it 
was only a little melancholly passing thought. The 
Brother's answer and consent ought to have been here 

1743. THE DOWAGEE ELECTEE 88. 139 

some time ago, and I must own I do not like the 
delay. It looks as if somebody had been busy to 
prevent it, but the excuse is, the Vice-Legate being ill. 

' The Electress is much out of order again. She 
has a fever with an oppression upon her breast, and a 
sore leg. People don't seem to apprehend her to be in 
any immediate danger, but as she is of late so much 
decayed, many fear she won't get on this winter. She 
has been a good deal touched with the news of the 
death of the Elector Palatine, which was announced 
to her two days ago, not for any love she had for him, 
but by the reflection, I suppose, that an Electress may 
dye too. The Emperor is said to be very ill with a 
Goute remontee and the stone. What alterations his 
death would make ! I fancy, France, at present, 
would hardly make a second Emperor. 

' I have not been at any of the Theaters all this 
week, but they tell me they are totally deserted. The 
Via della Pergola took five tickets last night. Masks 
begin to go about the streets in the afternoon, but no 
permission for their admittance into the Theaters, nor 
like to be. The Count doesn't like Rudolfi ever since 
the affair of my box, and the depriving him of masks 
is the most essential way to mortify him and chastize 
his purse ; besides, they would not now disoblige the 
Electress, who will be most extraordinarily devout. 
Ginori brought her a present from the Queen of Hun- 
gary of a large pocket bottle for Hungary water, of 
lapis Lazuoli, adorned with jewels ; the outer case was 
varnish of the Queen's own doing. 

'. . . I have had a little return of my fever, but 
am now totally well again, and have got over it with- 

140 COLD COMFORT. 1743. 

out bleeding, by resolving so to do ; as such an opera- 
tion weakens me immoderately. General Braitwitz is 
in a bad way with this universal fever ; he returned 
from Leghorn on Saturday night at two hours, and has 
been very ill ever since. . . . Mr. Chute and Whithed 
are just come in. I had not seen them for three days, 
as the weather was too bad for them to come out after 
their disorder, and I not well enough to go to them. 
It is a monstrous sickly time ; half the town has 

January 7th. ' I caught my indisposition by a 
debauch with Madame Sarasin, and over fatigue. 
The poor devil whom everybody abandons, has no 
resource but in us ; the moment we enter Prince 
Craon's, she seizes us for a bit of Quadrille Mediateur, 
which she sees playing all round the room without 
being admitted into any partie. In short, she lost 
vastly, and would play it out after supper, so we sat 
till 8 hours ; it was the first time I had been there in a 
fortnight, and was the last that I will stay supper this 
winter ; we are so much better at home, so warm and 
comfortable, such good apples, and so little to eat 
that one's sure of not being -ill. The Chutes are quite 
of my mind ; though he, poor thing, eats nothing but 
milk to keep the gout under.' 

'. . . Viviani, who escaped to the Spaniards as 
soon as they came into Italy, on a full persuasion that 
they were to be masters of Tuscany, has been some 
time at Madrid, where he has had the honour to be 
Italian master to Don Louis and his sisters, and has 
made great interest to be appointed the King of 
Spain's minister to the Great Duke, being fearful 

1743. A DUEL. 141 

to return without a character to protect him, but has 
not been able to obtain it, so remains in Spain still.' 

January 7th. 'Two of our young nobles, Marquis 
Bagnesi aud Strozzi, have fought a duel about a debt 
of fifteen shillings. The latter, the creditor and occa- 
sion of the fight, behaved ill ; indeed he did not think 
it would go so far, and when called upon by the 
former, said, the affair was settled by his having 
applied to his father, to which Bagnesi replied, " I may 
ask my father's blessing, but not his counsel on an 
affair of honour," so that he forced his antagonist to 
draw, which he did, but instead of passing or defend- 
ing himself, he waved his sword in the air, and 
wheeled about so often that his back was as often 
turned round towards Bagnesi as his face. Lucky 
for him if he had stuck to this way, by which he 
might have come off with a prick in his noble hinder 
part, instead of a cut in his lip which has divided it. 
This was done by accident in the scuffling when 
Bagnesi wrested the sword out of his hand. It was 
immediately sewed up, but as often breaks out as he 
attempts to speak, to recount his bravery. 

'Our Opera is as unfrequented as your's can be, 
and Iphigenia, in the little house, totally abandoned. 
The Bagnolesi is highly offended with the town for 
not liking her, and, what both Bidolfi and she piqued 
themselves upon, her cloathes ; to ridicule which, a great 
Beffana, on Epiphany Day, dressed exactly like her, was 
carried all over the town with a concert of horns. You 
must remember what an abominable noise there is 
here on that day. The Electress chose that day to go 
out for the first time after her confinement, and told 


Prince Craon that the Beffane all went abroad on that 

' I have been interrupted by the receipt of a letter 
from the Prince, to tell me that he is under the most 
pressing necessity for 200 zecchini, and he so conjured 
me to lend him that sum, that though I had it not, I 
could not say no ! Mr. Whithed has very kindly fur- 
nished me with it. The prince talks in his letter of 
pawning his jewels and plate. I am afraid a great 
part must be sold to pay off" his debts. I am sorry for 
him, but 'tis cruel to put one to such inconveniences.' 

January 29th. ' Everybody's curiosity is carried 
to the highest degree, and all arts put in practice to 
discover who a great person is who is supposed to be 
on board a man-of-war at Leghorn, which furnishes 
great speculation for the Politicians there. Four 
persons are named for the stranger, the King of 
Sardinia, King Theodore, Admiral Matthews, and who 
do you think else ? why, Sir Robert Walpole ! and do 
you know that many for a while seemed persuaded of 
it ? The second, however, is generally believed to be 
the person. His Corsican subjects at Leghorn make 
no secret of owning that they have expected him above 
a month, and among our folks at Leghorn, the secret I 
believe has been ill kept, though most religiously from 
me. Our Consul ' (Gold worthy) ' seems to have hugged 
himself with it, and to have indulged the pleasure 
many have alone in knowing a secret, that of telling 
it, though in great confidence, to everybody. . . . 'Tis 
undoubtedly his Corsican Majesty, whose affairs I 
greatly fear may suffer by being discovered. Don't 
mention it, my dear, however, in England, as it would 

1743. A POOR RICH MAN. 143 

be known to come from me. There was not an English 
Giovanni di Barco to whom it was not whispered, but 
such art used by Goldworthy to conceal it from me, 
that was quite impertinent. 

' The epidemic colds encrease much ; poor Rosso 
Strozzi died of one, two days ago. The instant he 
was taken ill, he was persuaded he should dye, and 
refused to see anybody ; even my neighbour, Anna 
Frescobaldi, his Cicisbea of 30 years standing was 
forbid. He was so poor (chiefly by mismanagement, 
for he had 5000 crowns a year) that during his illness, 
his servants were forced to send to his acquaintance, 
for shirts and sheets for him to change. Every crea- 
ture is sorry for his death, except his Heirs and his 
horses. Of the latter, he had always a great many 
in his stables, but seldom anything for them to eat. 
They now will probably fall into hands that will feed 
them. The former, very distant relations (for the 
great branch of the great Strozzi family is now ex- 
tinct) will inherit near a hundred and fifty thousand 
crowns, and the poor creature managed so ill, that 
litteraly, in his great house and appearance of so much 
state, was starving. A great employment or office is 
by his death become vacant at our Court, that of 
Great Master of the Ceremonies, and Introductor of 
Ambassadors. I don't hear who is talked of for it, 
but I intend to recommend Nunziato Baldocci who 
was his deputy. That poor creature was here some 
nights ago ; somebody was talking of Montemar, and 
said he always carried Caesar in his pocket, as a model 
of everything great in the military way. Nunziato 
did not comprehend anything of this, and in the 

144 THE INFLUENZA. 1743. 

greatest surprize, said, " Come, come ! Cesare in iasca ! 
Come, mai, Cesare in tasca ? " thinking even a bust 
of him would have been a troublesome pocket-piece ! 
Everybody was highly entertained with his mistake, 
and more at his astonishment when he found that 
" Caesar " was a book ! ' 

February 12th. ' We have strange melancholly 
doings here. Everybody is ill of the Influenza, and 
many dye, particularly among the poor people. Of 
the rich, or rather nobile, we lost in the last week, the 
Abbe Capponi who lived with the eldest Pandolfini, 
the promoter of all musical matters, and Count Pecori, 
my next door neighbour, the unkle of the young 
Count, Cicisbeo to the Pepi, who, last summer married 
Leopolda Peruzzi, out of spite to his nephew ; she is 
pittied by everybody. The Conderoli at Eome dye 
a-pace Pieri, Guadici, and Corradine went off lately. 
Many others are in an excessive tottering condition. 

' A courier passed by yesterday, for Rome, with 
the news of the death of Arch- Cardinal Fleuri, so 
that there are 22 hats vacant. The latter can be, I 
suppose, of little consequence now ; had he dyed a 
few years ago, it had been happy for many, but he 
lived to do all the mischief possible. Could he have 
attoned for it here below it would have been right, 
for it's difficult to guess how mortal transactions are 
understood out of mortal latitudes. I make no doubt 
but Tencin will work himself into his master's favour, 
notwithstanding his (the King's) declaration that his 
late nurse shall have no successor. If that should 
happen both his head and heart are capable of much 
mischief, and woe be to us as far as it may be in his 


power, to hurt us. Much caballing has been observed 
at Eome in proportion as the Cardinal drew near his 
end. Tencin is supposed to promise great matters to 
his Protector, whom he will now protect. 

' I told you in my last, Theodore was come on the 
stage again ; he set out to take possession of his throne 
about a week ago. He sent me the Edict that was 
to be published. . . . We have heard nothing of him 
since his departure.' 

February 18th. 'All our jollity is at an end, our 
Carnival overset and all the masking schemes dis- 
appointed ; the Electress died about* an hour ago ; the 
poor remains of the Medici is soon to join her ances- 
tors, I mean in the Chappel of Michel Angelo. The 
common people are convinced she went off in a hur- 
ricane of wind; a most violent one began this morning 
and lasted for about two hours, and now the sun 
shines as bright as ever, this is proof ; besides for a 
stronger, just the same thing happened when John 
Gaston (Medici) went off. Nothing can destroy this 
opinion which people think they have been eye- 
witnesses to. All the town is in tears, many with 
great reason, for the loss of her ; it is very visible, 
however, it would have affected many much less, had 
she staid tfll the beginning of Lent. Nobody appre- 
hended she was so near her end ; her courtiers were 
last night at the Opera. In the night she grew bad ; 
this morning at 16 took the sacrament and an hour 
after had the extreme unction. I am really sorry 
for the country ; there will be no more disputes about 
the Jewels ; nor will the Great Duke have anybody 
to dispute with him about anything he likes to do ; 

VOL. I. L 


what that will be everybody is impatient to see. 
Prince Ottavo de' Medici was likewise at the point 
of death, by the last accounts from Leghorn, where 
he had accompanied ' the Sani who was his favourite, 
and the first singer in that Opera. The death of the 
Electress employs the discourse of the whole town ; 
it has made us forget the Spaniards, but they who 
remember them think it is most fortunate they have 
been routed before the other happened, and 'tis hoped 
they are not in a condition to come here to make good 
their pretensions to her great inheritance. The instant 
she expired, the gates of the town were shut and not 
a creature permitted to go out, so that many hundred 
people from the country were obliged to stay in Flo- 
rence all last night, even the french courier was not 
permitted to go. These precautions were interpreted 
that the Spaniards might not be apprised of it. The 
guards were tripled in and about the palace, and last 
night late there was a Council what to do. I can't 
tell nor have yet heard any particulars about her 

February 18th. ( I have scratched out the odious 
name ' (Sasso Ferrato on the back of the alleged Dome- 
nichino) 'myself, so well that nobody can have the 
least suspicion ; so that on this account you may be 
quite at peace. Some fools of our country have been 
lately here, and when they were told to admire it, 
" Lord I " said they, " that is a fine picture indeed ; 
I have seen many Italian pictures, but none like that ; 
pray, Sir, what may it be worth ? " " Why, what do 
you think ?"--" Eeally, Sir, I am no good judge, but 
I should think at least 5 thousand pounds ; for Bri- 


gadier Guise has a small fine Italian picture in mina- 
ture of Carlo Maratti which, he says, cost him 1500 
pounds/' They dined here yesterday, and I disobliged 
a Parson violently by not inviting him to say grace. 
One of 'em being asked to eat beef, replied, " No, Sir, 
I thank you, I'll take a little of the chicken pye, 
because it's a greater rarity ; indeed it looks pure 
good." Then I gave them cofiy out of your Saxon 
cups which I was afraid they would break by their 
wonderfull care to avoid it. The Parson would not 
go to the Opera, because 'twas Sunday, and must now 
go to the fleet without hearing any Italian Opera, 
because there will be no more.' 

February 25th. ' I have been assured that there 
were six authentick copies of the Electress's will, some 
say more ; that one of them was deposited at Eome, 
and others in different hands ; one was delivered to 
her Executors, who are four Senators, D'Alberazino, 
Mignati, Compagni, and Queratori, who have yearly 
pensions assigned them of 120 crowns ; all her Cour- 
tiers and Servants are to have their salaries for life ; 
to pay which, a considerable sum of money was 
deposited in the bank of Sta. Maria Nuova, Marquis 
Kiuuncini (the father) has 600 crowns for life, besides 
which he has a much larger income from a former 
agreement made with Cardinal Albani, by which the 
Electress gave up her pretentious to some Church 
lands in the State of Urbino, in consideration of a 
yearly pension of about 2000 crowns to her and, 
after her death, to whom she should name, and 
this was Rinuncini . . . besides this, he has a con- 
siderable legacy of rich furniture ; they say, a silver 


table, two silver stands, two sconces, and one of those 
magnificent glasses with a silver frame which you may 
have seen in her Audience Eoom. Young Rinuncini 
has 300 crowns, for life, yearly, and half her china, 
the other half to Coroni ; Tornaquerci, the same pen- 
sion for life. Marquis Guadagni, ' the Great Master/ 
Siristori, the father, and Bardi, have all, besides their 
salaries, very rich presents in silver. Madame Uguc- 
eioni's share, 'tis said, will be very great. You know, 
she was her Great Mistress ; she has the spoglie of 
a particular room in which, besides many things of 
value, were pieces of velvet brocade, linnen etc., etc., 
to the value of 10,000 crowns; and they talk of a 
Toilette, partly of gold, all which, the son believes, was 
purposely put into a large stone box. Her ladies of 
honour have presents and the usual fortune in case of 
marriage. I should have mentioned the Great Duke, 
first, as He is the most considerable gainer by her 
death. She leaves to him as Great Duke, most of 
her Jewels, annexing them to those of the State, with 
which they are to descend ; they were valued some 
time ago at a million and a half of crowns, but it is 
very probable the Jeweller thought to make his court 
to her by so high an estimation which in Sterling 
would be 375 thousand pounds. They were her 
own wearing Jewels. He is heir to a thousand other 
things, but what will displease extremely is the naming 
of a Medici of the Via Larga, her nearest relation, one 
of whom she took no notice nor acknowledged in her 
life time ; a person very obscure and no more than 
a Commissary at Prato ; to him, as her piu prvssvmo 
Agnato, she has left in money, 30,000 crowns, and 

1743. BEQUESTS. 149 

as people to whom pensions are given, dye off, they 
are to be given to him, till the sum is made up to 
100,000 crowns. The money, in all probability, will 
not give so much uneasiness as the declaration above, 
which in times more troublesome would give him 
pretensions to more. She has left presents in jewels 
to the Queen of Hungary, Prince Charles, and they 
say to several Princes of Germany ; but the principal 
legacy is to the Prince of Salzbach, present Elector 
Palatine, which is very considerable. The Pope is 
to have a Picture, they say that of Solomeni with 
the fine silver frame. 

' The Count (Bichecourt) had a commission (dated 
1738) from the Great Duke to act for him, in case of 
her death, on the strength of which he would be 
present at everything, and sealed up all the doors of 
her appartments and cabinets, so that nothing is to be 
done but burying her, till the Great Duke sends orders. 
. . . Mr. Chute says he is very glad she left him 
nothing as he should despair of getting it. She was so 
much set upon finishing the Chappel of St. Laurence, 
of late years, and has spent such large sums about it, 
that people were astonished she left nothing for carry- 
ing the work on ; she only leaves 50 crowns a year 
for taking care of it, and recommends the finishing of 
it to the Great Duke. The workmen were all turned 
off the day after her death. I have been assured that 
she was at 1000 crowns a week expence on the build- 
ing. People who pretend to know, assert that for a 
considerable time past, she has given in charities 1000 
zecchins a month, and it is well known, the be- 
ginning of her illness, that in one month she distributed 

150 LEGACIES. 1743. 

9000 zecchins. I don't hear she has left anything to 
the poor, for which they are all in despair, and are 
firmly persuaded that the Devil came for her in the 
Tetnporale which happened so suddenly at the time of 
death and ended with it. She certainly did not ex- 
pect to dye so soon, nor did anybody else. The fryday 
before the monday she dyed, she was so tollerably well 
that the Physicians made her encrease her diet, and 
she told Mgr. Uggucioni that she was perfectly easy. 
On the Sunday night she had a more than usual 
oppression on her breast, for which they blooded her, 
and to which many attribute her death. On the mon- 
day morning, her Confessor by a stratagem was carried 
to her, for she would not have him sent for, and about 
17 hours, he was bid tell her she must soon dye, to 
which she answered by asking him with some emotion, 
"Who told you so?" he said: "her physicians." 
" Very well, then let us do what there is to be done ; 
and do it quickly." So they brought her the com- 
munion. She afterwards made a Codicile to her will, 
but could not sign it ; but 3 people and a lawyer 
attached what she ordered. She was sensible to the 
last, but did not speak for about an hour and a half 
before she died. Primer Ottavo de' Medici died at 
Leghorn about 12 hours before her. She had left him 
a large diamond ring ; he is acknowledged in her will, 
in the 3rd degree of Relation. He always pretended 
to be the first. The Codicile she made to her will was 
to give to the present Elector Palatine what she had 
before left to the late Elector. Tis said about the 
town that there's a legacy for il Re d' AngMterra, but 
I am afraid it is for one she calls so, at Rome ; but I 

1743. THE FUNERAL. 151 

have not thought proper to make any enquiries for it 
yet. Her orders were, not to be embalmed, but they 
were interpreted as being given out of modesty only, 
and so not complied with. She has lain in state in the 
great hall of the palace since thursday morning and is 
to be buried to-night, Saturday, of which 111 add more 
when I have seen it, for which purpose I am going to 
Madame Suares's with a train of English. 

' Sunday morning. There was nothing extra- 
ordinary in the funeral last night. All the magnifi- 
cence consisted in a prodigious number of torches 
carried by the different orders of priests, the expense 
of which in lights, they say, amounted to 12 thousand 
crowns. The body was in a sort of a Coach quite 
open, with a Canopy over her head ; two other coaches 
followed with her ladies ; as soon as the procession was 
passed by Madame Suares's, I went a back way to St. 
Laurence where I had been invited by the Master of 
the Ceremonies ; here was nothing very particular but 
my being placed next to Lady Walpole, who is so 
angry with me that she would not even give me the 
opportunity of making her a bow, which for the future, 
since I see it will be disagreeable to her, I will never 
offer to do again. 

'I was last night at the Princess's for an hour, 
where I have not been for a month. . . . She was epuisee 
to the greatest degree, having as Madame Sarasin told 
me "une maladie qui la fait trotter beaucoup." . . . 
Her enquiries after you were infinitely great in pro- 
portion to her strength. By degrees, I got out of the 
Prince, a certainty about the legacy I mentioned for 
il Re, 'tis as I expected, but mind with what delicacy 

152 THE MEDICI. 1743. 

and circumspection a Eing " for the Prince, son of 
King James the Second of England." 

March 5th. ' Whether the greatest part of the 
will will ever be executed we are still to learn, every- 
thing being suspended till the arrival of orders from 
Vienna. Some people have taken great liberties about 
the matter, supposing the value of the legacies being 
an impediment to their being complied with. Others, 
Kichecourt, etc., pretend to have discovered by great 
calculation that, after all is complied with, the person 
who ought to have inherited all, will have but nineteen 
crowns a year left ; but everybody does not allow this 
calculation to be just, and pretend to prove by what is 
visible in the publick funds here, that in money there 
alone, she had near two millions, and that the legacies 
in money are very inconsiderable in proportion. That 
to her Agnato, in money, jewels, and plate, will amount, 
they say, to 150,000 crowns. 

'What unaccountable people these Medici have 
been. The Electress acknowledges her Relations after 
her death, and Princess Eleanora's children are her 
husband's ! 

'We should have more amusement during Lent 
than we had in the Carnival. Filippo Medici, who 
was almost ruined by his cousin's death, being Im- 
presario for the little Theatre, has now begun an 
Accademia in a large room close to it, where I find it 
will be greatly the fashion to go. He said publickly 
there on Monday night : " The Electress hated masks 
so heartily that she died on purpose to put a stop to 
them ! " and afterwards, "By such a step she found 
the only means to make the House of Medici weep!" 

1743. A DUEL. 153 

It was vastly applauded, but you must know he is not 
the least related to her family. . . . Everything goes 
on as usual except that Prince Craon shuns me now 
I am his creditor.' 

March 12th. ' Instead of notice to go into mourn- 
ing for the Electress, I have received a notice from 
Nunziato Balducci (deputy to Kesso Strozzi) that 
here is to be Gala to-morrow for the Arch-Duke's 

March 12th. 'Your Princess Elisabetta's brother, 
Gigi, has fought with a Lorraine officer ; the latter was 
the aggressor. They both behaved well. Gigi was 
wounded . . . and the sword then pierced his thigh. 
He bled much but would not leave off, it being said 
that his own blood could not wash out the affront he 
had received, so fought on till he had wounded his 
adversary in the hand ; then, there being blood on 
both sides, they kissed and went home to bed, where 
Gigi remains still under the surgeon's hands.' 

March 12th. ' Cardinal Colonna died suddenly 
last week. His death makes a vacancy of 24 Hats. 
People are extreme angry the Pope won't make a 
promotion, as 24 little courts are suppressed at Rome, 
to the great prejudice of many that want to be em- 
ployed in them.' 

March 12th. ' Ginori has pressed me much to write 
to you about some tea seed which he hears, is to be 
procured in England, and he believes in the Botanick 
Gardens at Chelsea. If you could get a small quan- 
tity of it pray send it me with directions about planting 
it, or any other curious Exotick. He is mad after 
these things, has a place tollerably well furnished with 

154 KING TEEODOEE. 1743. 

them and is at great expence in raising them as well a* 
his China. He talks to me much about Cobolt and 
Zingho (sic) two minerals which, he says, are found in 
England, and which would be vastly useful to him in 
composing the colours for the painting his China. He 
will make me a present of some with my arms. How 
it will turn out I can't tell, for I have seen none veiy 
good yet, except the miniature painting on it which is 
extreme good. He has all sorts of workmen from 

March 19th ( The Mystery ' (King Theodore of 
Corsica) ' has come to Florence. I had a mysterious 
conference with it, last night. The Chutes were shut 
into the other apartment for four hours, and I am 
going to it, in a cloak, on foot, whilst they go to the 
Accademy, as soon as it is dark.' 

' Monday morning : I was last night for four hours 
in private with this Ghost. Did you hear that it was 
uncle to Lady Yarmouth ? It has talked to me of all 
its adventures, and strange they are. Lord Carteret 
is his great friend, but Lord Orford, he says, was the 
most attached to him, and interested for the sake of 
his affairs. You might tell him these things and 
know how far he concerned himself in them. I am 
quite at a loss how to behave, as I have had no orders 
at all. I wrote to Lord Carteret, to inclose a letter 
from the Mystery, (which call in your list, 20, and its 
tomb (Corsica-&Vcoc,) 60. We studied together the 
science of Gatimoncilia and travelled so far in the 
pais des desirs that you will soon be au fait of 
Siracoc. The affair seems to have been mismanaged 
by the underlings of the Fleet, if it be true that the 

1743. NAVAL BATTLE. 155 

King, Lord Carteret, and the Duke of Newcastle gave 
such possitive orders about it. II Furibondo has been 
wrote to again, but in the mean time, King Theodore 
is upon our hands, and we are equally embroiled as 
there is nothing can be kept secret. Strange com- 
plaints from him of my neighbour Goldworthy, his 
(Theodore's) letters opened, others detained, etc. I am 
quite sorry. I don't know how far the English Court 
is engaged in all these matters.' 

March 19th. 'I must tell you our feats at sea. 
You may have heard there was a large Spanish ship, 
the St. Isidore, disabled in a Port in Corsica, on which 
we have had an eye for a long time, and it was 
doomed to be destroyed. A little time ago four ships 
and a fire ship were sent thither for that purpose. 
The Captain of the St. Isidore, seeing there was no 
redemption, saved our folks the trouble of destroying 
her, he first fired all his guns against our ships and 
then set fire to all the combustible matter he had 
prepared, which in a very short time made her sink 
so suddenly that 72 Spaniards were burnt or drowned. 
Two men on board the Eevenge lost each an arm. At 
the same time we heard about this we were likewise 
informed that one of our ships which cruize about 
Genoa, took the felucca which was crossing over with 
the standards and the half kettle drums that the 
Spaniards picked up in the late engagement, and 
which were carrying to Spain as trophies of what 
they call their victory at Buon Porto.' 

March 19th. 'My brother writes me word, our 
father is as well as ever, so I find he will not be our 
father which art in Heaven. My letter, which you 

156 KING THEODORE. 1743. 

saw, produced the effect I foresaw, a most violent fit 
of passion and abuse ; he has never made me any 
answer, so I find he has quite abandoned me. I have 
wrote to my mother too, but have had no reply. 
Amongst much nonsense he talked to Gal in the 
utmost rage, there was this, " that he could not, nor 
would, allow me more than he did I " Anybody 
would be surprised to hear after this, that he literally 
allows me nothing ! ' 

March 19th. 'Jesus! a fourth letter from Theo- 
dore. He makes me quite wild as I cannot make 
anything out of his matters, knowing nothing but 
what he tells me. He is visionary to the last degree. 
I want to get him away, as I think him in infinite 
danger. I am to go again to him as soon as it's dark, 
with a cloak and a dark lanthorn. I am not used to 
it, and by no means approve of it.' 

March 2Qth. ' King Theodore is still here, but I 
have left off seeing him as I don't hear or approve of 
the thing, and then my going might be a means of 
discovering his local existence, which is the only secret 
now. I confess to you I should be glad of his success, 
but then I am too delicate to wish England accessory 
to it. It would be no credit or honour, nay I believe 
quire the reverse. He told me an odd thing which 
would justify the great intimacy he pretends to have 
with Lord Carteret. He says, Lord Carteret told 
him that Lady Walpole applied to one of Hanover 
about the King to induce the King to pity her. . . . 
I was surprised to hear him talk of these things, and 
I cut him short by telling him that I knew nothing of 
them, but was well persuaded the King was too just 


to intermeddle in private affairs. The circumstantial 
manner in which he speaks of them would almost 
persuade me that some part is true.' 

March 26th. ' Tis wonderful how void Admiral 
Matthews is of common sense, good manners, or 
knowledge of the world. He understands nothing 

o o 

but yes and no, and knows no medium. His treat- 
ment of the King of Naples is not justifiable ; the 
end might have been brought about full as well with 
a proper decency, but nothing can exceed his repeated 
ill-mannerly threats, after. Would it not have been 
better, to have had some discreet person go and deliver 
a civil message ; the request was reasonable and must 
have been granted, and so there would have been an 
end. He owns in his last to me that he has had no 
order for any thing since the first message, and I 
believe is sorry for what he has done. I am sorry to 
hear the English spoke of with such disrespect. I 
own he has given cause, "There is nothing we may 
not expect from him after the affair at Marciana' ! " 
say the Italians. It was indeed cruel and barbarous 
to the highest degree, and I am sure could not be 
approved of; what provokes me strangely is that 
people won't distinguish between Jish and flesh. The 
next age will, it is to be hoped, produce more genteel 
porpusses. . . . Matthews has sent me a ridiculous 
note wrote by the claw of a great lobster, by way 
of thanks for a present I sent of some Cedrati and 
Marzolini cheeses, which are more delicate than our 
cream cheeses in England : "I am much oblig'd to 
you for you r kinde present ; the sweetmeats is good ; 
so sayes sume of my Gentlm n is y c cheeses ; but its to 

158 SMALL TALK. 1743. 

good for me ; I love nothing after y c French fashion." 
Is not this charming.' 

March 28th, ' Princess Craon on Saturday last 
received great honours in the sight of Angels and 
Men. She represented the Great Dutchess in the 
ceremony of the Dota. She walked in procession, 
from the Nunciata to St. Lorenzo, in a high court 
dress, with a violent train carried by her page, and had 
50 Dame to attend her; an attelage of the Great 
Duke with 8 servants in his livery, and another of her 
own with as many more. This ceremony is now 
assigned to the Princess only, with which she has 
great comfort.' 

March 26th. ' Giovanaro has quite abandoned the 
Vitelli, and nobody supplies his place ; they say he 
now thinks of matrimony, and has favourable thoughts 
of the Teresina. She has refused two or three, because 
they were piu vecchio del Signer Padre. I think she 
was vastly in the right ; the Vittorina's affair is still 

April 2nd. ' Sturgiss is in a very declining way 
... he has been in a sort of despair ; and within these 
three weeks has refused to see anybody, and if he had, 
they say would have frightened them, he was so worn 
and yellow with the jaundice. It is believed he will 
not live till night. I can assure you, my lady won't 
be sorry for it ; she has long since been tired of him. 
I am afraid she will send to me to bury him . . . 
Strange new English creatures came to be carried to 
the concert. I planted them the moment I had in- 
troduced them. Nothing was talked of there, but 
Sturgiss's death, for which nobody can give any account 


but despair. None of the family or Pasquale the 
Physician thought him in immediate danger two days 
before. My lady was touched by this last action 
(his death) though nothing he had done some years 
before ever moved her. He is to be sent to Leghorn 

April 2nd. ' The Pope is enraged to the highest 
degree, threatens to excommunicate and play the Devil, 
he must however have patience and provide for two 

April 2nd; ' We hear Vanneschi is dead. Bon- 
ducci heard he had succeeded well in England, made 
Operas, cheated Lord Middlesex, changed his religion, 
and married a Dama. He desires me to recommend him 
to you as his successor. I fancy he would turn his 
hand to all, and he depends much on your recommen- 
dation. Pertici the Buffo man and his companion the 
Tinea nera want sadly to perform in England. They 
were last year in treaty by means of Smith at Venise, 
but were engaged. He tells me he has heard that a 
word to you in their favour would bring it about, and 
he hoped you was his friend, for you laughed pro- 
digiously at him when he acted his burletta. I am 
afraid this sort of amusement would not do in England 
where the language is so little understood and in 
which the only beauty is the frizzo (the smart wit). 
Perhaps however some of our youngsters who never 
offered to speak Italian in Italy, would feel an 
hundred beauties in that unintelligibility.' 

May 2lst. ' To-morrow I am to have company at 
dinner, nay, the whole day, to see a great function 
from my garden windows. ... In the beginning of the 

160 IL FURISONDO. 1743. 

winter a very troublesome neighbour of mine died of a 
cracked constitution, and particularly of a hoarseness ; 
at which I and all my neighbours rejoiced much, not 
foreseeing that his appartment would be filled by a 
much more troublesome guest ; but so it is that the 
new comer, though very young, is of a monstrous size, 
and is to be installed to-morrow with great pomp, at 
which the Archbishop and many holy folks are to be 
present to give 'their benediction ; after which he will 
have a free licence to make noise enough to stun us. 
In short, a new saint bell is to be hung up, 500 pound 
bigger than his predecessor. The Christening is to be 
performed with great ceremony, for which preparations 
are making in my neighbour's garden, and many 
engines to raise him/ 

May. . . . ' 11 Furibondo has again broke out and 
has put all his underlings in the greatest agitation be- 
cause nothing is the matter. He is not more instructed 
from home than I am, or less embroiled, Such un- 
heard of things are daily done by the fleet that do 
great discredit to England, and would make you wild 
as a spectator only. ... It is equally feared by friends 
and foes. ... A certain Hero in his cups owned that now 
was the time, and that everything that could come 
within his long reach, he looked upon as Spanish.' 

' I have King Theodore still to deal with and to 
comfort in his disappointment. He writes me volumes 
every hour in the day and most unluckily in such a 
character, that there is no such thing as decyphering 
his letters or even knowing what to say to him. Lord 
Carteret and the Duke of Newcastle have never 
answered me about him.' 


May. . . . ' The two minerals I mentioned are 
Cobolt and Zingho. Ginori tells me they are common 
in England. Gal made me laugh. I mentioned them 
to him and he takes them for mineral waters ! The 
minerals are to make colours for the painting Ginori's 

' . . . I have poor mad Mr. St. John on my back, 
who writes me volumes and communicates to me his 
infinite long letters in Latin to his Confessor : nothing 
can be so rediculous.' 

May 2lst 'The Dutchess of Modena passed 
through Florence last thursday in the most shabby 
equipage I ever saw. She would not accept of any 
of the horses or coaches that were offered her, nor 
pass by without taking the benefit of a sight of the 
holy picture at the Anunciata which was uncovered 
for her, as for all Princes. 

' The Regency, my brother of France ' (Count 
Lorenzi, French Ambassador) 'and myself had the 
honour of dining with her at the Casa Craon. Mme. 
de Craon did the honours and extremely well, though 
nothing but a Princess de Sang and a Cousine could 
have drawn her from the darkness she had been buried 
in for a long time on account of her eyes, which can- 
not bear light ; which, on account of what she suffered 
that day, has ever since been excluded her appartment ; 
nay, the one candle that is suffered to come in at 24 
hours, is covered with a Fanale with a green shirt on. 
She has quitted her mourning because of her eyes, and 
took to a white gown ; but being told by a mathe- 
matician that according to Sir Isaack Newton white 
is the most offensive to the sight, she has taken a gay 
VOL. i. M 


flowered gown with a blue ground, and told me when 
I wondered to see her so fine, " Helas, Monsieur, c'est 
1'unique Robe que j'ay pour le soulagement de mes 
yeux." I am quite a favourite at present, which I am 
become by means of an attention of a Barril of small 
Beer which I have procured for her from the fleet.' 

June llth. On the occasion of a display of fire- 
works in honour of some grand state ceremony, Mann 
had his house full of visitors. ' It was a cruel day for 
me,' he says, ' I was forced to entertain Mrs. Bosville 
who has spent all her life in York, and is extreme 
insipid ; her husband is worse. I know nothing of 
him but that he has the meanest look and is one of 
the greatest fools I ever saw. She is daughter to Sir 
William Wentworth, and neice to the Jamaica General. 
Most of our fashionable travellers bring us to shame ; 
no language, no address, 'tis horrible, and I am on 
such a foot with Madame Suares that I can't consign 
them over to Her.' 

June 25th. ' I have not recovered the fatigue 
of yesterday ' (the festival of St. John, patron of 
Florence). ' Out of civility to my English lady, I 
went early to see the function upon the Place, which 
every year grows worse. Even the Senators, whom 
most despise, begin to neglect this ceremony of St. 
John. There were but few present. All the English 
and Suareses dined with me afterwards, then the 
Paglio, and from thence to a very good conversation 
at Vernacci's ; he is Cicisbeo to Madame Niccolini, 
who serves the Roman Lady Soderini ; nobody serves 
Mrs. Bosville but poor Bistino. There's a sort of 
swaggering Captain from the Fleet who lives in the 

1743. PLAGUE. 163 

same apartment, nay, in their closet, to avoid the 
expense of another room. . . . The husband is the 
worst of strange creatures. He saw the figure drest 
up to represent Siena, in the homage yesterday, and 
because it was old red velvet, he asked in the greatest 
eagerness, " 'deed sir, pray what's that man ? doesn't 
he represent the Pope?" " Good sir, how came you to 
fancy the Pope paid homage to the Great Duke ? " 
" Why, sir, I have heard say he was of a Florentine 
family ; and then, you see, that figure drest in old red 
velvet." ' 

July 9th. ' Our English lady brings us strangely 
to shame. She has fallen in love with a purser of 
a ship, whom the country has found out not to be a 
Cavaliere. They translate it " Un provisionaro d'una 
nave." " Poor Nikin," her husband, answered a person 
who asked him if he had any children : " Oh, no, 
sir ! If I had I shouldn't have been here." 

In the summer of this year, Messina was stricken 
by the plague. So swiftly fatal was the blow, that, in 
a short time, thousands of victims perished. All Italy 
took fright and became cruel. Refugees from Sicily 
were driven from the ports at which they attempted 
to land, and they died abandoned on the open seas. 
Sovereign princes shut themselves up and forbade 
access not merely to their own persons but to their 
States. The King of Naples defended himself from 
infection by prohibiting all intercourse with his 
Sicilian subjects on one side, and by forbidding any 
approach to intimacy offered by the Pope on the other. 
The Holy Father, in his turn, drew a cordon round 
his dominions, and denounced all attempt on the part 


of Naples and even Tuscany to break through it. 
Each sovereign fraction of Italy banished all the 
other fractions. Isolation was held to be the specific 
cure for the scourge ; but great was the horror of all 
Italians when it was known that the English war 
ships went from port to port, sent men ashore when- 
ever anything was wanted from the land, visited 
Sicilian as well as other barks, and disregarded all 
regulations laid down by the authorities. The English 
crews do not seem to have been any the worse for 
their high-handed proceedings, but when cases of 
plague were reported to have occurred in various parts 
of Italy, blame was laid on all the English fleet ; and 
Florence, dreading a mortal visitation like that which 
had swept almost the entire life out of Messina, and 
had been nearly as destructive at Palermo, fell into a 
hysterical panic, and into this method of providing 

July 23rd. 'The government has cut off all com- 
munication with Naples and like wise with Rome .... 
A cordon is planted all along the borders of Tuscany 
with the Pope's states, and barriers are fixed up to 
stop folks and goods, the first for 15, the latter 21 days 
. . . both states have banish'd each other. The sick- 
ness had certainly got into Calabria, but they say it is 
absolutely extinct by burning the houses where the 
poor people had taken refuge. Three of our gates are 
to be shut, and at each of the others, a Cavaliere is to 
be placed constantly to examine Bills of Health and 
passports. The whole Nobility is to take their turn ; 
this was determined a week ago, but not yet exe- 
cuted, because here is no wood in the magazines to 


build the Casotti. I declare to you, Prince Craon 
told me so yesterday. The Lorrainers sold everything 
they could lay hold on, some years ago ; old boards, 
kitchen ware, linnen, etc., and all the vinegar that used 
to be rigorously kept for fear of a plague, now, 
there's none in the country.' 

July 2,7th. ' I must tell you an instance of the 
weight Lady Walpole has over one who outweighs all 
the rest of this Goverment. A Quack Oculist came 
here with a letter of recomendation to my good Lady. 
He practiced much during his stay, and had as great 
attendance as Taylor in England, but performed no 
one cure except couching, which he did with great 
dexterity, but instead of curing the disorders in the 
Eyes, he absolutely blinded above fifty people, and 
yet my Lady induced some folks to give him a medal, 
worth 100 zecchini, in the name of the Great Duke, 
for curing so many of his poor subjects. The medal 
was made on purpose, the Great Duke's head on one 
side ; on the other his whole person on horseback, 
entering through his arch.' 

August 6th. 'The Admiral' (Matthews) 'has inter- 
cepted a French courier and took from him all the 
Pretender's letters ; these were in such cypher as 
puzzled the Admiral's comprehension ; so he sent 
them, tale quale, to Hanover. 

' Our victory at Dettingen was made as little 
as possible of by Austro-Florentines. Though they 
cannot deny that the English behaved with great 
bravery, they add that they were totally without 
discipline, and must have been all ruined had it not 
been for the Austrians . . . All the Gazettes represent 

166 A TENDER BEIDE. 1743. 

the English army telling the officers that, if they were 
cowards and afraid to lead them on, they would 
command themselves, and fight without them. Is not 
this most piteous ? ' 

December IQth. 'Madame GrifFoni has a mind 
to renew a correspondence with you. . . . She designs 
to send you some Tuscan wine, hams and Marzolini 
cheeses ; all eatables and drinkables which you would 
not have thought worthy the care of your housekeeper 
or Butler ; here, such a present is esteemed among 
themselves, because the materials can be sent to 
market the next morning, to be turned into Scudis 
and Testons.' 

December 17 th. 'The love affair with my neigh- 
bour and the Marchese goes on wonderfully well, and 
with a profusion of presents. She was here t'other 
evening with a Jinimento of Smeraldi and Diamonds 
to the value of 1500 crowns, of which and the Donor 
she is so fond that it is the diversion of the whole 
town. Some days ago, she was making excuses to me 
for not coming as often as she thought I expected her. 
She said she dreaded conducting him through the two 
courts after having been long in so warm a room "for, 
caro, you see how very very old he is, and there is 
much to fear ; and besides since I have taken this 
trouble upon me, I wish to come out of it with 
honour." This speech was pronounced in the pre- 
sence of all her servants ! Is it not comfortable in 
one's old age, to have so careful a nurse ? ' 

December 3lst. ' Great dissentions in Casa Craon, 
and poor Madame Sarasin is the victim. She has 
been turned out, and is preparing to go to Lorraine, 

1743. MADAME SARASIN. 167 

to live with her daughter ; poor creature ! she has not 
above <50 a year, and will be obliged to comb her 
wigs herself; and can have nothing for Quadrille. 
The only reason given for her disgrace is that the 
Princess was trap fatiguee de ses complimens ! ' The 
poor old lady had previously been prohibited from 
playing at cards with the Princess's guests. Walpole 
alluded to her in a letter to Mann, comparing with 
her an awkwardly bewigged old English lady : ' so 
like old Sarasin at two in the morning when she has 
been losing at Pharaoh and clawed her wig aside, and 
her old trunk is shaded with the venerable white ivy 
of her own locks.' 



MANN began the year in a serious spirit, but it was 
suddenly disturbed by a clap of thunder, which is 
thus recorded : 

January 2lst. ' I have been interrupted by a 
violent alarm. The Queen of Hungary's man at 
Rome has sent a person on purpose in the greatest 
hurry to tell me that the Pretender's eldest son was 
departed in order to go with the French fleet "to make 
a visit to Miss North and Grey " (Scotland). All the 
circumstances of this jaunt and his companion, the 
dress and hour was mentioned ; but 1 was determined 
before I made any use of this notice to wait a few 
hours for the receit of my own accounts ; they are 
come, but don't agree at all with the message, there- 
fore I will run no risk of a false alarm to the King, 
which might be of much worse consequence than the 
delay of a few days can be. I have taken such mea- 
sures that I cannot fail of knowing the truth soon.' 

January 22nd. ' The Pretender's eldest son is 
departed from Rome, the notice of which has been 
sent to me by two Expresses from thence ; he is said 
to travel in the habit and with the arms of a Nea- 


politan courier. I can't doubt of the truth of this 
information, therefore have not hesitated to despatch 
it to England where, I suppose, it will make a great 
noise. It is said he is to go on board the Brest fleet, 
and so make a descent in Scotland. As to their 
views, I think it must be uncertain.' 

January 28th. ' You would be surprised to see 
the infinite details of the stratagems that were prac- 
tised to conceal his departure, in which Cardinal 
Acquaviva and Tencin, the nephew, had the chief 
management ; they all set out for Cisterna as usual 
to hunt ; when he was out of the gates of the town, 
which were opened for him at 10 hours, he with great 
instance desired the Gentleman who was to take care 
of him to let him ride because he wanted to be at 
Cisterna sooner ; this was refused him for some time 
with an appearance of obstinacy ; so soon as he was 
on horseback, he rode off and turned out of the road, 
where he changed his Cloaths for those of a Spanish 
courier, with a great cap that covered almost his 
whole face. In this way he went to Aequaviva's 
country house, where two post-horses were ready 
as for a Spanish officer and courier. His brother who 
set out later, went on to Cisterna, and received a 
message that the " Elder had fallen from his horse and 
had been obliged to stop at Albano, having hurt his 
leg, of which none of the company was to take any 
notice, or write it to Eome, for fear of alarming the 
father." On the contrary, the Duke Gaetano, whose 
house they were at, was desired to write frequently, 
that they were well and had great diversion of hunt- 
ing ; the messenger was charged to ask for two shirts 

170 HIS PROGRESS. 1744. 

to carry to Albano, assuring the Company the hurt 
was so small that he would be able to be with them 
in a day or two ; in this manner everybody was 
amused. Cardinal Acquaviva had previously obtained 
two passports to pass the cross-roads of Tuscany in 
the name of a Spanish officer ; and it is pretended he 
had a passport with Lord Carteret's hand falsified, 
to be made use of in his passage by sea, in case of 
need. . . . Some say that he is to go to Brest and 
on board the squadron, thence to make a descent in 
Scotland ; others, that he is to go directly to Paris 
and to serve in the next campaign ; some think he 
is to marry a Daughter of France, others, that the 
Princess of Modena, now in Paris, is to be his wife. 
I should rather believe the Duke of Modena would 
accept him for his son in law, than that the French 
King would. 

* His appearance in the world will undoubtedly 
occasion a great alarm in England, though it must 
end in nothing, for it is not to be supposed that there 
is any considerable of people (sic) either in England 
or in Scotland, so mad as to espouse so foolish a cause. 
This inconvenience there will always be, that it will 
revive a party that was almost forgot. Cardinal 
Tencin has certainly been the chief promoter of this 
project, to show his zeal to his benefactor, and perhaps 
he persuaded his master that this step will draw off 
the King's attention from the affairs he is engaged in.' 

. . . ' The Young Pretender arrived the 22nd, at 
Antibes, after remaining six days at Savona, on ac- 
count of the bad weather. They say he was violently 
alarmed at Antibes, where he was not immediately 


admitted. At the same time an English sloop put 
in there for provisions, with which he was afraid of 
being carried off. His last letter to his father was of 
the 22nd.' 

March 17th. ' I was in pain for the appearance of 
the Brest Squadron, on the Jacobites bragging so much 
of what was to happen ; all the Italian newspapers say 
that the French had been invited by the Catholicks of 
Scotland and Ireland. By all accounts this seems to 
be a scheme of Tencin, exclusive of all the other min- 
isters. M. Amelot wrote to Count Lorenzi that nous 
rietions pas prevenus of the arrival of that Boy, and 
that he believed his view could only be to make 
campaign with Don Philip. They say M. D'Argenson, 
as soon as he heard of his arrival, made strong remon- 
strances to his master of the consquences of it.' 

March 3lst. 'The Jacobites tell us continually 
that this young man is by this time in England, of 
which they expect notice hourly by a courier, and that 
a general insurrection has appeared in his favour be- 
cause his proposals are so good ; he is to publish a 
manifest to promise liberty of conscience and all kinds 
of advantages if they will but have him. Soon after 
the Boy's departure from Rome, a pompous account of 
it was printed, composed by Cardinal del Monti and 
distributed by Murray to all the purple. The author, 
to show his erudition, draws a paralel between the 
Boy and Demetrius and addresses it by way of letter 
to Murray, who answers it and gives an account of the 
heroic resolution of this young Demetrio to undertake 
such a journey in spite of all the dangers he knew he 
must expose himself to ; being very much afraid that 

172 SUSPENSE. 1744. 

the notice would be sent by a courier to Mann, Min- 
istrio Hanoveriano in Firenze, and by him forwarded 
too soon to Admiral Mathews. Polybius's Demetrius 
escaped from Rome and took possession of his king- 
dom ; that part of the pamphlet is to be made out in 
proper time. Other authors have exercised their parts 
in print.' 

April 7th. ' It is asserted that a private Embassy 
from the Jacobites in England has for some time re- 
sided in Paris and encouraged that vile court to under- 
take the invasion. . . . All the foreign newspapers 
make their Ministers say that their King entered into 
it at the request of a very considerable number of both 
English and Scotch. ... A courier from France 
carried the news to the (old) Pretender of the disper- 
sion of the transports and that the whole project was 
ruined. Bailli Tencin, nephew of the Cardinal, an- 
nounced it to the Pretender and his other son ; the 
latter fainted away on the recital of it, and the former 
was struck with a most profound melancholly in which 
he has remained ever since. I hope to increase it by 
the notices I shall convey to Rome this evening.' 

'I must tell you that the Prince and Princess 
Craon, who are naturally French in their hearts, had 
pretended to me to be anxious about the present cir- 
cumstances and desired to be informed of the news I 
should receive. I wrote him a letter last night, with 
the contents of a letter I had received from Mr. 
Trevor, and afterwards added many circumstances out 
of those from England, and contrived it so that he 
should receive it at his Conversation. I concluded by 
saying, "Je ne puis douter, mon Prince, que vous n'ayez 

1744. PAPAL SYMPATHY. 173 

une vraie joie, en apprenant toutes ces nouvelles; 
j'eu ai a Fexces en vous les communiquant ; "- - to 
which, contrary to his usual politeness, he made me 
no answer in writing ; but contented himself by 
calling my servant and bidding him thank me. I am 
not surprised ; all his family are in the French ser- 
vice, and he so weak as to think his religion obliges 
him to wish the Pretender's family in England. . . . 

' I have used all my endeavours to get authentick 
copies or accounts of the Indulto or Briefs that the 
Pope is supposed to have furnished the Pretender's 
Boy with, but cannot yet succeed. It is not doubted 
that he furnished him likewise with money, but both 
with so much secresy that I can say nothing with 
certainty. I cannot help thinking that some resent- 
ment should be shown. It is absurd to say that 
Religion obliges them to molest the nation's quiet. If 
they must be our Enemies why should they expect 
good treatment from a power so superior and capable 
of chastising them. I would not desire their friend- 
ship ; that's not w r orth having, but would insist on 
their forbearance from insults, or otherwise treat them 
on the foot of enemies as they declare themselves to 
us. Is it not intolerable that any sect of people 
should publickly profess a belief that engages them to 
occasion the greatest troubles to a great kingdom, and 
be treated with civility, nay the greatest humanity ? 
We despise the Court of Eome, in England, very justly 
in one respect, but too much in another. We should 
consider what weight it's opinions have all over Italy 
and in most parts of Europe. The very subjects of 
Princes in alliance with us, of which such numbers 


reside at Rome, are by the maxims of that Court, 
taught publickly to confess what they ought not to 
own in their own countries, and must do it to advance 
their fortunes at Rome, till it becomes habitual to 
them, and so the poison spreads everywhere. The 
very Ambassadors of those Princes in alliance with 
the King, when they reside at Rome, are found to 
adore another in that quality. In short, I think we 
might, with justice, insist upon a contrary behaviour, 
and if their principles oblige them to be our enemies, 
as they are the Turks', that they should expect such 
treatment as the latter shows them.' 

April 28th. 'The Pretender's son's people left 
Rome lately to join him in France, with his Cloathes 
and Equipage ; there were two Gentlemen, Skelton 
and Stafford ; three others they call Ajutanti, two 
french footmen, a Cook and two under cooks who 
had with them, besides the above things, a large chest 
of plate ; by all this it seems that he is to stay long in 
France ; some say he is to make the Campaign is 
Flanders ; others, on the Rhine. A third party who 
think themselves the wisest, arc of opinion that he 
will serve in the army, to make an attempt on his 
Majesty's Hanoverian dominions ; if this be feazible, I 
should be inclined to be of that opinion. The Abbe 
Goddard has been forbidden the Pretender's house for 
exclaiming against the French for not having pursued 
this scheme first as, it is pretended, they promised. 
It is certain, the Abbe' has orders not to approach the 
house, nor have Corsini, Acquaviva and others been 
able to obtain his pardon, being taxed with discussing 
their secrets, and as unfit to be trusted with them.' 

1744. THE COFFEE-POT. 175 

Between watching the Jacobites in Italy, and, in 
accordance with orders from home leaving him dis- 
cretionary powers, regulating at times the movements 
of the English Fleet, which was co-operating against 
the enemies of Maria Theresa, our minister at Florence 
became one of the busiest of men, and one of the most 
importaat in Italian estimation. * Hitherto, my dear 
Child,' he writes, July 16th ; ' I am not a bit the fatter 
for all this, but much poorer, for the Expresses cost 
money, and my bills are unpaid since the year 1739, 
when then may I expect those of '44. I begin to 
despise my little spy Abbe' at Rome.' 

Pressed for funds, and desirous of making an 
appearance equal to that of other ministers, Mann 
took a step in which Walpole's famous coffee-pot once 
more played a part. ' You must not be angry,' he 
writes on the 1 7th July, ' when I tell you I have 
disposed of your fine coffee-pot, for what it cost, 
to the Admiral. Some of his captains put me on 
the head of it, and he wrote to me about it. Indeed, 
my dear, it was too fine a single piece for me, and 
I had nothing that was fit to be seen with it. The 
Chutes and everybody advised me to do it, with a 
view of making some useful plate, to begin a service. 
No Consul but has one at present. In every plate and 
dish I buy, I will write " Ex dono Horatii Walpole," 
for without that beginning I could never have begun. 
When I shall be able to end I can't guess ; tell me 
sincerely, if you approve of it, but don't be angry with 
me. Mr. Fane's plate cost about 600 or 700 pounds, 
including knives, forks, spoons, salvers> salts, ladles, in 
short, aU small things which I have, so that I have 

176 ADMIRAL ROWLEY. 1744. 

plates and dishes to buy ; non e poco, but I may go on 
by degrees, and creep into a service before I am aware 
of it ; by the help of the pot, I can lay out 200 
now ; and every inch of lace I might put on coats, 
I will turn into plates and sauce-boats.' 

September 22nd. In a letter of this date, Mann 
thus speaks of II Furibondo's successor in command 
of the English fleet, Admiral Rowley, whom he had 
visited at Leghorn : ' We soon contracted an intimacy 
which I really believe is grown into a friendship ; he 
is a man of extreme good na-tural parts, vastly mild 
and humain, and inclined to do obliging things. . . . 
I was pleased with his first appearance, though I own 
it struck me with some respect, as in his person he 
is extremely like my Lord Orford when I saw him last, 
though I believe the former is now much fatter.' Then 
follows a curious bit of domestic history: 'After 
having shown me a thousand civilities, and given me 
many marks of his confidence, we talked of your 
family for which he has great Esteem ; he asked me if 
I knew one Mr. Gardiner, a natural relation of yours ; 
he was surprised I did not, and ordered Captain 
Bockley, with whom he is, to bring him to me. I soon 
learnt his history, and as I respect his Father, interested 
myself for him, and desired him to tell me if I could 
be usefull to him ; when he replied that he had heard 
the regard the Admiral had for me, and desired I would 
use my interest with him to get him to be a Lieutenant, 
from which rank they rise, of course. I soon had 
authority to give him hopes, if my Lord Orford or 
Lord Walpole would ask it ; the Admiral bid me write 
word that they should not be refused. I told him I 

1744. PATRONAGE. 177 

was sure one of them would write, but could wish it 
might be a letter of thanks rather than one to ask it ; 
he replied that no opportunity offered as yet, and that 
though the ship he was in was to go home, he should 
stay behind and not be out of the way of preferment. 
. . . Pray acquaint them with this, and that nothing 
will be done without the letter. Mr. Gardiner is 
vastly esteemed in the fleet ; he is very little of his 
age. I hope my Lord's' (Walpole's) 'heir will be more 
like a man at 20. . . . I shall be vastly happy if I can 
be instrumental to this Branch of your family's pre- 
ferment, since I owe mine and all gratitude to the true 

To this proposal for the advancement of Lord 
Walpole's alleged natural son, Horace Walpole replied 
by doubting or denying the assumed fact. Mann re- 
joined : ' You surprise me with the account of young 
Gardiner. I really took him as my Lord's son ; since 
the fleet believes it, let that opinion be the cause of 
making his fortune. If he is not my Lord's son,' says 
the representative of English majesty, ' I suppose he 
might have been, so I won't discover him, for it's 
certain Mr. Rowley only wishes to advance him on 
that account, having a most sincere regard for your 
family ; therefore send me the letter, and give him an 
opportunity of showing his attention.' To this extra- 
ordinary request, Walpole says in a letter written in 
the following January : ' I can say nothing more 
about young Gardiner, but that I don't think my 
father at all inclined now to have any letter written 
for him/ It is a fact, however, that Lord Walpole, 
whilst denying the relationship, had once promised to 

VOL. I. N 

178 ARREARS OF PAY. 1744. 

write the letter asked for by Mann, but after 
reflection, wisely refrained. 

October 13th. 'I have made another effort to 
obtain my great arrears from the time I was Charge 
des affaires to the date of my Residentship. . . . 
I write to His Grace' (the Duke of Newcastle) 'by 
this post. . . . My request is to have the usual 
allowance of Charge* des affaires of 40 shillings a 
day from the time I entered into that appoint- 
ment (by His Grace's order) to the date of my 
being sent as a Resident. . . . Then there are 6 
quarters extraordinaries, that is to say, for postage of 
letters, packets, memorials, and stationery ware, for 
which 100 a quarter is allowed ; the first demand is 
for one year and a half, wanting 5 days, and comes 
to ,1086.' At some length, Mann asks that Lord 
Orford may be induced to recommend to the Duke the 
acquitting of the Minister's claim, and he adds ; ' If 
I don't succeed now, I must ever give it over ; but I 
cannot hope my father will act so by me for the debt 
I contracted with him for his extraordinary supply 
during that time, for which I shall see a large deduc- 
tion out of the little share I shall find in his will.' 

Admiral Matthews after withdrawing from his 
command returned to London. Walpole, on the 19th 
October, writes : ' I have not seen Admiral Matthews 
yet, but I take him to be very mad. He walks in the 
Park with a cockade of three colours. The Duke' (of 
Cumberland) 'desired a gentleman to ask him the 
meaning, and all the answer he would give was : " The 
Treaty of Worms ! The Treaty of Worms ; " ' On this, 
Mann remarks (Dec. 8) : ' I forgot to tell you that we 

1744. AN ADVENTURER. 179 

all wear the three coloured cockade which you think is 
a sign of being mad. Why, it is the " Triple Alliance" 
or what an officer in the fleet called " the Triple of 
Lyons cockade ! " The court of Turin, the fleet, 
and Lobkowitz's army ' (Sardinia, England, Austria) 
' all wear it. They made me take it when I was at 
Leghorn. All the English, all my servants, even my 
kitchen boy wore it.' 

December 22nd. 'We have had a Monsieur de 
Magnan and his wife, a St. Germain's lady ; he some- 
times calls himself Marquis ; and always a great man ; 
he introduced himself to me by the great protection he 
received from the Walpoles, and tells me a thousand 
instances. ... I own to you I don't believe half he 
says, or that he is so great a man as he says. He 
speaks all kinds of languages, 14 in number, and says 
he was employed by Sir Eobert and the late Queen to 
write; if he did it no better than in the specimen he 
has given me, I can't say I think the sums of money 
he brags of having received were well employed. The 
specimen I speak of is " Kemarks of a Parisian traveller 
on the principal Courts of Europe, with a dissertation 
upon that of England, the Nation in general, and the 
Prime Minister. 1736." He is come here with the 
title of " Conseiller de Commerce," though there is no 
Council; his appointments are fifty crowns a month, 
which is much less than 500 a year. . . . ' He will 
be violently intimate, which I would give into, if I 
thought it would be agreeable to your family. Pray 
give me some information about him, for as yet all he 
has said does not give me a great idea of him, nor the 
employment he has ; it appears to me that the Great 

180 M. DE MAGNAN. 1744. 

Duke being tired of his solicitations, has sent him with 
that title for want of knowing what other to give 
him. . . . Your tinkle, he pretends, is his Chief Pro- 
tector.' Walpole's information was that the Regent 
Duke of Orleans had ' picked him up/ Walpole knew 
not where, ' to teach the present Duke of Orleans the 
Russ tongue, when they had a scheme for marrying 
him into Muscovy. At Paris Lord Waldegrave met 
with him and sent him over hither, when they pen- 
sioned him and he was to be a spy ; but made nothing 
out ; till the King was weary of giving him money ; 
and then they dispatched him to Vienna with a recom- 
mendation to Count d'Uhlefeldt who I suppose has 
tacked him on the Great Duke.' Magnan was a 
member of the Greek Church. Walpole's uncle knew 
no ill of him, but Mann was advised to keep him at 
civil distance, and not to enter into correspondence 
with a person who was 'of no use.' 

'I thank you/ replies Mann (March 9th), 'for the 
information of M. de Magnan, who has been chosen 
head of the Greek Church at Leghorn, in which alone 
he is likely to figure ; he was too troublesome to me 
here, would never make use of any coach but mine, 
and since his departure, persecuting me with his letters, 
desiring me constantly to communicate to him all I 
knew. I declined it long before I got your's, but since 
have refused the preference he gave me of being 
Godfather to the child his wife expects daily to be 
brought to bed of ; indeed I did not chuse it, for 
according to the custom of the country, I must have 
made her a present, which I can't afford/ 

Harassed as Mann was with the Pretender and 

1744. CARNIVAL. 181 

saucy Jacobites, with reports from spies who were not 
always to be trusted, with visits from rough Captains 
in the English Navy ; and with ' politicks/ generally, 
he still found time to chronicle the light sayings and 
doings of the society in which he lived. Of which 
here are some samples : 

January lith. 'The Tesi has been terribly mor- 
tified of late ; not only no applause, but she has been 
affronted in the theater ; all the Gens d'armes are 
against her ; one got behind the scenes in mask the 
other night, and called her "bruta B ," which being 
told to San Vitali, he applied to the Directors of the 
Theater, who immediately caused him to be put into 
arrest ; he discovered himself and was set at liberty on 
his parole, but was again ordered into arrest by his 
Colonel, where he remains still. All his companions 
take his part against the Tesi and San Vitali ; several 
abusive libels have been fixed up at his door, and the 
officer swears he will fight San Vitali.' 

January 2lst. ' Nothing was ever so brilliant as 
our Carnival ; the early permission for masks in the 
theater makes such a crowd, that there's no stirring. 
We have been in great danger of their being forbid on 
account of the late broils which were carried to such a 
higth that in the last week a paper was found in the 
play-room, left there by a mask, containing these 
words: " Non vogliamo questa bruta B , la Tesi, 
altrimento bruciaremo il Teatro," the old Fiscal, on the 
sight of this, did all he could to induce the Regency 
to forbid masks, but could not succeed. I hope the 
affair is over. They attribute it to me. Indeed, I 
have interested myself a good deal in it. Is it not 

182 LA TESI. 1744. 

ridiculous that a foolish little officer of 16 years old 
should interrupt the pleasures of a whole town ? ' 

February ISth. ' This is the last day of our Car- 
nival which has been the gayest we have ever had : 
the theater has from the beginning been so crowded 
with masks that it has been quite troublesome. The 
embroils about the Tesi have broke out again ; several 
libels have been fixed up in the Opera House, and the 
most abusive ones at all the corners of the streets ; the 
author threatened to burn the theater and sfregiare 
(dishonour and cut across the face) the Tesi. San Vitali 
has been horribly abused in them all, which has made 
him resolve to quit his flame. He leaves here on 
Saturday, for good ; though they say he is as much in 
love with her as ever. His circumstances (for by a 
composition with his family, he is reduced to a hun- 
dred zecchins a week) do not permit him to give her 
such proofs of it as she wishes ; therefore she has given 
many tokens that she is tired of him, which add to his 
affliction. The Tesi is in great consternation for this 
evening, as everything threatened against her was to be 
executed the last night ; the guards are double and all 
precautions used to prevent disorders. She has really 
done nothing to deserve such treatment, though the 
pique is so great that I don't apprehend she can live 
here. Her time of making new conquests is over, so 
that in all probability she will be very unhappy.' 

March Wth. ' You will be sorry to hear the 
Sposa Paniaticci died two days ago in child-bed. 
Half the town is in tears for her, among whom her 
grandfather, the old Marquis Riccardi, affects to be 
one ; he, the next day, appeared in publick and said 


to every one he met : " See, how I weep. I too shall 
die, soon ! " His grief has been greatly lessened by 
the pleasure he had in counting the candles round her 
Catafalco and in the procession, both which were mag- 
nificent. Your Princess is near her time, and very 
frightened because of the Bissextile and the Comet, 
both which are bad for women in labour.' 

April 28th. 'We are very gay here at present on 
account of some weddings, particularly that of young 
Marquis Tempi who, much against his will, married last 
night a rich Capponi. There was a ball at Martelli's, 
the sposo's sister, last night ; and, to morrow morning, 
there will be another at Prince Volandini's. Marquis 
Tempi is to make one or two. The great bouncing 
Antinori is married to little Boccineri. Preparations 
are making for a good Opera for St. John, when masks 
are to be permitted for 15 or 20 days; this is a novelty 
and has been granted to sweeten some extraordinary 
demands for money. . . . ' May 28th. Amidst great 
political events, Mann says that little was thought of 
but the magnificent series of balls given in honour of 
the above-named marriage : ' Young Marquis Tempi 
seems the only one displeased, his wife and fortune 
pleasing the father much better than him. The old 
Duke of Grog (sic) has appeared at all these assemblies 
in the shape of a sposo to the Carnisecchi (sic) a 
widow: The filthy old creature makes a nasty 

The Florentine nobility were far from approving 
the manner in which some of our English marriages 
were conducted. In April, 1744, Walpole described 
that of Lady Sophia Fermor (who was well known in 


Florence) to old Lord Carteret. The bride (daughter 
of Lord Pomfret) had been on the point of bringing 
to a desired end a love match with young Lord 
Lincoln. That having failed, she married Lord Car- 
teret and became a very great lady. 'Last night,' 
writes Walpole, ' they were married . . . they supped 
at Lord Pomfret's ; at twelve, Lady Granville, his 
mother, and all his family, went to bed, but the 
porter ; then my Lord went home and waited for 
her in the lodge : she came alone in a hackney chair, 
met him in the hall, and was led up the back stairs 
to bed.' This very common-place way of being 
married shocked the Florentines, when Mann de- 
scribed it. ' Imagine,' says the Minister to Walpole, 
' how the little ceremony with which Lady Sophia 
left her maidenhood must sound here to the Tempis 
and Capponis. Bestino Uguccioni is quite scandalized 
at the hackney chair, and no Ball or Festin. Old 
Eiccardi won't believe it : " Come nulla ! e una grand 
Dama poi e uno grand Signore, mi pare di molto, 
basta ! sara cosi I " Everybody is glad of her good 
fortunes.' On June 16th Mann reverts to the same 
subject. 'Uguccioni is quite mad about Lady Carteret. 
He is persuaded if he were not a Catholick that he 
should have a great place ; but still he hopes to 
engage Lady Pomfret to speak to Lady Carteret to 
speak to my Lord to speak to the King to write 
to the Queen to speak to the Great Duke to write to 
Kichecourt to give him an employment here which 
may at last procure him the honour of being made 
Gentleman of his Bedchamber without any salary, as 
was offered to Cecchino. In consequence of the re- 

1744. EPITHALAMIUM. 185 

commendation, Lord Harrington ordered Mr. Robinson 
to . . (illegible) . . and in the King's name some 
years ago, which honour his mother was wise enough 
to refuse, finding it would cost her 100 pistoles a 

In a subsequent letter, Uguccioni is pourtrayed as 
half mad and rushing into poetry, by deputy. ' The 
poor creature thinks it very necessary to be vastly 
fond of my Lord Carteret, and to show his zeal has 
employed a little abbey (sic) to make an epithalamium 
addressed to them both. It consists of 840 Latin 
verses, which are now printing with their arms, and 
all sorts of allusive and pretty ornaments; he designed 
to get a Latin dedication and sign it himself. When 
he asked my advice, I asked him what the latter was 
to say ? that as I apprehended all he could say was 
that he had bought all those verses cheap, I thought 
he had better not do it ; he now intends to supply its 
place with an Italian manuscript letter; two printed 
copies of the verses were to be sent soon by the post, 
which are to be followed by 300 other copies by sea. 
I think it is most probable my Lord Carteret will 
order the bale to be brought to his own house and that 
it may be consigned to the Housekeeper. In the mean 
time, poor Bestino is quite mad.' 

Among the presents which Walpole sent to Mann 
was a double Windsor chair, whereon two persons 
could sit and talk, with a bar, or rest, between them. 
Ladies and their Cicisbeos were delighted with this 
seat so appropriate for their whisperings ; but they 
disapproved of the bar as an obstruction to the 
furthering of love. Mann had several made in ac- 

186 MANN'S NEGHTS. 1744 

cordance with their wishes, and when he placed them 
in his garden on his Thursday nights at home, ladies 
and their cavalieri serventi almost adored him. On 
July 4th he describes one of those nights as the most 
remarkable thing in Florence : ' The gayest assembly 
you ever saw and most innocent ; nothing but love 
going forward. They are coupled in double chairs 
all over the garden, and retire to the corner when 
any Saint lures, without molestation. The garden is 
lighted up very prettily with such lamps as you have 
in Vaux Hall, which are suspended on green poles 
surrounded with vine branches. The number of the 
admirers is great. . . . Last fryday, the English made 
a fine Cocchiata which diverted the whole town. I 
had so much the management of it as to make the 
compliment of serenading Madame Antinori, because 
her sister Griffoni's house was too much out of the 
way. It first began on the Piazza di Sto. Spirito, 
then moved to the Bridge, thence to Madame Anti- 
nori's, where the Princess honoured it, and ended at 
Santa Croce. I was at the Princess's, when a long- 
consultation was held, which night-dress she should 
appear in. Then M. Antinori advised her to prefer a 
. . . (illegible) which she refused before all the com- 
pany that was there, and still he pressed it ; it is 
literally true. She greatly reprimanded him and bid 
him call it a casaquin.' 

July 2Ist. ' My garden walks with the help of 
some English glass lamps look very pretty. The 
English say, Vaux Hall in miniature but much better 
company. The fame of my lamps and my new double 
chairs, which we call Cicisbeatoji have put me much 


in vogue. We have many English, the chief are Lord 
Eglinton and Lord Coote, the rest you wouldn't know 
by their names, except little Brownlow, (Lady Betty's 
son) whom you knew at Aix, when she married a 
young french officer.' 

No invitations were sent out for these garden 
nights, and Mann, often, would not recognize some 
of his own guests. In London, it was different with 
the 'Assemblies' held by the leading Ladies of Society. 
' The fashion now is,' Walpole tells Mann, ' to send 
cards to the women, and to declare that all men are 
welcome without being asked." 

October 27th. ' Your friend the Tesi is a little 
embroiled. You know she turned off Vitali, when 
he had exhausted his treasures upon her. He had 
literally nothing left but a hundred zecchins a week. 
. . . Young Marquis Tempi and Corsi tried who would 
be most in love with her. This occasioned so much 
displeasure to the Salviatis and their great relations, 
that they procured an order from Vienna to desire her 
in the Great Duke's name not to come back to 
Florence again. She set out to Venise some days ago, 
where she is to sing, and afterwards intends to go to 
Vienna, to get the sentence mitigated, which poor 
Prince Craon was obliged to give her.' 

November Wth. 'The Vittorina Suares is to be 
declared Sposa in a few days. Carducci will have 
patience no longer, and has insisted that Billets of 
demand and answers may reciprocally pass within a few 
days ; as for consummation, he will have patience till 
after Easter, but no longer. The poor Teresina has 
found nothing yet, which disturbs the family greatly. 

188 A POOR MATCH. 1744. 

Carducci is but a poor match. He is forced to sell 
something to pay his debts and make the rest clear, 
which will amount to 2000 and a few hundred crowns 
per annum ; out of which, to show his generosity 
and affetto, he is to give his Sposa, for cloathes and 
pocket money, 12 Scudi a month ! what a temptation 
to gain more ! Do but imagine a young gay lady of 
Quality of 16 or 17, with barely 3 a month for her 
cloathes and menus plaisirs ; it is this treatment makes 
all the wives so cheap.' 

This year was at once the gayest and the most 
anxious year which Mann had passed in Florence ; 
and there was more cause for anxiety than ground for 
gaiety, in the year that was coming. 




THE Letters written by Mann in the early part of this 
year are upon light subjects. In the earliest or 
serious letters, he is to be found treating of the 
English Fleet which was near, or of the Pretender, 
whose movements puzzled him. The national subjects 
naturally take place of the merely social. Mann 
writes, under date, March 9th, 'I told you the Admiral 
and I are great friends ever since he was at Leghorn ; 
he made me a present of a pretty mahogany chair and 
a table ; the latter was ordinary, but all English 
things please. He has now sent me some beer for the 
Princess. I sought for an opportunity to make him a 
present in return, and found a very good one ; he had 
lost his seal, so I undertook from an impression, to get 
another cut at Rome, which was excessively well done 
on a triangular topaz, his arms, crest, and on the other 
side the head of Marcus Agrippa, with his attributes 
as an Admiral ; it was vastly well set and was sent 
down to him last week.' 

' ... If I corresponded with Lord Sandwich as 
formerly, I would advise him to make some regulation 
about the education of the young people a-board ; to 


give them language masters, and to oblige them to 
learii at least French and Italian. It is terrible to see 
the figure they make for want of them. Every one 
that commands a ship has constant occasion for them, 
when he is charged with the least commission. They 
have all executed them in English, and as the people 
that receive their letters don't understand them, they 
are forced to apply to Irish priests and such like 
people to translate them. Six Captains dined last 
summer with Cardinal Albani and M. de Thun with 
only their mother tongue.' 

' . . . There has been a violent fracas at Rome. 
Cardinal Acquaviva won't give the English, passports 
to go to Naples, without they are recommended to 
him, from Murray' (the Pretender's Secretary). ' Lord 
Mentrath (sic) has been possitively refused, but he 
won't apply that way ; they have wrote me accounts 
of it, and I have encouraged them not to condescend 
to an open Rebel/ 

June 29th. 'This whole week I have been most 
extraordinarily employed in writing supplicating 
letters to the Duke of Newcastle and Stone to pay me 
the infinite arrears that are due to me. I am undone 
if I do not succeed.' 

July 27th. ' The Genoese are extremely afraid of 
a visit from the fleet. They keep constantly all their 
Gallies around and at the mouth of their Port to 
prevent a surprize. Their gunners never dare stir 
from. their posts. There are twelve ships before the 
Port and two Bombs, but they will do nothing till 
Mr. Rowley sends his orders. All Italy expects to see 
them bombarded. I would fain have a Doge and 

1745. 8 AVON A BOMBARDED. 191 

Senate travel, to St. James's as they did once to 
Versailles, but our Monarchs are not in that gout. I 
receive letters from Captain Cooper to acquaint me 
that he shall immediately proceed to hostilities against 
the Genoese. . . . These letters of Mr. Cooper have 
really put me into a panick for those poor Genoese, 
who have to share in their Governor's follies ; these 
wretches' houses will be demolished and many of them 
perish. I am quite agite, nor can talk to you of my 
Conversations nor any thing else.' 

August I Oth. 'Captain Cooper who commands 
the Squadron on the coast of Genoa, tells me, in a 
letter, that being persuaded if Mr. Rowley had been in 
these seas he would have commenced hostilities against 
the Genoese ; therefore, believing such a step would be 
agreeable to our Ministry, he had undertaken it ; the 
authority he went on seems very mince, and I should 
have rather waited for better orders. He bombarded 
Savona a little, just enough to convince the world 
that he could do nothing. Of above a hundred shells 
he threw, but three reached the town. He then was 
forced to desist, and came to Leghorn to refit the 
Bomb vessels which were much shattered by their 
own fire. Captain Cooper says the fault was in their 
materials, but I am persuaded it was not only in 
them but that they themselves are troppo materiali 
and know not what they are about (excuse that vile 
conundrum) The Governor of Savona sunk a bark 
laden with powder, for fear of accidents, which was all 
the harm they suffered.' 

Of other doings of the English fleet, Mann states: 
' Advice was brought to Mahon that Captain Edge- 


cumbe had taken a register ship with GOO, 000 pieces 
of Eight, and had carried her into Gibraltar ; that the 
Jersey had fought a French ship of 74 guns, the St. 
Esprit, for four hours in the Straights ; the Jersey lost 
five men, and was much damaged in her cordage ; the 
night separated them ; a report afterwards prevailed 
that the St. Esprit sunk in the Bay of Tangier. . . . 
Our Squadron here is not so lucky. Every one of the 
transports from Naples with artillery has escaped, 
though I gave the Captains previous notice of their 
departure. They have indeed taken many barks on a 
suspicion of the effects belonging to the enemy, but 
have been forced to deliver them all up on proofs to 
the contrary, though not without great vexation 
to the owners. Yesterday, indeed, I received advice 
that a ship had brought in six large vessels which 
sailed lately from Leghorn with corn and provisions 
for Genoa, of which I gave them notice about ten days 
ago ; this was bravely done ; the same ships brought 
in with them three Genoese barks from the same 
place. The Sardinian Gallies are now at Leghorn and 
will cruize with our ships, which will be of great use. 
' I must add another half sheet to tell you of the 
violent alarms we are in, on account of a Courier that 
arrived at Rome last Thursday. After the strictest 
business of spies, it has been discovered that the 
Courier was despatched by the late Duke of Ormond, 
from Avignon, to the Pretender, with a letter enclosed 
from his son to acquaint him that he was to leave 
France, without mentioning, it is said, for what place, 
and to desire his father not to be uneasy if he should 
not receive his letters for some posts ; to desire his 

1745. JACOBITE PLANS. 193 

blessing and that of the Pope immediately on the 
receipt of this Courier. There were violent confer- 
ences at the Pretender's, between him, Acquaviva, 
Cardinal Eiviera, and the French ambassador ; and 
a thousand reports have been spread; but what alarms 
me most is an Express that Mr. Whithed heard 
from the mouth of a certain Don Giuseppe, a Spaniard 
at Eome, to Cardinal Riviera at Count Petroni's 
Assembly : " We shall make an invasion into Scot- 
land as soon as England is deprived of troops.'" (The 
latter were going to Flanders). 'This Mr. Whithed 
heard himself. The joy of the Palazzo dei S.S. 
Apostoli is insolent already to a degree. 

' I own I am greatly alarmed, though I don't see 
that he can venture to go into Scotland without troops 
and a considerable fleet. Surely, his friends there 
cannot be so numerous as to do anything alone. 
They say we have a large fleet in the Downs or on 
the Coasts, but the name of an Invasion frightens me. 
I send accounts of all this and an original second 
letter by an Estafette from the Cardinal to Hanover 
and to England, but I thought it useless to send a 

'I have received a very gracious letter from my 
Lord Harrington, by order of the King, to acquaint 
me that my conduct has been approved in my little 
negotiations with Silvi, and that my answers to his 
letters have been to his Majesty's approbation. You 
love me too well, not to take part in the satisfaction 
this gives me.' 

' Letters from England,' writes Mann, August 1 7th, 
' alarm me extremely, though I still expect worse, and 

VOL. I. 


dread to hear the confusion which the notice of the 
Pretender's son's arrival in Scotland will add. . . . 
I can only be informed of what accounts arrive at 
Kome, and of those very imperfectly. Since the 
arrival of the last French courier there, the whole- 
town tells of the boy's arrival in Scotland. Prince 
Craon has received advice from Paris of it, and 
Richecourt has sent me an extract of one he likewise 
received, the substance of which is that the 12th of 
last month the boy embarked on board a small ship of 
12 canons, at St. Lazare in Normandy, which con- 
ducted him to Bell Isle, from whence he was escorted 
by a large French ship of 60 guns. It is said he had 
10 (10,000) muskets and a company of 150 Volun- 
teers, which was formed the last winter at Paris. 
Prince Craon's accounts from Paris, as well as those 
Count Lorenzi has from Maillebois, add that the 
french ship of 60 guns was met by one of ours, and 
that they fought for a long time, during which, the 
smaller with the Pretender's son escaped and landed, 
and that he despatched Lord Temple (who this can be 
I can't conceive) with notice of it to the Pretender, 
and that he was to march to Edingborugh. All this 
seems to be making too much haste, nor can I com- 
prehend that he would venture to march to Ediug- 
borugh, with his 150 Volunteers; or that if it is really 
so, that it should not be known in England before the 
departure of the last letter. However, as there seems 
to be no doubt of the scheme in general, you may 
easily judge of the consternation I am in ; nothing 
else is talked of here, and with an assurance that 
astonishes me.' 

1745. SEA FIGItf. 105 

' . . . I can neither think or write about any- 
thing but the invasion, for I hear of nothing else. 
There is, however, so much inconsistence in the french 
accounts, and such affectation of publicity, contrary 
to their usual custom that I know not what to make 
of it. I have seen a letter from Brest with a long 
account of the late engagement between one of our 
ships, which is therein called the Maria Louisa of 74 
guns, and the 60 gun ship of France, which happened 
on the 20th (N. S.) of last month ; the small ship with 
the Pretender's boy escaped to Scotland, but the & 
muskets and the 150 Volunteers (the half of which, 
that account says, was killed in the engagement) were 
on board the large ship, which was so disabled that it 
was obliged to return to Brest. Now, how is it 
possible that from the 20th N. S. of last month, 
supposing the boy got to Scotland the same day, that 
he should have had time to despatch my Lord Temple 
from Scotland to Rome with the news that arrived the 
5th Inst. N. S. ? Again, is it probable that the boy 
would venture to land without his company of 
Knights and the arms he had provided, which were 
said possitively to be on board the ship that returned 
to Brest ; the account of the engagement with this 
circumstance is wrote by the second Captain who 
took the command of the ship in lieu of the first who 
was killed in the fight ; so that it appears he must, if 
he landed, be gone alone. The french accounts say 
that he was on march to Edingborugh, of which they 
did not doubt he was master of. Maillebois writes to 
Count Lorenzi : " Voila une nouvelle qui consternera 
beaucoup les amis et allies de la Reine d'Hongrie ; 


c'est pourquoi je la rendray aussi publique que je 
pourray." Count Lorenzi does the same, so that there 
is not a boy in the streets who does not talk of it . . . 
A second Courier arrived a few days ago at Eome, 
supposed to be to the Pretender, though he dismounted 
at the Post and affected to walk about the streets 
of Rome, nor publickly went to anybody's house. 

' The boy's letter to his father is made to contain 
na more than this : "fatigue enfin d'un long exil, j'ai 
pris ma resolution d'aller chercher en Ecosse ou line vie 
ou une mort digne de mon sang" ; this seems too con- 
cise ; however, this and no more, but asking his father's 
and the Pope's blessing, is published at Rome with 
great affectation. The Cardinal (friendly Albani) writes 
that he knows the Pretender has been in person to ask 
the Pope for money for this holy undertaking. The 
accounts are too exact and prove too much, but I hope 
it will !5e found that the Pretender endeavours to make 
a private utility from a scheme they lend their name 
to, and which otherwise France alone could draw any 
profit from. The affectation in publishing all this, 
I hope will end in a scheme of France to cause an 
alarm in the Kingdom with a view of preventing any 
more troops being sent to Flanders. I cannot write 
myself, however, out of the anxiety I am under.' 

August Mth. ' The Pretender's people stick to it 
that the boy is gone to Scotland, and Murray is vio- 
lently angry with those that make any doubt of the 
reality of anything they have been pleased to publish. 
They say the Pretender himself is to leave Rome soon, 
to go either to France or Avignon to be near at hand 
to direct his son's steps. The Cardinal, who believes 


tliis, says that the only thing that retards his journey 
is the want of money, for which he has applied to the 
Pope, and that after many conferences on this head, 
as if they doubted his credit, it had been agreed that 
he should have ^ crowns, on his depositing jewels 
for that value in the Monte di Pieta. If it be true, 
and that he should depart, I must send a Courier to 
Hanover with the notice, from whence it will be sent 
to England. Whilst I am writing to you about the 
father, I am expecting with the utmost impatience, 
news from you about the son/ 

Mr. Chute, in a letter from Eome (August 28th), 
speaks of reports abounding there as they did at 
Florence. ' The Pretendentino was landed in Scot- 
land, was met by 20, by 40,000 Highlanders on the 
shore, was marched to Edinburgh, was master of it; on 
his march to London, "caro Fratello Duchino non 
iscrivo piu a rivederci a St. Giams ! " Abbe Grant 
has letters in his Pockett from seventy Lords who 
would live and die with the boy. My Lord Dunbar 
had sent a Monsignore to school me for my neglect 
of him. I was to expect all the punishments our 
dying Laws stretch'd by a future Chancellor could 
bequeathe me. . . . What could I do ? I had once 
almost resolved to turn Abbate and address a Sonnet 
to the Pope's great Dog.' 

' They tell us, when the Election' (of Emperor of 
Germany) ' is done, we are to have a vast army in 
Flanders, and besides that, we are to have peace with 
the King of Prussia. These are very pleasing Dreams, 
if one was asleep enough to enjoy them. I own, my 
fears disturb my rest. 

198 FLYING REPORTS. 1745. 

' I blush more for Commodore Cooper's Bombs at 
Savona, which did not do what they might, than 
for the poor Duke ' (of Cumberland) ' who was so near 
doing more than he could at Fontenoy. We must wait 
with patience for the arrival of Admiral Vernon who, 
they face me down here, is to bring our Government's 
answer to the Genoese remonstrance. In the mean- 
time we content ourselves with plundering poor 
harmless Merchant Vessels, and brag of the Miglione 
di Scudi which our . Captains run away with ; this 
keeps one in Countenance, for riches are respectable. 

'Mr. Whithed makes you his Compliments. He 
would have been charmed with putting an argument 
on foot with the Princess Borghese, which she is so 
well skill'd in the Handling of, but she has done 
with the Subject, and exhibits herself no more to 
the English.' 

August 3lst. 'The French/ writes Mann, at 
this date, ' begin to be ashamed of the accounts they 
have published. . . . Letters which have this instant 
come in from Rome, inform me that even these people 
begin to depart from their first credulity about the 
Pretender's son, yet there is great motion in the 
family. The Pretender has certainly received crowns 
from the Monte di Pieta, on a supposed deposit of 
Jewels ; and they assert that he has received % more 
from the Pope, and that preparations are making for 
either his or the second son's departure ; some ser- 
vants have been turned off, and several horses sold. 
The Cardinal believes that the Pretender himself has 
had permission to go into France or Avignon ; if so, 
he will carry his son with him.' 


There was growing uncertainty by the 7th Sep- 
tember, on which day Mann wrote of the Pretender's 
partizans in Florence, ' they affirm he is in Scotland 
incog. The Second Son departed from Eome, the 
29th, at night, with as much mystery as his Deme- 
trius did last year ; for some days before, he pretended 
to be ill with a swelled face, with which he exhibited 
himself, but the morning of his departure, it was said 
he had a fever which carried symptoms of the small 
pox, so nobody was admitted. At three hours in the 
night, he set out with the same Valet de Chambre of 
Bal. Tencin, who attended his brother, whom some 
believe that he has gone to join ; others, that he goes 
to Don Phillip's army only. An opinion prevails that 
the Pretender himself will set out soon.' 

Mann took infinite pains in sending accounts of 
what was passing around him, to the Duke of New- 
castle, also to the King, in England, or in Hanover, 
or to meet him in Holland, if he were travelling that 
way, on his road to his British dominions. 'From 
Hanover, Mr. Blair wrote to me/ says Mann, ' that 
the Earl of Kildare, when the news arrived at 
Hanovei of the Pretender's sons being embarked 
for Scotland, offered the King to go to Ireland in- 
stantly, 10 raise, mount, and cloathe a regiment of 
Dragoons at his own expense, for the King's ser- 
vice.' Oui Minister in Tuscany had other troubles on 
his mind. He tells Walpole that he 'bullied' the 
Captains of the fleet in vain, to do their duty in 
intercepting hostile vessels of war. ' They let every- 
thing,' he wites, 'pass into Genoa, which would be 
starved if projer dispositions were made to prevent it. 


I write continually about it ; they tell me they do all 
they can, but I don't believe them, and it makes me 
mad to hear everybody, both friends and enemies abuse 
us on this account, and laugh at our Dominion of the 
Seas. The Captains are too rich with prises already 
taken, to run the risk of being killed for artillery or 
ammunition I ' 

October 5th. ' By the reports of our enemies 
things are so magnified that I am daily terrified. One 
has nobody to speak to or to receive comfort from ; 
nay, one's very friends are taught by their confessors to 
pray for the Pretender's son's success ; you know what 
Keligion can do on weak minds. . . . The behaviour of 
some English at Eome was as impudent as they dared, 
for under pretence of the prohibition being only for the 
father,' (against visiting him), 'they paid great court to 
the sons, and were caressed by them, and you know 
how many arts are put in practise there, to debauch our 
young travellers of late. Then, most of their Gover- 
nors are Jacobites. It is incredible what mischief this 
circumstance occasions. Holdsworth has done more 
harm in this way than can be conceived. I have 
too much reason to believe that Ramsay, who was with 
my Lord Eglington, was of the same* stamp, and his 
Lord was strangely tinctured. . . . You nuy easily 
guess what uneasy hours I pass. Mr. Chite is at 
Rome, and sends me accounts of the insoknces that 
are broached there, and as both he and M\ "Whithed 
are enraged at them, they cannot keep thdr tempers, 
I fear they will be insulted on this account. The 
Cardinal seems sincere at present. Tie Austrian 
interest and ours are too nearly united t< permit him 


to neglect giving me any notice. My private cor- 
respondents do the same, but they only come to alarm 
me, for the assurance of the Pretender's party is so 
great, that one would think they were sure of success.' 

October ISth. 'All possible means, I hope, will be 
used to take the boy ; he should be made a sacrifice of, 
it would cure them from making any more attempts, 
and would discredit France in the greatest degree. 
The Pope would make a Martyr, and in time, a Saint 
of him ; but I had rather he should be prayed to, by 
these fools, in Heaven, than adored in Scotland or 
England, where, in time, he would make Martyrs of us 

'The Pope is such a Ooglione, that I can't bear him, 
nor the insolence of his Court. I think really England 
ought not to suffer such to declare themselves our 
enemies, and not chastize them. If their religion 
teaches them to be such and obliges them to give us all 
the disturbance they can, they ought to expect we 
should resent it ; nay, make a merit with Heaven for 
being chastized on that account. Seriously, their 
insolence is too great.' 

October 26th. 'We are in daily expectation to 
hear of the Pretender's departure from Konie. Every- 
thing is prepared ; a new Berline on springs, and a 
chaise, are ready near his house at Albano. I have 
been most delightfully well informed of all his motions. 
A back door has been made at his villa, to go to a 
neighbouring little one, where all his things are ready ; 
and by the help of that private door, he can go to it, 
without being seen by any of his servants. 

' Poor Mr. Chute and Whithed have been at Rome, 

202 SCENES IN SOME. 1745. 

at a most shocking time ; hut have most heroically 
kept up their spirits, and contradicted all the lies the 
Jacobites spread ; by which means, they insensibly 
became the head of quite a new party in Rome. I 
say quite new, for really hitherto our English have 
either laboured secretly or scandalously. Those who 
have abstained from going to the Pretender's people, 
have paid profound court to his sons, or to Dunbar, 
in company. The latter, not being used to the con- 
tempt the Chutes have shewn him, has done all he can 
to discredit them, seeing they were well introduced, by 
telling everybody they were of the meanest extraction, 
and that Mr. Chute was Mr. Whithed's governor. 
This has made a very disadvantageous impression 
where they had even been vastly well received before. 
I have wrote such letters to the Cardinal about it that 
the Jacobites would poison me if they were to see 
them. Murray says publickly that the King his 
Master is highly offended at Chute and Whithed, not 
so much for what they have said as for their in- 
solence in not going to court, since they must know 
how things go now. Was ever such insolence ?' 

On November the 9th, Mann writes at great length 
that at the news from England, his spirits were rising, 
' which the clamours from Rome had quite sunk, for 
there the Rebellion goes on much more prosperously 
than in Scotland.' At still greater length, in his most 
wordy manner, he proceeds to express his belief that 
Prince Charles Edward, 'the boy,' is not in Scotland 
at all, but in Spain ; a belief founded on the report 
of a drunken courier who had been to Avignon 
with Henry, the younger son of the Pretender, and 




also affirmed in his cups, that the two brothers had 
there met, and that, on their parting, the elder brother 
had set out for Spain ! Mann had ' a little friend ' 
who served him as a spy. This lad's father was in the 
Pretender's household at Albano, and the son affected 
to be as much of a Jacobite as his sire, and so picked 
up many a gossiping item which was not intended to 
be repeated. The courier's story was one ; and Mann was 
inclined to believe it. ' Mr. Chute/ he writes on the 
9th, 'says that he has had great opportunities of being 
informed, that the Pretender never showed that anxiety 
that was natural, had such an enterprize been under- 
taken by his son in person, though looked upon in the 
most advantageous light consistent with the nature of 
it. On the contrary, the Pretender has been consider- 
ably more gay and cheerfull. You know what a 
Pusillanimous being it is ; even a person of the 
greatest firmness of mind must have been uneasy, 
and discovered it at sometime,' At immense length, 
Mann justifies his opinion that Charles Edward was 
not in Scotland, but he does not venture to guess who 
was playing his part there. 

November 20th. ' The foreign papers say that the 
King offered the command of the troops going to 
Scotland, to Lord Stair, but that he answered, that as 
he was thought too old to command in Flanders, he 
was not grown younger since. Another paragraph in 
the papers is credited by all the Italians, that the 
King, speaking to his Council of the Rebellion, asked 
the Bishop of Canterbury what was to be done and 
what could be undertaken for his safety. The Bishop 
replied that he would order prayers to be said for him 


in all the Churches, from which they conclude all was 

The body of English Merchants at Leghorn did 
not think so. Those gentlemen were stout Hano- 
verians, and Mann suggested that they would do 
themselves honour by sending a loyal address to the 

' They seemed,' he says, e overjoyed at the oppor- 
tunity.' Gold worthy invited them to dinner last 
Wednesday, which was the King's birthday ; and 
there the Address was proposed. Their joy in toasting 
healths was vastly pompous. I send you the list for 
your diversion. The address you will probably see 
printed. I do not approve of the distribution of their 
Chambers which were fired at the healths. I would 
very willingly have given half of mine to add to the 
number of the Duke's, and have divided the rest between 
their Imperial Majesties and the King of Sardinia. 

' The following is a copy of the List of Healths. 

Public Healths drank at Leghorn Dinner. 

1. To His Majesty Chambers 100 

2. To the Prince, Princess, and Royal Family . 60 

3. To the Duke (of Cumberland) 40 

4. To their Imperial Majesties 40 

5. To the King of Sardinia 40 

6. To Marshal Wade and success to the King's 

Forces under his Command 30 

7. To Success to the Allies 30 

8. Confusion to the Pretender and his Adherents 50 

9. To the Nobility and Gentry who are arming at 

their own Expense in defence of our Re- 
ligion and Libertys . ' 50 


10. To a Peace with the King of Prussia our 

Ally 30 

11. To the Admirals and all His Majesty's Fleet . 30 

12. To His Majesty's Resident, Mr. Mann, at 

Florence 50 

13. To the Pious and Immortal Memory of King 

William the Third for the Glorious Legacy 

he left us .... 50 

14. To the Success of the British Factory and 

Trades . 50 

Chambers Nrs 650 

November 23rd. The Pope was as anxious for 
the success of the Pretender as he was reluctant to 
acknowledge the new Emperor of Germany, Francis. 
' He still finds pretences/ says Mann, ' to put off 
acknowledging the Emperor. He had fixed a Con- 
sistory for that purpose, on the 22nd, but lately sent 
for the Ambassador and made objections to the terms 
of the Emperor's letter. In short the french and 
Spanish Cabals, united with those of the Pretender, so 
terrify the coglione Pope, that he does not dare do what 
he promised. Couriers have been sent to Vienna on 
this account, and the Marquis de (illegible) only waits 
for their return, and will then probably leave Kome 
without carrying his acknowledgment to Vienna. How 
I long to see the Pope punished for the contempt with 
which he treats everybody but France, Spain, and the 
Pretender. Valenti is the villain that governs him 
under the tuition of Acquaviva. Accounts have been 
printed at Rome of the Rebels' success in Scotland. I 
send one to the Duke of Newcastle by this post. Some- 


tiling contemptible and mortifying to Rome ought to 
be printed in England and dispersed in a foreign 

December 7th. ' I can hear nothing from England 
about the Pretender's son, so I'll tell you what they 
say at Eome. He gives out that all goes well, and 
they print accounts of his progress, and his speeches 
to his Highlanders. They say that France had sent 
an Irish regiment into Scotland, and that thousands 
more are to follow. The last thing that has been 
printed is a letter from Colonel Olimphant (sic) to a 
friend of his in the King's service in Flanders ; a most 
simple composition, but it is too bad. 

' The Pope lias given the Pretender crowns, and 
iw indulgences to as many as will pray for his success. 
Publick devotions have been performed in the Church 
of St. Francis and at Sto. Spirit o there has been a 
Triduo, and the Exposition of their Sacrament, with 
all the solemn nonsence they can invent. I don't 
wonder at this, but I own I am surprised the Pope 
parted with the ^ crowns ; half the expense of making 
a Saint, in the creation of which that old coglione so 
much delights. 

'. . . A person here has received a letter from a friend 
of his in Lancashire, a man of an Estate, who ac- 
quaints him the Papists were grown to that Insolence 
that, among others, he had received a letter to tell him 
if he offered to stir in favour of the Government, that 
he should certainly be murthercd and his house burnt 
down ; which, he tells his friend here, has so alarmed 
him that he never ventured out after it was dark, nor 
could venture to do anything till the troops they ex- 


pected came into that country. It seems to me 
astonishing that nobody is taken up. I announced 
Holdsworth's return to England, loaden I daresay, 
with treasonable letters, and the boy's pictures which 
I know he carried but no notice was taken of these 

December 2,7th. ' The contents of your letter are 
like Sal volatile to my drooping spirits. You cannot 
think how the insolent Jacobites at Eome deject one, I 
have often made a resolution not to believe a word 
they say, but they come upon one so many ways that 
it is impossible to be quite indifferent to their reports. 

' The Pope has at last acknowledged the Emperor, 
in spite of the French and Spanish Cabals, strength- 
ened by those of the Pretender, who all shew the 
utmost mortification. The first is important and 
threatens every body with the displeasure du Roy. 
The second will have every body's bones broken who 
offers to rejoice ; and forbids all the Neapolitan Cardi- 
nals and dependents lighting up a single torch on the 
occasion ; but they all ventured to disobey, except 
Cardinal Borghese. It was not the same with the 
nobility who have Feuds in Naples, which were to be 
confiscated had they disobeyed. As to the Preten- 
der, who used on all publick occasions to rejoice with 
every body, on this he has shown his attachment to 
his allies, France and Spain, and by that means saved 
his wax torches. Nay, his anxiety is so great, that I 
dare say he has taken a resolution to employ all his 
future naval forces against the new Emperor and any 
one that calls him so. 

SOCIAL TL'AlTt. 1745. 



THE oilier side of the picture, in which .social ti'aits 
are almost exclusively dealt with, presents these 
^ketches to the ' Curious/ 

Jan/turi/ bill. 'Our Carnival is begun with two 
of the worst Operas that was ever known ; that in the 
threat theater, after the first night's representation, Avas 
suspended for a week in hopes of mending it, but all 
that has been done is to shorten it, so that there is only 
not so much bad. Most of the Lorainers are the Im- 
presarii, and amongst them the learned Lady AValpole. 
A droll scene happened lately between her and General 
Andrasi, a very learned man for a hussar; she put 
him on the topiek of ^fetaphi/f/isk, as usual ; and on 
his not being confounded on her mention of Newton, 
she cried out : " forsc Signor General a letto Adltaire." 
-" No, my Lady, ho letto Ne\vton, e 1' intendo molto 
ben3' v ; but as they could not agree, she would not 
allow that/ 

'. . . 1 am resolved,' says I\Jr. Chute, writing to 
Walpole, under Claim's cover, ' my letter shall begin 
with something new, and therefore date it at this end. 
1 dare say this is the first 1745 you have ever seen in 

1745. SPECULATION. 209 

your life ; and I swear 'tis an odd thing to look a new 
year thus in the Face. If I were to live to write 
1800, a new Century! Jesus! how it would make 
one stare, if one was not to be blind first. I wonder 
what sort of a world it will be then ! Will there be a 
Bruin of Brandenburg to roar and ravage and suck 
his bloody paws, as he does now ; or will the Queen 
of Hungary lead one muzzled in a cord and make him 
leap over her Scepter for the Emperor Joseph ? Will 
the King of France bestow his favours on a Due or a 
Duchesse ? or send both to the Devil and turn Saint 
again ? Who will be Czar of Muscovy ? who King 
of England in those days ? ' 

January 12th. After expressions of grief at Lord 
Orford's serious illness, Mann says : ' There is an 
exercise much in fashion in the fleet, and said to be 
vastly wholesome, that of swinging. I have a great 
notion my Lord might bear it ; they are made so easy 
and secure that there is no danger of falling. I have 
had one sent me and intend to use it every day. This 
is all the diversion this winter will afford. A courier 
arrived two days ago, with the notice of Madame 
Royale's death' (the mother of the Great Duke of 
Tuscany) * and with orders to suspend all diversions, 
to which a mourning of nine months succeeds. All 
the Great Duke's ministers are to drapper, and they 
say we must follow their example. My brother Mini 
Lorenzi is preparing for joy and mourning ; he has 
received a remittance from his court of 500 crowns, 
to make rejoicing for the Dauphin's wedding, and is 
consulting all his acquaintance how to spend them 
with most eclat, a Festino in his own house will be 
VOL. i. p 

THE CRAONS. 1745. 

but indifferent for want of room ; and it's not likely 
they'll give him the theaters now they are shut up.' 

January 28th. On a sheet of paper with very 
narrow mourning border, Mann directs attention to 
that outward and visible sign of grief and says : ' I 
believe you never saw any like it before ; here every- 
body uses it but myself. I begged a sheet for this 
occasion only, and another to keep for a curiosity. 
Madame Royale was very unpolite to dye just at the 
beginning of Carnival to deprive us of all its diver- 
sions. ... I have prevailed on the Regency to let the 
Livorneans divert themselves ; their Opera has been 
restored, for which I am in high favour with that little 
town ; but by this I have drawn the Fiorentini upon 
me, who are angry to see Leghorn preferred, and that 
I would not make representations in their favour too. 
It was impossible to succeed, therefore I did not 
attempt it. 

' Prince and Princess Craon whine for the loss of 
this good Princess as if they were really sorry for her ! 
and then they were so nearly related and loved each 
other so perfectly.' (Madame Eoyale went over to 
Paris to complain to her father, the Regent Duke of 
Orleans, of her husband's amour with the Princess de 
Craon.) 'Have you heard of Prince Beauvau's ' (son 
of the Craons) ' good fortune ? besides being made 
Grand d'Espagne, the King of France complimented 
him publickly on his future marriage with Mdlle. de 
Bouillon before anything was agreed upon ; but that 
has fixed it. The Craons are in great joy; they won't 
accept compliments, but don't refuse them. 

'General Braitwitz has wrote again to the Great 

1745. SORROW AND JOY. 2il 

Duke to insist on having his conge, which he called 
the permission de mon conge. He had composed the 
strangest letter that was ever seen, except those the 
Great Duke writes to him ; for example : "Hie ne pare 
letem pur un ofisie di quitter le service " (II n'est pas 
le terns pour nn officier de quitter le service) I don't 
know whether you ever heard a wise saying of the 
Great Duke's, that, give him but five Saints ' (his 
first minister was named Toussaint) 'and he would 
engage to govern all Europe, " mais ille ne pas posible 
de le trove ! " ' 

February 16th. 'I have not been able to go out 
to day to make my compliment on the birth of the 
second Arch-Duke which has produced the Ghost of 
our Carnival, a permission to mask and be merry for 
three days only. People were in hopes that this 
event would have restored the remainder of their 
Carnival, but the Count' (Richecourt) ' keeps his word. 
He told them last St. John when he would have had 
them mask without an Opera and when nobody but 
Sbirri of his own employing did, that they would find 
it more difficult to obtain leave when they should 
desire it. There has been gala, Sunday, monday, 
and to day, for the last, which is to be concluded with 
a ball in the great theater, and to-morrow we are to 
weep again for the Arch-Duke's grandmother, of whom 
the Florentines say, " non ci fecero mai ridere 1 " and 
indeed neither her birthday nor nameday were ever 
taken notice of here. Many assert and all the town 
believes that the Great Duke has given leave for the 
Carnival but that the Count won't produce the order. 
You may judge of the clamour against him/ 


March 9th. ' I must tell you a coup de politique 
of our wise Regent here. Count Lorenzi, before the 
death of the Duchess of Lorraine, received 500 pezzi 
from his court to make rejoicings for the marriage of 
the Dauphin ; he was preparing with the greatest eclat, 
and had announced his balls and tournaments ; the 
mourning intervened, on which (I thing (sic) very 
officiously) he wrote a fine letter to the Regency, to 
acquaint them with his design, hoping the melancholly 
accident might not make the execution of it improper. 
On which he received for answer that in these melan- 
choly circumstances of so deep a mourning they have 
left it to his discretion ; mine, I must have confessed, 
would have been to obey the orders of my Court, but 
he suspended, and gave notice, I suppose, of what had 
passed, to his. The result has been that instead of a 
Ball he caused the Te Deum to be sung at the french 
Convent, and did not invite anybody, which has 
offended highly. Poor Prince Craon is afraid the 
Court of France will be angry with him. He spoke 
to me of it the other day, complaining that he was 
not invited, I said, no doubt Lorenzi had orders, and 
that from the answer the Regency gave, he had little 
reason to suppose they wished to rejoice on the occa- 
sion, and what might confirm him or his court in that 
opinion was that three days after they had put in 
as strong a caveat as they could do against his rejoic- 
ing, they had caused the mourning to be laid aside 
for three days, for the birth of the Arch-Duke, during 
which all publick diversions were not only allowed 
but encouraged. Don't wonder that I give you the 
whole detail of this affair, it has been the subject of 

1745. LEGACY DUTIES. 213 

discourse and discontent out of pique to the person 
who was the occasion of their being deprived of a 
diversion the town expected. Count Lorenzi, besides 
his Te Deum, illuminated his three windows with 
wax torches for three nights, and gave some bread to 
the poor, so that neither the Court of France, nor the 
Court of Florence has acquired great honour.' 

April 6th. ' I must tell you they have made a 
demand on Prince Craon of the Gabella' (tax or duty) 
'of his new daughter-in-law's fortune, which is 1\ per 
cent, though they signified to him they intended to 
make him a present of it. They exact with rigour 
the Gabella on all the legacies the Electress left, and 
everything is valued ; but what is most extraordinary, 
they insist on being paid for the pensions she left to 
those who are since dead ; for example, Siristori 
and Mme. Uguccioni died about a year after, con- 
sequently their pensions cease, but they had fixed 
their lives in their own accounts, for five years, which 
they still demand ; it has been answered that they are 
dead ; well, but they ought to have lived five years. 
. . . Again, the living servants had 5 or 6 crowns per 
month for their lives ; these are esteemed according 
to their ages, and they are obliged to pay the whole 
down as if they were arrived at the end of their 
calculation and all this is suffered ! ' 

April 20th. ;' For this week past, the Holy Week, 
the Count ' (Eichecourt) ' has retired to the country, 
for devotion ; during which my Lady ' (Walpole) ' had 
a prohibition to interrupt his confessions. She had 
permission to go last Saturday. You will admire 
her economy of time ; she took the advantage of that 


sequester, to blister for her complexion, as slie often 
does (for the return of the Count). Judge, after such 
an absence, how fair she must appear in his eyes ; and 
as it is said that Keligion is a great provocative, it is 
to be hoped she was no loser by the pause.' 

On the death of the Earl of Oxford, and the 
accession of Lord Walpole to his father's dignity, 
the court of Florence caused the English minister to 
be overwhelmed with visits or messages of condolence. 
' Among the first/ Mann says (May 4th), ' was Count 
Richecourt/ Mann adds, ' My Lady brags that she 
shall now be extremely rich. I consider that she 
designs to go into mourning. I believe that she 
expects to be wrote to by my Lord ; but whether 
then she would go into mourning I can't tell. To 
people that have applied to me, to know what change 
this event would make in her affairs, I have answered 
that I could not foresee that it would make any but 
in her name.' 

Among the Mann letters is a note from the Prince 
de Craon himself to Horace Walpole, expressive of his 
sympathy with the latter on account of Lord Orford's 
death. It is to this effect, and is in a bold hand for 
an Octogenarian. 

' Monsieur, je suis trop Sensible a tons les Evene- 
ments qui vous interressent pour vous laisser ignorer 
la part que je prends a la perte que vous venez de 
faire de Monsieur votre pere ; nous connaissons 
Made, de Craon et moy la bonte' de votre coeur, et 
nous ressentons vivement ceque luy en a coute dans 
cette occasion, nous ne pouvons Monsieur vous rien 

1745. LADY OEFORD. 215 

offrir do plus propre a servir a votre consolation que 
ces Sentiments dont nous sommes penetrez, qui sont 
si conformes aux votres. 
jay L'lionneur detre avec 
1'attachement le plus inviolable 
et le plus fidel 

votre tres humble 
et tres obeissant Serviteur 

Le prince do Craon. 

le 1 de May 1745. 

Le prince de Beauvau est marie depuis un mois avec 
Mile. D'auvergne, que jay 1'honneur Monsieur de 
vous en donner part persuade que vous luy con- 
tinuerez 1'amitie dont vous lavez honore icy. 

May 1 8th. ' I hear that my Lady Orford is not 
in mourning because she has received no notice from 
your family. She tells people she will go to England 
as the obstacle towards her recovering her right is 
removed, and will be attended by an Abbe' Nicoli, 
an under-secretary of the Count's, but I don't believe 
she will go. ... I have lately had a little correspond- 
ence with two of your relations ; your Uncle's eldest 
son who is coming to Florence (I think you called 
him pig wigging), he has refused living with me. The 
other is George Townshend, Captain of a ship, one of 
those under my directions. . . . The Abbe' Nicoli has 
made cloathes, to appear in England, where his short 
cloak and band won't do.' 

June 1st. ' I am inconsolable for the loss of the 
Chutes who departed last Thursday ; this makes so 
great a change in my way of life that I don't know 

2L6 MR. CHUTE. 1745. 

what to betake myself to. I think there is no danger 
of my becoming a Cicisbeo, though there is no other 
society in this country ; after having been four years 
constantly with people, one is very awkward without 
them ; he was vastly good to me and bore with me in 
all my epuisements and headachs. I have now no 
resource. Mr. Chute went away vastly afflicted for 
the death of his favourite brother, a confirmation of 
which he received the night before he set out. I am 
in great hopes the journey will divert his melancholy. 
They have taken the road of Bologna, Kavenna, Lo- 
retto, etc., and will be at Rome in about ten days, 
where they proposed to stay most part of the summer 
and then hasten to England.' 

On the 26th of June, Mr. Chute seems to have 
considerably recovered. ' Rome, June 26, 1745/ is 
written in the uppermost corner of the sheet of fools- 
cap, and the comment on this text is ' I write to you 
now because you are the only person in the world who 
can enter freely into the distress which stares you in 
the face, at the Top of my Letter. Do but think, I 
am no longer at Florence. I have left Mr. Mann. 
I need say no more to entitle me to your compassion. 
You know what I have left, and 'tis my only comfort 
to think you will love me and write to me because 
you pity me. ... I may permit myself to do justice 
to his Goodness for. me, which has as much exceeded 
all I could expect, as it really does what I pretend to 
deserve. I know I owe the beginning of his Friend- 
ship to you. . . . The unwearied continuance of it for 
four years together, I can give no account of at all, 
except I can suppose he has looked into my heart, 

1745. HIS LETTER. 

which of all others is undoubtedly the best part of 
me. This I ought not to say to you, because you are 
capable of thinking it a real merit which I ascribe to 
myself; do so, and censure me as vain, provided you 
believe me sincerely so. My dear Sir, can you forgive 
me not writing to you when all mankind did. Mr. 
Mann promised me to mention me, and I know he 
did. The reason that I did not mention myself was 
that I despaired of saying anything you could hear in 
the way of consolation' (for Lord Orford's death) "Twas 
folly even to think my letter could do you any good, 
and I found the great melancholly occasion much too 
serious for me to compliment about. ... I must thank 
you ten thousand times for a kind paragraph in your 
last to Mr. Mann which he would not let me read. 
My loss is inexpressible on all accounts, nor am I able 
to find the least comfort in being an horrid step nearer 
to a mould'ring Estate which has lost the only chance 
of ever being repaired. 

' I would never have believed some few years ago 
that it was possible for me to look with such an eye of 
indifference upon Rome as I do ; hitherto nothing has 
made any impression upon me ; all statues appear like 
those at High Park Corner ' (from Apsley House, then 
an ale house, to Park Lane, was occupied by the stone- 
mason statuaries for gardens and graveyards, who 
afterwards removed to the New Road) ' and a Raphael 
or a Domenichino is no more than Queen Anne's head 
at an ale house door. I have indeed seen very few as 
yet, and though I am in the lodging which you had 
last, which is close by the Villa Medici, I have 
passed but five minutes there, and when it was too 


dark to enjoy anything but the solitude of the place, 
which reduced all the charming people there to down- 
right gothick sprights. 

' . . . There is just arrived a new french minister 
here. The Pope despised the former so much, they 
were forced to recall him ; on his pressing too impor- 
tunately for an audience some time ago, the Pope 
came out at last in a passion and said : " Coglioncello I 
non sai che quando non voglio sentire, non voglio 
sentire ? " 

'. . . Poor M. Beauvau, Prince Craon's youngest 
son, is in the dreadful list ' (of killed at the siege of 
Ypres) ' he writes me in answer to my compliment 
on the occasion, " Ma consolation ne peut etre que 
1'ouvrage du Temps ; il emousse la pointe de tous les 
sentiments, et il detruit enfin la plus vive douleur que 
les evenements dont il est le pere auroient fait naitre," 
'tis very true, but I should never have thought of 
saying it so finely.' Horace Walpole has written at 
the foot of this letter in which a man speaks of 
trusting to time to cure his grief : ' Prince Craon is 
fourscore ! ' 

June 29th. c Prince Craon thanks you for your 
letter, and says you write "le plus joliment du monde." 
You had no time to condole with him for his son, so I 
suppose you won't venture renovare dolorem ... I 
have introduced the Chutes to my friend Cardinal 
Albani who has introduced them to every body, so 
that they are in all the high Eoman world.' 

It was in that world Mr. Chute made the discovery 
of a work of art which became one of the highest 
prized ornaments of Strawberry. Mann thus describes 
it in a letter dated July 13th : 

1745. WALPOLE'S EAGLE. 219 

' Mr. Chute lias pressed me to mention to you, a 
most beautiful antique Eagle that has lately been 
found at Eome in the highest preservation and as far 
superior to that of Benvenuto Cellini as that is to 
the worst made at Hide Park Corner. Cardinal 
Albani is in love with it, and says it would be 
a fine present for the new Emperor, but that he 
would not know its value. He thinks it too dear. 
The demand is 250 crowns, but Mr. Chute believes, 
in case the Cardinal will not have it (as it was 
he brought him acquainted with it) that he could 
get it for 100 zecchini (fifty pounds). It stands on a 
sepulchral stone with its inscriptions and bassi rilievi 
entire. Mr. Chute thinks you might indulge your 
taste for antiquities at such an expense ; all I am 
assured is that your orders will come late in case you 
would have it. I have not time to say half Mr. Chute 
writes in its praise, but by his accounts, both the 
Eagle and the pedestal are compleat.' 

' I don't know what to say to Mr. Chute's Eagle,' 
wrote Walpole to Mann (July 28), 'I would fain have 
it. I can depend upon his taste ; but wouldn't it 
be folly to be buying curiosities, now ? how can I 
tell that I shall have anything in the world to pay 
for it, by the time it is bought ? You may present 
these reasons to Mr. Chute, and if he laughs at them, 
why then he will buy the Eagle for me ; if he thinks 
them of weight, not.' Chute laughed, and he bought 
the famous Eagle which had been recently discovered 
in the Gardens of Boccapadregli, within the precincts 
of Caracalla's Baths, at Home. For a century it stood 
on its altar in the Gallery at Strawberry Hill. At the 

220 LADY ORFORD. 1745. 

scattering of Strawberry, by sale, the Earl of Leicester 
purchased the work of art, for J6210. Earl Fitz- 
william subsequently became its possessor, at a much 
higher price ; and, at the present moment, the grand 
weird-looking bird is in the mansion of the Earl of 
Wemyss in Stratford Place, London. 

August 10th. ' I am become a la mode ; the 
Lorainers even frequent me, but they are most of 
them, Anti-Bichecourtiani. The last time I was there 
he took an opportunity to talk of Hanover. . . . He 
said my Lady Orford had wrote to him from thence, 
to acquaint him that she had been most graciously 
received by the King and Princess of Hesse, and that 
she never failed a day going to Herrnhausen. I 
replied that the name she wore exigeait toujours des 
marques de bont de Sa Majeste, but I was resolved 
not to seem to understand the idea he wanted to 
convey, and which is the same with all her admirers, 
who fancy this royal favour is gaining a great point. 
They are ignorant of our laws, and fancy that our 
Royal family condescend to interfere in family affairs 
as Giovanni Gaston (the last of the Medici Dukes 
of Tuscany) used to do. De Sade told me in a large 
company, speaking of this subject, that " TEsprit etoit 
dangereux." I told him I did not understand him, 
but that it was necessary he should distinguish 
between France and England. I don't think it impos- 
sible that my Lady has so far forgot that distinction 
as to have hopes and a view in this jaunt to Herrn- 

' The Count sees Richmond, Lady Orford's gentle- 
woman, often ; he goes to her, and she to him, and 

1745. FAMILY HISTORY. 221 

carries her with him in his coach, to his country house, 
where they say he is fitting up an appartment for my 
Lady. ... I cannot help wishing with many others 
that she may take a fancy to any place but this, for the 
country is better without her. . . . It is not my Lord's 
business to wish to prove anything against her, which 
might authorize him to demand a separation, or a 
divorce, either of which would prejudice his interests. 
. . . She can have no pretence to demand either, as 
her absence has been voluntary. She certainly has 
undertaken this step by advice from England/ 

This family history is pursued in a letter of the 
1 7th August : ' I cannot help repeating my fears 
that my Lord may take a wrong course ; surely it 
cannot be his business to produce proofs that might 
authorize a divorce or separation. She would not 
scruple to own anything that he suspects, provided 
that she could bring it to that issue. In case she 
begins a process, in my opinion my Lord should only 
prove that he never gave cause to her absence ; the 
consent he gave to her going abroad for her health 
and the allowance he first continued to her are proofs 
of his former care of her ; her persistence in staying 
abroad against his consent, is a sufficient motive for 
having lessened the first allowance ; though in its 
diminution of 1000 per. annum, it will be always 
considered as fully sufficient for a rambling lady. 

' My conversations are very brillantes and very 
numerous. Pig wiggin delights in them much, though 
he does not produce himself much. Mme Suares, 
you know, is easy of access, so he takes most to her. 
The Vittorina is to be married in October. They put 

222 MU. ST. JOHN. 

it off as long as possible, in hopes of something coming 
forth for the Teresa, but there seems no likelihood of it. 
. . . You have heard me speak of Mr. St. John the mad- 
man ; his madness has now quite changed its situation. 
He has a demand on Carducci for 1000 crowns, which 
the latter refuses to pay, as being under age when he 
contracted the obligation, and the laws here are on his 
side. St. John thinks he is in honour bound to pay 
it, and besides is persuaded if he does not, his marriage 
will turn out a nullity. St. John says that his sister 
has often told him so from heaven ; she has been dead 
these three years, and some miracles were attributed 
to her, so that she is, with some, in odore di Santita. 
St. John finished a long letter to me on the subject of 
Caducci with a singular message from this deceased 
sister referring to the marriage, which he says, " She 
prays me to tell you." 

August 31 st. 'The Countess's stay at Hanover 
convinces me she has some scheme. . . . Eichecourt 
constantly receives letters from her, which he does not 
conceal ; ... he goes publickly to Richmond and 
makes his coach wait at the door for hours. She has 
been with him all last week in the country at his 
Villa. . . . The publicity with which he carries her 
about is quite affected, though the old creature can 
hardly speak a word of anything but English.' Sep- 
tember 7th. Mr. Blair, who was at Hanover, in the 
King's suite, wrote thus to Mann : ' My Lady Or- 
ford has been here, on her way to England, and I 
think, does you great honour in setting forth that you 
have always been a faithful friend and servant to the 
late and present Earls of Orforcl.' 'I cannot think,' 


says Mann, ' that my Lady meant this as any com- 
mendation of me/ 

October 5th. ' I write to you instead of going to 
a great ball in the Via del Popolo which the officers 
give in honour of the Election' (of Francis, Great Duke 
of Tuscany, as Emperor of Germany). 'Two were 
given by the Accademy. To-day is the Emperor's 
name (-day ; St. Francis' day is on October 4th), and 
we suppose, his coronation. I am very little of a 
humour to participate of their rejoicings, and yet must 
be at them, not to be particular. The first day of joy 
happened to be my Thursday, and the Eegency, after 
the Te Deum, which ended at 24 hours, appointed 
nothing, depending on everybody's coming here ; so 
they did ; the Prince and Princess, near 200 ladies and 
too many men to be counted. You may imagine I 
was crowded, but I had practiced a Gallery in the 
Garden, out of which my ground-rooms enter ; my 
Garden and all was well lighted ; it made a very good 
appearance. With that Assembly, I put an end to my 
Thursdays for this summer ; and this evening puts an 
end to all our festivals, which, on the part of the Govern- 
ment, have been equal to their extreme poverty, for 
the Court carried away all the money.' 

Rome was not so glad, nor disposed to allow 
others to be so glad at the accession of the new Em- 
peror, as the Florentines were, or would have been, if 
the Grand Duke before he was elected to the dignity, 
had not taken ' all the money ' he could, from Florence 
to Vienna. In the above letter Mann says : 

'A circumstance has lately happened at Rome 
that makes me fear greatly for the Chutes, who 

224 A E10T IN ROME. 1745. 

are strongly in the Austrian party, which Aquaviva 
piques himself to persecute. On the last Election of 
the Great Duke of Tuscany to be Emperor of Ger- 
many (Francis) the mob to show their joy, as" well as, 
1 suppose, to get money, made a figure in wood 
adorned with Imperial Eobes ; this they earned in 
triumph about the town, not meaning I believe to give 
any offence, and last week went in great numbers to 
Franchini's house, that is the Palazzo Medici, on the 
Trinita del Monte ; this joy was soon disturbed by 
Aquaviva's whole guard of 100 people, armed with 
guns, sabres, pistols, etc. and headed by the person 
in his lively who is called Capitano della Piazza di 
Spac/na. They fired on the above mob and then fell 
on them, with the utmost inhumanity, with their other 
weapons. Some were killed and many wounded, and 
had not the gates of the Palazzo Medici been opened 
to receive the mob, much more mischief would have 
been done. 

' Cardinal Albani and Franchini immediately made 
complaints to the Pope, but at the departure of an Ex- 
press they sent with this notice, no answer had been 
returned. Those in Aquaviva's party commend him 
and say he did well by doing what the Government of 
Home ought to have done, since any one should be so 
insolent as to rejoice for an Emperor the Pope had not 
acknowledged 1 In short, little satisfaction is to be 
expected from the Imbecility of the Pope, guided by 
Cardinal Valenti (who is as much a Spaniard as 
Aquaviva) and totally directed by him. I am sur- 
prized however that the Pope is not afraid of the 
consequences of such tumults, for was Cardinal Albani 

1745. ABUSE OF THE POPE. 225 

to encourage the Transteverini and the mob of Kome, 
which is all Austrian, Rome would be in a flame. 
Aquaviva's guard permits nobody to go over the Place 
d'Espagne (which he calls his jurisdiction) with green 
cockades. They tear them from them, and abuse 
them ; and our friends acquainted me some time ago 
that they and their servants wear them. 

* Cardinal Albani was waiting to see what satisfac- 
tion the Court of Rome would give, and then, designed 
to despatch a Courier to Vienna. Poor Franchini is 
daily exposed to insults by his neighbourhood to 
Aquaviva who governs all there with the greatest in- 
solence. The Pope is a beast and a coglione of whom 
everybody complains. If I was the Emperor, I would 
threaten him, if he won't govern better, to apply to 
the Colledge of Cardinals, this would mortify him 
strangely. Whilst these things are going forward, he 
amuses himself with making Saints, and a little while 
ago held a publick dispute with a Colonna, a boy of 
19 ; the Pope himself harangued in the presence of a 
vast audience. What can be expected from him ?' 

Aquaviva was soon in a condition which Mann 
bore with cheerful resignation. On the 19th October 
he writes : ' The villain is in a fair way of going, as 
the common people at Rome say, a Casa del Diavolo ! 
He is vastly ill with a paralytick dangerous disorder, 
which has already cost him one of his eyes, and the 
other is in danger. His surgeon says it is all over 
with him. I wish indeed it may happen soon. Some 
of his own fools would be persuaded it was a judge- 
ment from Heaven for the murders he lately ordered 
to be committed.' 

VOL. I. - Q 

226 COUPLING. 1745. 

' . . . The Teresina is a Sposa to young Count 
Pcccori, the very man for whom the Pepi would have 
killed the Parigi. It is a good match, and they all 
thank Heaven for so much good luck at a time she 
was in danger of getting nobody. The Vittorina is to 
be wedded next Monday to Carducci at their villa, 
with all privacy.' 

The Vittorina was married on the following Wed- 
nesday, and began keeping house with her husband 
the day after. ' I am afraid,' writes Mann (9th Nov.), 
' they will soon be unhappy, they are so poor, and she 
is so lively, and he will be so jealous. The Teresina's 
match goes on with Count Peccori. He is a fool but 


good natured, and in very good circumstances. They 
will certainly be very happy, and have the prettiest 
children in the world. 

' I carried Mme. Antinori last week to (illegible) 
to dine with the Princess, who was vastly gracious ; 
but she is still fond of a shape, for which she laces 
so tight, that she is always sick. The Duke and 
Duchess Salviati dined there. Her Grace of Salviati 
is infinitely devote and has a great deal of humour.' 

November 2Qth. Under this date, Mann refers to 
the recent death of Lady Granville (formerly Carteret, 
daughter of the Earl and Countess of Pomfret). ' I 
don't write to my Lady on this melancholy occasion,' 
he says, ' I did on her daughter's marriage with 
Carteret but she never took any notice of it. She had 
a little before been offended at my lending Mr. Fermor, 
her son, money to buy absolute necessaries on his 
being appointed Captain of a ship, and without which 
he would have been obliged to eat with the sailors, for 

1745. SEA-BE 'ARS. 227 

want of a plate to eat off, or of a napkin. I incon- 
venienced myself by lending him that money and 
incurred his Lady mother's displeasure for my pains, 
and my Brother was used uncivilly, though she after- 
wards sent to ask his pardon.' 

December 7th. .... Mann gives another 
illustration of the character of our naval captains 
at this period. 'If Mr. Townshend,' he says, 'was 
not your cousin, I would tell you that he is not 
at all better than many of the bears I have had to 
deal with. I declare to you, I wonder how any of our 
affairs succeed in the hands of such unexperienced 
things. How could my Lord Townshend let the educa- 
tion of any son of his be neglected so ? You cannot 
conceive the pains I have taken with him ; nobody 
can unless they were to see the letters I have daily 
wrote to him, and he is not, I dare say, sensible of it 
by them/ 




THE year 1746 opened upon Mann and the English 
Colony at Florence with troubled and uncertain light. 
On January 4th he writes : ' We are ignorant what 
the Rebels in Scotland are doing. None but French 
and Spanish Couriers pass, and they turn one's brains. 
By the letters of the former, the Rebels have beat 
Wade and marched to London. Then Wade is in dis- 
grace and mistrusted ; in short, there is no kind of 
absurdity that they do not invent and publish ; and 
all is credited. I am very sorry for the affair at 
Carlisle which has furnished them with a large 
quantity of arms, but I trust they will be taken from 
them with their lives. On the whole, however, it 
seems strange that a body of rabble of 9, 10, or ^ 
men should be permitted to insult the whole King- 
dom, by the slowness used on our side to disperse 
them. We gave them all possible advantage and a 
chance of receiving succours from abroad. Some of 
our travellers have so good an opinion of their success, 
that they are gone to Rome, to pay homage among 
the first. Bouverie does not act publickly as to the 
Pretender, but has all his people constantly to dine 


with him. His three companions, Holt, Phelps, and 
Munroe the mad doctor's son went last fryday to the 
Portico of the S ti Apostoli, to wait for the Pretender's 
coming out, to compliment him upon his Son's birth- 
day, and went afterwards to dine at his house, it is 
said, with him, but I suppose with his people. Mr. St. 
John is outrageous and rebelliously mad. He curses 
the King in all companies and he wrote me a strange 
treasonable letter : he is quite mad and so not worth 
any notice.' 

January 18th. - ( All I can say to you is that we 
have four posts wanting from England. You will 
easily imagine the cruel situation I am in, since our 
Enemies take advantage of this accident to publish 
the most violent accounts of the Rebels who, according 
to them, are masters of London. I do not believe one 
word they say ; but still, I wish to be assured from 
you, my dear child, that they are liars . . . 

' . . . I was most agreeably surprized last fryday 
by the arrival of the Chutes from Rome, which place 
they could bear no longer. None but villains are well 
received there. Had it not been for good Cardinal 
Albani they must have decamped long ago ; but he 
supported them, and they their spirits, till the last 
when, to shew their contempt for those that had used 
them ill, though they had been civil at first, they 
came away without taking leave. They have left 
Bouverie, Phelps, Holt, and Munroe in high favour, 
because they pay their court publickly to mock- 
Majesty, with whom they have dined. The first was 
a worthy disciple of Holdsworth ; the second is a 
Fellow at Oxford, and flaming. He has nothing to 


lose, but travels at Bouverie's expense ; but, because 
he is of the right idea, is thought a great Cavalier. 
Holt is of Suffolk and has, they say, a good Estate. 
Munroe is the mad Physician's son and is himself a 
travelling Physician. They are all persuaded things 
will go as they wish ; for, as I told you, they publickly 
frequent the Pretender and his people. Surely, the 
Government will take notice at last of this be- 

' The Chutes keep up my spirits and we endeavour 
to convince each other that things cannot be as they 
tell us ; but even here we have so many Enemies ! 
and many good Catholick friends are taught by their 
Confessors to wish against us. The poor Prince and 
Princess are so strangely out when I go there that 
they don't know how to talk to me about it. They 
are so embarassed to name the names different to what 
they have talked of them all day before ; for they 
believe all the dirty stuff that comes from Paris more 
than anything I can say to them.' 

January 25th. 'Your two letters of Nov. 29th 
and 9th of Dec. which both came together have 
raised our drooping spirits extremely. The Chutes 
and I had almost been quite cast down by the villain- 
ous reports the day before of a Courier who had 
passed by for Rome. The Rascal gave out that every- 
thing went on victoriously for the Rebels ; in short 
that they were masters of almost all England ; that 
thousands had rose in their favour, and that the King 
was retired from London. Judge you how it is 
possible to exist when such stories were spread and 
believed by most. I don't tell you we believed him, 


but we dreaded that some accident had happened, 
that the Rebels had escaped the Duke's army, and 
that some risings might have been in their favour. 
Part or all of this we dreaded, when your dear letters 
came, and as we had been expecting the post for a 
long time, my house was crowded that morning ; some 
in hopes of hearing good, and others bad news. Our 
friends were fully satisfied and the Orsi ' (faction in 
favour of Spanish interests) ' and the Jacobites would 
not be discomfited " because I am a Minister and 
obliged to tell lies to serve my Court." The most 
sensible, however, knowing that such is not my 
custom, began to tremble. Cospetto ! se lo dice Mr. 
Mann, bisogna che sia cosi perche 1' e troppo honesto e 
non dice bugie. Povero Principino ! ' 

February 15th. 'The contents of your letter of 
January 3rd, which arrived yesterday, were so charm- 
ing, as well as the Gazette which accompanied it, that 
by the advice of many, and to be revenged of the vile 
Gazetteers of Bologna, etc., I have translated the 
Taking of Carlisle into Italian and dated my Gazette 
from Bologna, with this introduction ; " Essendoci 
pervenute da mano sicura le sequente notizie, si crede 
far cosa grata al Publico con renderle palesa ; " and 
so many of them are to go slyly to Rome where, no 
doubt, they will be surprised to see my paper dated 
from Bologna with any other title for the King than 
that of Elector of Hanover; for the Pretender's son, 
that of Real Principe di Galles. Indeed, I have not 
had any occasion to name him, but I speak of the 
Rebels in general. The Italians say already, " Povero 
Principino ! e che le Inglesacci have betrayed him." 


Still, my dear, the Pretender does not show that 
concern which would be natural were his sou in so 
much danger. I hope the Duke will go into Scotland 
and finish what he has so well begun. The soldiers 
will certainly like nobody so well, to conduct them.' 

March 15th. 'How is it possible not to be con- 
tinually uneasy ? We always receive the first accounts 
from France, which are echoed to us from Rome, with 
all the additions the Jacobites please to add ; and all 
this is credited by every body, and crammed upon us 
till we receive letters from England ; but in the interval, 
it is impossible to have courage enough to be quite 
tranquil. Hawley's affair, for example, frightened us 
out of our senses. The French accounts magnified it 
a hundred-fold, and they said positively the King of 
France had given a Mr. Brown the Cross of St. Louis, 
for bringing him such great news. In this belief I 
remained for above a week, and received many letters 
of condolence, which confirmed my alarm. Cardinal 
Albani was as much frightened, for Dunbar harangued 
the Patroni's Assembly with all the particulars and 
advantages he wished, and our English Jacobite 
travellers -m&dtQ junkets, and got drunk with rejoicing 
with the Pretender's servants for that success. We 
were cast down till your dear letter of the 28th 
January revived us by showing the affair was not 
of much consequence, if the not having extinguished 
the Rebellion may be allowed to be so, when the 
opportunity was so fair. But we are really now in 
spirits, believing that the terror the Duke has struck 
into those villains will put an end to it. ... A 
Courier passed by yesterday from France to Rome. 

1746. AT SEA. 233 

who, as we suppose, carried news to the Pretender that 
will quite disconcert him ; but we cannot hear the 
effect till next week.' 

April 26th. ' How terrible it is we cannot put 
the Rebellion out ! The Jacobites are in high spirits 
and boast of their conquests. Inverness is represented 
to be of as much importance as Edinburgh Castle ! ' 
Mann found some consolation for the Jacobite boast- 
ing, in certain little successes which he had brought 
about in the Mediterranean, by advice and orders 
which he was authorized to give to our naval com- 
manders. Mr. Townshend received instructions from 
home to conquer Corsica, then in possession of 
the Genoese ; Mann advised him not to attempt a 
perfectly hopeless undertaking, but to harass the 
Genoese at sea. Townshend followed the Minister's 
counsel. ' I must not omit to tell you of my success 
while I commanded. Lord Colvil, whom I sent to the 
coasts of Genoa, took a french ship and destroyed 
eight barks with provisions, five of which had the 
Pope's colours ; the other three, Genoese. I expect 
to be doubly excommunicated, and then poisoned by 
the Genoese.' 

May Z&th. 'I am much obliged by your good 
news, which makes me hope that by this time, the 
Rebellion is quite at an end. The Jacobites won't 
believe it, but still talk of their advantages. A 
Courier passed by from france to Rome a few days ago, 
and though I don't hear he said anything, yet pre- 
sently it was reported that he carried to the Pretender, 
the news of his Son's victory over the Duke, who 
was retired with difficulty to the mountains, having 


lost his whole army ! Can anything be so absurd ? 
I promise you never to be alarmed by their accounts 

On the 31st of May Mann is finally at ease. 
' Your Victory/ he says, ' was most welcome, and gave 
me great joy. I was on the point of relapsing into 
my fears. The french and Jacobites tell lies so con- 
fidently and stick to them so strongly that they 
stagger me. I told you a Courier passed by this 
place lately from france to Rome. Immediately, all 
Italy was imposed upon by the false accounts from 
that centre of falsehood. All the french letters, 
nay, those to poor Prince Craon, confirmed a violent 
victory of the Rebels, and such an encrease of their 
force as was able to do every thing. Do but see by the 
enclosed scrap of a Gazette, a specimen of their im- 
pudence. At Rome all was joy and insolence, and the 
Pretender's people caused an account to be printed, 
which my friends did not send me, thinking it was 
unnecessary after the news of our real victory, which 
they received sooner than I did. Pucci was the first 
to announce it here. I was at Prince Craon's when 
the letter came last Wednesday, the 29th, and I have 
received yours only to-day, the 31st. This is owing 
to the bad method the office is in by sending the 
packets to a man at Leyden, by which means they 
are retarded. I have been ordered to send mine the 
same way, which consequently retards mine too. 

' Well ! the Duke is a glorious little hero. I am 
glad the nation is obliged to him for such noble 
exploits. I hope, before he leaves Scotland, that 
he will extirpate even the seeds of Rebellion, though 
the task I fear is too hard even for him/ 


The scrap from the Bologna Gazette, sent by 
Mann to Walpole is (in English) to this effect: 
f Versailles, 6th May. On the 30th of April, an officer 
arrived here, who had been despatched to the King by 
the Prince Stuart, with the news that the Duke of 
Perth, having under his command Signor Stappleton, 
Marechal de Camp in the French service, had passed 
over an arm of the sea, in front of the position held 
by the Earl of Loudon, with about 2000 men divided 
into three bodies. This Duke animated, by his own 
example, his soldiers to make this passage with the 
water up to their waists, as their boats could not 
reach the landing place. ... As soon as they set 
feet on the shore, he attacked and dispersed two 
of the above-mentioned corps under the Earl of 
Loudon ; whereupon, the third, seeing the defeat 
of the other two, flung their arms on the ground, 
and shouting " Prince Stuart for ever ! " put them- 
selves under the banner of the Duke of Perth ; who 
had witnessed the defeat or surrender of the whole 
force commanded by the Earl of Loudon, wanting 
only the Earl himself and two or three other fugitives, 
to make the Duke's victory complete. The army of 
Prince Stuart, in consequence of this advantage, found 
itself increased by fifteen hundred soldiers, so many 
prisoners having joined his party. The Irish officer 
who was selected to carry this news was accompanied 
by four officers, prisoners of war. The assailants 
who had attempted to attack a post of the royal 
Scottish army were repulsed with very great loss ; 
and at the same time, a Captain of a royal Scottish 
regiment, at the head of an ambuscade, attacked the 


vanguard of the English army and succeeded in 
capturing 200 soldiers, all mounted. The Swiss 
officers who had desired to enter the French service 
had disembarked and been incorporated with the 
Stuart army, which now numbers 20,000 fighting 
men. One of their detachments contrived to get 
possession of 4 English merchant ships, driven 
a-shore by the waves ; after these vessels had been 
entirely stript of their rich cargoes, preparation was 
made to set them on fire, so as to prevent their 
re-capture by the English.' 

With such fictitious details Italy and France were 
amused. The audacity with which a certain Car- 
dinal writes contemporary history does not exceed 
that of the partizan historians of the last century. 
Even after the struggle was all but closed for ever, 
Rome invented and Florence repeated the most lying 
legends. 'The Jacobites and French,' says Mann, 
(June 1 4th), ' are still such fools as to think to frighten 
us with their accounts of a victory on their side, since 
that of Culloden, and that the Duke was wounded. 
Nobody believes them, but still the French persist in 
their lies. ... Is the young Italian ' (Charles Edward) 
' taken ? or will he be able to collect his scattered 
forces ? Prince Craon asked me t'other day what they 
could do with the young Pretender, in case of his 
being taken ? " He would be beheaded ! " " Fie ! 
fie ! a King's Grandson ! " " Well, Prince, it is just 
that fact that would cause his destruction." You 
know, the Craons affect to be related to them by the 
means of Prince Beauvau's wife.' 

In return for the news of the victory at Culloden, 


Mann, on the 21st of June, sent notice of that gained 
on the 17th by the Austrians and Sardinians, near 
Placentia, under Prince Lichtenstein, over the French 
and Spanish armies, commanded by Don Philip. 
This saved the Italian possessions of the Empress 
Queen, Maria Theresa ; or, as Prince Lichtenstein put 
it : ' It pleased His divine Majesty to give Her 
Imperial Majesty a compleat victory.' Mann thought 
that divine Majesty was tardy in manifesting equally 
satisfactory pleasure in another direction. 'Why 
should the boy escape ? ' he asks, of the errant Stuart. 
' It has been reported at Rome that he was dead ; 
and his father accidently hearing of it, fainted away 
for half an hour, to the great alarm of his courtiers 
who had little to say to comfort him, but they sent 
for the French Ambassador and (illegible) who have 
assured him that the Brest squadron will debark such 
a number of troops as will remedy the little echec they 
have suffered, et retablira ses affaires, and his son in 
his kingdom.' 

' Tout peut se retablir !' is less a sentiment of hope 
than a cry of despair. While Manii was announcing 
the victory of the Austro-Sardians near Placentia, 
the defeated Franco-Spanish were not only denying 
the fact but singing a Te Deum I ' I suppose,' says 
Mann, ' because their army was not totally ruined.' 

Under the same date, Mann who complained that 
his official despatches had become each a volume in- 
stead of a letter, that he was kept writing through the 
night, that his industry was not slackened by the cir- 
cumstances of his salary being five years in arrear, and 
that after all, his post day for writing was never com- 


plete without a letter to Walpole, makes record : 
'that the Lightening Bomb was overset yesterday 
near the Gorgona and was sunk immediately. The 
Captain, Martin, and some of his officers were saved 
by swimming, with 23 men only. Two of them sup- 
ported the Captain, who could not swim at all, till he 
was taken up by the other ships' boats ; by this un- 
fortunate accident 45 men were drowned. I am ex- 
tremely sorry for it, but could not help laughing soon 
after at a letter your cousin ' (Townshend) ' has sent in 
for Prince Lichtenstein to wish him joy of his noble 
feats. On the tip-top of the page is " My Lord," and 
then quite at the bottom, " I beg leave to acquaint 
your Highness that I have heard of your victory, from 
H. Mann, Esqr." all in English. Pray don't mention 
this ; (I disapprove of his language, stile, and spel- 
ing) but he would hear of it, by some means or 

Florence was still in doubt as to the whereabouts 
of Charles Edward. 'The letters from France,' says 
Mann, who disapproved of Townshend's spelling, 'possi- 
tively say the Pretender's son has escaped into France. 
Still, many will not believe,' adds Mann (who was not 
pleased with ' the Commander's stile '), ' that he was 
there in original, and applaud his substitute Perkin for 
saving his principal's character. Two ships arrived 
some time ago, at Nantes, with several of his depend- 
ants on board, many in number. The Duke of Perth 
and his son are mentioned, but the first is 'said to have 
died in his passage. The account says they were 
attacked by three of our frigates and lost 30 of their 
men, but escaped. Mons r Jean Drummond is 

1746. UNCERTAINTY. 239 

likewise named, " et autres officiers ; " and nobody 
douts ' (writes Mann) ' that the Pretender's son is 
there, though they won't own it. They all debarked 
the 7th inst. The french ships are called the Mars 
and the Bellona. It is monstrous our three ships 
should let two escape, but perhaps some folks may be 
as well pleased.' 

All Italy was eager to know what had become of 
the ' boy.' ' It is strange methinks,' (9th of August) 
' that we can have no certainty about the existence of 
the Young Pretender. We have had reports of his 
having been taken, killed, and sunk in a french ship 
on the Coast of Scotland, as he attempted to get off. 
Others say, he is hidden in some of the Islands, and 
that he cannot escape, while others believe him very 
safe in France. . . . The father is certainly unhappy; 
but not so much as to indicate that he thinks him 
in danger of his life. ' 

August 30th. 'I expect to hear by your next 
letter that the Rebel Lords have been executed. I 
want to write that news to Rome, and would add that 
of the Son's being taken. 'Tis wondrous strange there 
is no news of him.' 

When Walpole described the trial of the Jacobite 
Lords and the verdict to Mann, the natural good 
feeling of the latter returned. Irritated as he was by 
the Jacobites around him, he wrote : ' If the king 
shews mercy, I shall be glad, so that he deprives 
them of the power of even making an ill use of it.' 
When Walpole's account of the execution of Lords 
Kilmarnock and Balmerino arrived, Mann (September 
27th) pronounced that of the first Lord to be 

240 JACOBITE HOPES. 1740. 

'certainly very decent;' Balmerino's 'much overdone.' 
'The executions/ he said, 'seem to make no impression 
at Rome. They are as insolent as ever and say that 
the boy is still in Scotland, on a full assurance that 
France is determined to put him in a situation to 
punish effectually his father's rebel subjects, for which 
purpose, Sweden and the King of Prussia would 
lend all their assistance, Dunbar talks this nonsense 
daily. The letters from france say that the boy is 
absolutely arrived at Ostend, but in a miserable 
situation as to his health. Cardinal Albani has in- 
formed me that the valet de chambre of the young 
Pretender had arrived in Rome but had departed 
instantly for Albano, so that time had not permitted 
him to learn anything about him/ 

The death of Philip V. of Spain crushed all the 
influence of his terrible consort, Elizabeth Farnese, 
and the new King Ferdinand VI., guided by his wife, 
Barbara of Portugal, abandoned the old Spanish 
policy. The new course led to the cruel desertion, on 
the part of France and Spain, of their late allies, 
the Genoese, and to the further consequence of the 
capture of Genoa by the Austrians. Their cruelty 
and rapacity were without bourids ; but a full account 
is to be read in Coxe's ' House of Austria.' Mann 
refers to one of the articles of the treaty of submission 
by which the Doge and two (Coxe says ' six ') senators 
were compelled to repair to Vienna, to implore the 
clemency of the Empress Queen, and he compares this 
humiliation with that inflicted by Louis XIV., 'on 
which occasion two medals were struck, one repre- 
senting the bombarding of Genoa, with the legend 


" Vibrata in superbos fulmina ! " and at the bottom 
" Genoa Emendata ! " The other on the submission at 
Versailles, with " Genoa Obsequens ! " It is remark- 
able that the Doge of that time, as well as now, was 
of the Brignoli family.' 

On the 22nd of November, Mann announces the 
apparently imminent death of the chief enemy of 
England, in Rome, Cardinal Aquaviva, whom Mr. 
Chute thinks 'the great, nay the only, cause of the 
insolences that are committed at Rome.' Mr. Chute 
' will be horridly provoked if Aquaviva recovers from 
the Articulo Mortis in which the Pope gave him his 
blessing on the 18th. I really believe the Pope him- 
self was glad to perform that function, as he was 
always in the greatest awe of him ; and, they say, 
would be an Austrian if he dared. Valenti still 
sticks by him, however, and is as much a Spaniard 
' as Aquaviva was. Mr. Chute will tell you stories of 
them both as will amaze you.' 

On December 13th, there is this further in- 
telligence of the Cardinal, the enemy alike of Maria 
Theresa and of King George 'Mr. Chute will be sorry 
to hear that Aquaviva is recovering. Pray tell him 

that B sent to ask my pardon for having assured 

me he must die. Everybody and he himself thought 
so, otherwise he would never have confessed his villa- 
nies in publick. The Pope who, I am sure, was glad 
of it, said the next day to a Monsignore who had been 
present : " Eh, Monsignore, si fece un bel piangere 
jieri ! " At which the whole room burst out in 

Rome, at this time, was still weighing the pos- 

VOL. I. B 


sibility of dethroning King George. 'The sly folks 
there pretend/ says Mann, 'to have discovered that 
something is possitively in agitation again for the 
young Pretender, which is to be executed this winter, 
and that Spain has strongly engaged in it. I don't 
see how it can be, but I own to you the very notion 
of it alarms me much. Cardinal Albani says posi- 
tively that the Pretender's eldest Son is to be married 
to a second daughter of Modena, to whom the Duke is 
to give the Dutchy of Novellara for a portion.' 

The first of the personal traits of this year refers 
to Lady Walpole, Countess Orford : 

April 19th. 'I intend to scold you for sending us 
back the Countess so rich and so saucy that there will 
be no living in the same town. Her Richmond (her 
maid) has had Richecourt's advice to quit the house she 
lives in, and which the laws of the country might have 
obliged her to do, long ago, but they were so com- 
plaisant as not to exert their power. ... I remember 
well that Knight of the United families, as he called 
himself, the Bouchiers and the Wreys. He lived with 
his cousin Countess nata Rolles, here in Florence, and 
was too wise and solemn for anybody there. I can 
easily judge what he must be in the act of making his 
own terms. I wish they would make the little Abbd 
Secretary marry the chambermaid. She would pass 
for a Dama Inglese, under my Lady's tuition here, 
and be admitted to the learned conversation.' 

May 2Uh. ' I am in the most disagreeable situa- 
tion imaginable ; in the midst of preparations for the 
Chutes' departure. They set out the day after to- 
morrow. They were to have gone last Thursday, but 


we walked too late together in the Garden. He 
caught the gout again, and I a fever, with which 
I was very bad all last week. Well! it signifies 
nothing to whine ; we must part. I shall never find 
anybody again that is so comfortable in all my 

Then follows a notice of the travelling English in 
general, and of a fashionable sample, in particular : 

' Your recommende Mr. Hobart is come at last, 
and is so unlike all the English, that I adore him. 
His regard and esteem for you is motive enough ; but 
besides, he is extremely well bred, introduces himself 
vastly well to all your acquaintances, and is by them 
as well received. He is the only Englishman that, for 
a long time, has thought it necessary to speak to a 
Dama. They go about with their jemmy frocks and 
frightful staring hats, and exhibit themselves for 
brutes everywhere. Whilst they despise all the best 
company, Mr. Hobart seeks it, and is contented to be 
laughed at by the rest. You will be surprized to hear 
he is lodged at Lady Orford's, and is so intimate with 
me. When he met her in Holland, she pressed him to 
accept of her house, which he did, but expects soon to 
be turned, out by her arrival. ... 1 cannot think my 
Lady will be sorry to have so pretty a young man in 
the house with her. I told him the other day that, on 
my Lady's return he would hear such strange stories 
of me that, as fond as he now seemed, he would then 
hate me ; he promised he would not, and I really 
believe him. . . . The old acquaintances you esteemed 
have not forgot you. I introduced Mr. Hobart to 
them all, in your name, and he was witness to the 


many obliging things they said of you. The Princess 
in particular was most gracious, and said no recom- 
mendation could be so acceptable, which I assured her 
I would tell you.' 

This English gentleman was a supreme favourite 
with the Florentines. ' Mr. Hobart,' Mann writes on 
the 1 4th of June, ' is frequently witness to my dpuise- 
ments and embarras. He supplies the place of the 
Chutes, by coming to me after he has set all the 
Dame in a twitter. You can't think how they admire 
him ; how he admires them. How he will resist, I 
can't tell, but he has much business upon his hands ; 
hitherto, he supports it very well. He often asks 
for Cypress wine which, he says, is the best restora- 
tive in the world. He contents himself to eat goose- 
berry tarts every night with ine, after having been 
so long used to the elegant suppers with you at 
White's, what a change ! ' 

There was, however, compensation. 'I have begun,' 
says Mann, on the 19th July, 'my assemblies in the 
garden which are vastly resorted to. Indeed they 
are pretty. I intend to surprize them with a little 
musick next Thursday, in bob- cherry walk. I cannot 
announce it, as it would make the crowd too great.' 

News of the victory at Culloden, and of that 
gained by the troops of Maria Theresa and the King 
of Sardinia hardly gave Mann more pleasure than the 
assurance that Lady Oxford was not about to return 
to Florence, and there make social war against the 
minister. 'Last week,' he says (August 23rd), 'arrived, 
quite a 1'improviste, the Abate Niccoli. He left the 
Italian maid he brought from England at a villa the 

1746. ITALY. 24 

first night not to alarm the town, as he said. I know 
nobody that was alarmed, but the Richmond ' (Lady 
Orford's English maid), 'she indeed was in violent 
fuss, and in great hurry to execute the orders she 
received to return. . . . My Lady's furniture is put 
into the hands of the famous Gavi. . . . She has wrote 
to a person here ' (Richecourt) ' to tell him that when 
she was on the point of settling affairs with my Lord, 
he broke off, which would oblige her to stay longer in 
England than she designed ; but as the Florentine 
world has proofs enough of her amorous constitution, 
the change of her resolution is attributed to some new 
passion to which she has sacrificed the Count. ... I 
fancy he will be better without her.' 

' Mr. Hobart has not been at all considered. You 
know he lodged at her house. I have told him he 
deserves it, for his little delicacy in staying in a place 
where he was received so ill ; for after the first week, 
the Richmond strip'd the house of almost all the 
necessary furniture, under pretence of fitting up a villa 
for my Lady, whom she said she daily expected ; so 
that he was forced to hire what he wanted.' 

But none knew better than Mann the advantages 
of living in Italy. On a day in September (27th) he 
bursts out with the remark, ' You will agree with me 
that Italy is a charming place. I wish indeed there 
was a little more society. There is a vast deal of 
company and crowd, but nothing of the former, and 
unless one has a Cicisbea, one grows tired of their 
great assemblies. The frequent Operas we have are a 
great resource. One sits at home in one's box, to 
receive company, which one leaves when it is not 

246 MARCHESE FOLCO. 1746. 

agreeable, and makes visits, or one attends to the 
musick. The newly married daughters of Madame 
Suares, the Piccori and Carducci, do not turn out so 
well as might have been expected ; but people attri- 
bute it to the extreme jealousy of their husbands, who 
permit none but such as they chuse to be about them, 
so that upon the whole they make a bad figure.' 

There were among the Florentines a few who 
visited England, and depended on Mann's introduc- 
tion of them to Walpole, and on Walpole's remem- 
brance of kindnesses rendered to him in Florence. 
Walpole was not flattered by the introductions, nor 
was his memory burthened by much gratitude. Mann 
smoothed his ruffled plumes. ' You know, my dear 
child,' he says (Oct. 27th), ' the necessity I am under 
on such occasions ' (being asked for letters of introduc- 
tion) ' of appearing something by shewing such atten- 
tion to the Florentine nobility, and that I have nobody 
but you to address them to. None of my own folks 
would do on these occasions.' This was written in 
reference to Marchese Folco (son of the Marchese 
Rinuncini who had been the representative in England 
of Giovanni Gaston, the last of the Medici Grand Dukes 
of Tuscany), whom Mann had sent to Walpole, who 
remarks thereupon : ' I was glad to see him after 
I had got over being sorry to see him. . . . and in- 
quired about fifty people that I had entirely forgot 
till his arrival. . . . He told me some passages that 
I don't forgive you for not telling. Your Cicisbeatura, 
Sir, with the Antinori ; and Manelli's marriage and 
jealousy. Who consoles my illustrious mistress ? ' 

Mann assures Walpole, at considerable length, 


that his politeness to Folco was highly appreciated by 
his illustrious mistress, Griffoni, who was in grief 
at the marriage of her Cicisbeo, Marchese Manelli. 
Folco's father thanked Mann with great solemnity : 
' " En veritd, Monsieur le Chevalier, nous sommes tous 
au dernier point sensibles a toutes les graces et bonte's 
que vous avez procure a mon fils." He has wrote to 
me in the same stile.' In reference to Folco's gossip, 
Mann asks : ' What has he been telling you about 
me ? I assure you I am not quite a Cicisbeo. Sisistori 
keeps close there. I go too, but not constantly ; 
neither do I believe that I will be more assidueous 
when he marries the Lena Guadagni A rigorous 
Cicisbeatura would be too much for me. I have 
neither time nor spirits to go through with it ; ne 
potrei servirla secondo il suo merito. 

' I forgot to tell you of the cruel separation which 
caused your Princess so many tears. Manelli pro- 
mised to return, but has not kept his word. Perhaps 
she still stays for him, and will not accept of any 
other to supply his place/ 

Mann was constantly applied to, to execute com- 
missions for friends in England, where at this time 
a new scent was in favour. ' I have of late had so 
great a demand ' (Nov. 22nd) ' for orange-flower 
water from England that I must conclude it is greatly 
esteemed. Your uncle never thought he could have 
enough, and then he desired some for Lady Catherine 
Pelham. This has put it into my head to send you 
a supply of it, and if you should not know what to 
do with it, you may distribute it about to all the 
females you have so lately praised,' 

248 SATISFACTION. 1746. 

Mann was too amiable to find trouble in anything, 
now that the Rebellion was suppressed, the chief rebels 
in their graves, the old Chevalier a helpless gentleman 
at Rome, and ' bonny Prince Charlie/ a wanderer on 
the face of the earth. 

1747. A DUCAL BURGLAR. 249 



THE chronicle of this year opens with a domestic story 
which excited much attention at the time. In a 
letter dated January 10th, Mann informs his 'dear 
child ' ' A terrible fracas has happened in Casa Strozzi 
at Eome by the dispersion of her famous Museum. 
Whilst the Princess was here last summer, to marry 
her second son to another Strozzi, grand-daughter of 
old Riccardi, her Cabinet at Rome was broke open, 
and hundreds of rings, both Intaglios and Cameos as 
well as some Medals taken away. The poor old 
woman did not discover it for some time, as there 
were no outward marks of force either to the doors of 
the rooms or the Cabinets. Judge of her amazement 
and affliction when she opened them ; for she both 
understood and valued them. The thief must have 
had at least twelve false keys. The whole assortment 
was doubly locked and the Sanctum Sanctorum well 
guarded ; but all was not sufficient to keep out the 
sacrilegious hands of the villain whom all the family 
and all the world calls Duke Strozzi, her son ! The 
Madonna escaped, as it is believed he thought it too 
remarkable a jewel to dispose of. She has sent to 


desire me to enquire of all the Giojellieri and Orefici 
upon the Ponte Vecchio of London, and to order the 
Barghello to make diligent search in the Ghetto 
among the Jews. Many of the things may indeed 
be known as they are printed in the " Florentine Mu- 
seum." One pities her extremely, not only for the 
value of the things, but as the loss is irreparable. 
They say the good old Princess pines about it ex- 
tremely, and so much the more as by busily making 
known her misfortune, she has totally discredited her 
oldest son.' 

On the last day of January, Mann's periodical letter 
is full of the record of public gaiety : ' You know/ he 
says, ' what a busy time the Carnival is. I partake 
none of its amusements but the Opera, and yet that 
deranges my whole system. The show at the Via 
della Pergola is really magnificent. The Tesi has 
been taken from her involuntary retirement, to act 
Achilles ; and appears with great eclat, though she 
trembled much the first night, believing that her 
whole future reputation as an Actress was at stake ; 
but she does extremely well and has the Gloria, as 
she calls it, of having restored the Via della Pergola 
Theater which indeed, by the first Opera produced 
there, was quite sunk. She rants a little too much 
whilst she is in woman's cloaths ; but, they say, the 
part requires it ; and, as all the Cavalieri Accademici 
are Impresarii, the Ladies, who don't love her, are 
forced to applaud Putello, who does the part of Ulysses, 
does it very well, too. He formerly, they say, sung 
much better ; but he lost much of his voice at Naples, 
so that in his Airs, he is not heard. The Fumagalli, 

1747. THE BALLET. 251 

who acts Deidamia, is a good figure and well drest : 
the rest are not worth naming. The Opera begins with 
Dances and a numerous Chorus alia Francese, and the 
whole is conducted with great pomp. There is in par- 
ticular a great supper, during which the whole theater 
is vastly illuminated, and it remains so for the Dances 
which follow ; here, the unfortunate Saufterre, natural 
son of the Regent and La Mar, gains great applause. 
Hitherto, in Italy, the Dances were only Dances. 
The scene opened and discovered the Dancers, who 
began to dance, but now they are called Contrascene, 
or Balli Significant^ The first is a Retour de Chasse 
Royale. They are seen at a great distance, marching 
over mountains in procession, followed by crowds with 
all proper and improper implements ; and then they 
descend and dance. Upon the whole it is not called a 
good Opera, but the most splendid entertainment over 
seen in the Via clella Pergola. They act every night 
but Saturday, in opposition to the Via di Cucumero, 
wfyere there is a most vile Burletta ; but then there 
is Denis and Pantateonina whom many prefer to 
Saufterre and " Sparecchiata Tavola," so that parties 
run very high. I dare not take mine. Twenty 
English that are now here, have decided boisterously 
for Denis, with all the Gens d'Armes and Citta- 
dinanza, in opposition to all the Nobility. Judge 
then, if it is not prudent to be neutral, which however 
is no easy task ! 

' Those twenty English embarrass me much. It is 
vastly the mode to entertain. They have separate 
lodgings and trench cooks, and one is tormented to 
death. Some indeed entertain vastly well, and have 


their hors d'oeuvres and entremets, in great order. 
Others who won't give ten zecchins, (about 5l.) a 
month to a Cook, do not succeed quite so well, but 
yet will imitate the fine way. Lord Hobart and I 
were ready to burst with laughter t'other day, at a 
noble table, where ten people were set down to a 
first course of a soup and two hors d'osuvres literally 
consisting of a Mustard pot in a small dish and, 
opposite to it, a plate of the vile white Radishes. The 
mustard was to serve for the Bouilli which was to 
relieve the Soup. I have escaped many dinners by a 
fever which seized me last Tuesday whilst I was in 
the hight of my Despatches. ... I was blooded the 
next day, and went to the Opera, with the Princess ' 
(Craon) ' last night, which unfortunately has exposed 
me to a great dinner to day. I wish I could give 
you a description of her setting forth, for it was her 
first sortie after an epuisement and an accablement of 
a fortnight. When we thought all was ready to 
march, she sent Tozzoni into her room for twenty 
things. Amongst others, he brought her half a hood to 
hang over her whole face, to keep the air from striking 
it, and a monstrous fan, or little screen, made of 
linnen, with a long handle, for a servant to carry a,t 
some distance before her, to prevent the air coming 
with too much force against the covering to her face. 
I was put into the Coach with her, and was vastly 
afraid of hurting her, or squeezing her. I was heartily 
glad when we got to the Theater where, you know, 
she takes great precautions to arrive as the curtain 
draws up, as she pleases herself with the notion that 
it is done to do her honour ; just as she attributed 


the whole Corso at Rome, when she made her entry, as 
coming there to make that magnificent.' 

' Did I ever tell you that your Princess Griffoni 
(who often enquires after you) has been abandoned by 
Manelli. He took the opportunity of his marrying, on 
a promise to return again, but has not kept his word, 
and she was sometime without, quite sconsolata, till 
(of very late) Bernardino Riccardi has left his black 
Frescobaldi, to take to her. Jesus ! here is mad Mr. 
St. John and Baron Stosch. The first is come to 
persuade me to unite the Churches of England and 
Rome ; and the latter to thank me for having sent the 
corpse of his Brother to be buried at Leghorn. 

' . . . It was just as I said ; Mr. St. John has been 
preaching to me for above an hour, to make it clear 
that nothing is so proper or so easy as to bring about 
this union ; and he is sure if I would but write to 
King, Lords, and Commons, that they would all agree 
as to the force of his arguments, and give their 
consents to put all Dominion under the one or three 
glorious crowns, so plain a symbol of the Trinity. On 
his part he will engage to make the Pope accept the 
laws of England and to prove to him that they are 
Jesus Christ and the twelve Jurymen his Apostles ! 
Poor man ! ' 

On February 14th, Mann announces the close of 
the Carnival for the morrow, ' the ashes of Wednesday 
imbitter the pleasures of the last days ; but the last 
days were rendered lively by a very curious English 
display. On the night of the 13th, there was a great 
ball in the Via della Pergola, at which many of the 
English represented Free Masonry. Their habits were 


pretty, and Denis, the first dancer, who is a Master 
Mason, composed a dance on purpose, which succeeded 
very well. The Italians liked it as a masquerade, 
which was all they knew of it. They danced it twice, 
with great applause ; but the third time the people 
were offended that their Tresconi was interrupted, 
which occasioned some bustle, and had not General 
Salvi threatened to put all the Fidlers into prison, 
the Tresconi would have got the better. The Im- 
presarij, I hear, are all offended (for I was not there so 
late), and Lord March was so angry with them that 
he proposed that each of the nine Free Masons should 
fight an Impresario. They intended to appear in the 
same habits, at the Ball, on Tuesday night, but the 
fracas has made them alter their minds.' 

In the same letter, Mann refers to the course 
adopted by the Jacobites in Rome and Florence. 
'They are making use of the non-arrival of as many 
as five posts, to publish their villanous reports. It is 
supposed that Couriers can fly thro' the air to them, 
or that the holy people at Rome are instructed of what 
passes in the remote parts of Europe, by their tutelar 
Saints. Santa Sobieska' (the Princess Clementina 
Maria Sobieska, grand-daughter of the famous John 
Sobieski, King of Poland, was the clever and ill- 
requited wife of the Pretender) 'no doubt has taken the 
province of England, and wispers in her Lord's ear 
everything that passes at the English Court. I can 
give you no better account for the assertions lately 
given at the Palazzo dei Sti. Apostoli of the King of 
England's sudden death. It was by' the first post 
from thence whispered as a secret, and the next wrote 

1747. A POINT OF HONOUR. 255 

publickly, and though not supported by any one 
circumstance, yet by the vulgar it is credited ; the 
prudent even are astonished at such a report, and in 
vain endeavour to destroy it. Nothing but the 
arrival of letters will be able to do that, which you 
will imagine I wait for with the most cruel im- 

The five posts arrived altogether, and on Feb- 
ruary 28th, Mann was replying to one letter of Wai- 
pole's, which was written on the previous Christmas 
day. The chief incident or, as Mann says, ' a grand 
affair/ was, that ' a Lorrain Officer insulted M. 
Langlois in the Theater of Leghorn. Upon the latter 
returning the same language, the officer rnade up to 
him to strike him, which Langlois prevented his doing, 
by retiring some steps and drawing his sword. This 
is represented by the Corps Militaire as an affront to 
every one who wears a uniform, and likewise a more 
heinous affront to the Emperor and his Theater. Un- 
luckily for the officers, the Eegency and all prudent 
people look upon the necessity Langlois was in to 
defend himself against a person who was the first 
aggressor, as a great mitigation of his fault ; and on 
the contrary they look upon the officer's proceeding as 
so irregular that they have represented the whole 
affair to Vienna, knowing very well that the Militaire 
would not submit to their decision, unless it were to 
order Langlois' head to be cut off for an example. 
The Factory of Leghorn have made a representation, 
and I have wrote such a letter to the Regency as has 
pleased much. The Regency, all the Town, and many 
even of the Officers are on my side. I expect Langlois 

2:, i 7 1 ///-; YOL'XG <'ILE\'ALIEH. 1717. 

this evening from Leghorn. His arrest iu his house 
there is to be changed to the City of Florence, for his 
eoniinement, and the officer is not to stir from 
Leghorn. This I obtained with some art, and it is 
the only shadow of satisfaction the Regency can give 

Maim wanted even such shadows when he thought 
of the affairs of the Pretender and the whereabouts of 
Charles Edward. ' Letters from Rome say, he ' (the 
yomi" 1 Chevalier) 'disappeared on a sudden; those from 
Lions say lie passed there on his way to Avignon, but 
the Vice Legate there has assured the Pope that he 
was not arrived nor expected. ... At the same time, 
my sly friends at Rome assure me that they are per- 
suaded something is in the air, and desire me to be 
attentive. . . . They think that France will make a 
descent on Ireland. ... I am not without anxiety on 
that score.' 

A postscript referring to a Norfolk Squire named 
Davis, who had copied so perfectly the famous Doine- 
nichino as to deceive Mr. Chute, who was familiar with 
the original, says : ' 1 am afraid that neither your 

O ' v *J 

P> rot her nor Cousin, who I hear are turned painters, 
will make such a progress. 1 have a Commission to 
send the first some Tcrro <ji<(U<A di Siena, and to 
the latter a load of Pastelli, which your Unkle has 
wrote to me for, and which 1 can luckily send him 
in the greatest perfection from hence, as Messina is 
famous for making them.' 

On March llth, Maim refers to the remarkable 
Court Martial recently held on Commodore Towns- 
hend. In April 1746, Townshend had informed the 


Lords of the Admiralty that he had fallen in with a 
squadron of the enemy's ships, to which he gave chase 
till discovering them to be French men-of-war from 
Toulon, commanded he believed by M. de Lages, he did 
not think proper to speak with them. The Lords of 
the Admiralty, not approving of English naval com- 
manders ruling the waves after this fashion, ordered 
Townshend to be placed under arrest, and to be tried 
by court martial, at Port Mahon, as soon as con- 
venient. The trial did not take place till March, 1747. 
It then appeared that if Townshend had been capable 
of writing an intelligible letter in his own language, he 
would not have found himself suspected of cowardice. 
He had omitted to state that he had only one ship be- 
sides his own, which he must have lost had he engaged 
with de Lages, who had four ships. Mann says ' he 
was honourably acquitted ... he was censured only 
for his carelessness in writing, and ordered to ask their 
Lordships' pardon ; after which he was reinstated in 
the command of his ship in which he had been a 
prisoner for so many months.' 

A singular circumstance in connection with this 
matter is to be found in Mann's letter of the 14th 
March. Townshend's negligently written despatch to 
the Admiralty passed through Mann's hands, to be 
forwarded to its destination. On which the British 
Minister at Florence, says : ' It was horridly unlucky 
that he did not send me his fatal letter open ' (as most 
of them used to do) ' in which case I certainly should 
not have forwarded it.' From which it is to be in- 
ferred that the Minister used to read all unsealed 

VOL. i. s 


From private sympathy for Townshend, Mann 
turns to expressions of fear for the public weal. ' I 
am alarmed/ he says, ' since I received notice of the 
preparations which Murray, (or the Roman Lord Dun- 
bar) is making to set out for france. ... Do you 
think the Pretender would part with the only one in 
whom he confides unless of some scheme of devilish 
importance ? ' 

' I can't think what view the people of Rome 
have in persisting to say the King is in a bad state 
of health. You can't imagine their insolence on this 
head ; nay, many of our friends believe it. They 
wish the contrary they say, but still the assertions 
from so many parts stagger them.' 

The Minister's fears had increased before he wrote 
his letter of the 21st. 'We hear that the Pretender's 
son made a short stay at Avignon and, as all his 
father's people and friends say, is gone to Spain. The 
extraordinary pains they take to persuade people of 
this would make one doubt the truth of it, especially 
as they add, as the motive of this journey, his having 
left France in great disgust. . . . Whether he be gone 
to Spain or to some Port in France, it seems highly 
probable that something is in agitation in his favour. 
If he be gone to Spain, perhaps it may be a con- 
trivance of France to raise a jealousy between England 
and that Court, to prevent what they so much fear, 
our separate accommodation. Murray's departure from 
Rome at this juncture adds to my suspicions ; . . . 
He says he will depart about (our) Easter, on ac- 
count of his health ; that he shall stay some time at 
Avignon and then proceed to France ; though those 


who believe the young Pretender is gone to Spain are 
persuaded that Murray will follow him. . . . Lord 
George Murray arrived at the Pretender's, the 17th. 
from Venice, where he left Lord Elcho ' (whom Mann 
more than once stigmatizes as a ' fool ') ' and other 
rebels, and I believe Lord Marechal.' 

The letter ends with a sad incident. ' As Captain 
Vanbrugh was returning from Mr. Townshend's Court 
Martial to his ship, his boat overset, and he and all 
his men were drowned, which has vastly afflicted 
M. Gold worthy who was his brother-in-law.' Thus 
Townshend's carelessness in writing led to the sacrifice 
of several lives. 

While brave men lost their lives, others of little 
worth were loaded with honours. ' The Count ' 
(Eichecourt) ' is coming to ferret us. He is become 
an Imperial Marquis, by the name of Traschiato ' (if 
he chuses to wear it). ' The Emperor has lately given 
him a fief. ... I am vastly afraid my Lady may 
come to Florence too ; pray watch her motions and 
her degree of ardour for Mr. Shirley, that one may 
know if she has any for the Florentine Earl Marquis 
di Traschiato and Grand Prior di Perugia.' 

From a long rambling letter of the 25th April, we 
catch a breath of a last century Italian Spring. ' I 
am sitting snugly by a good fire, on this 25th April, 
which I would leave, however, to go to the Opera, 
was it not for my letters. A week ago it was hot and 
I left off my furs, and stopt up the chimney, I have 
been forced to supply the first by a good warm waist- 
coat, and shall continue the latter till all the snow 
that is now on the hills round Florence be melted 
into the Arno.' 

260 JACOBITE VIEWS. 1/47. 

In a passage on old Fraser of Lovat's coming 
execution (a mere echo of Walpole's account), Mann 
says of the Popish Pretender's captured followers gene- 
rally: 'The Florentines have sent' (to them) 'pompous 
accounts of the ceremony. The reflections on con- 
demning people for what their religion teaches them 
to approve was not read to me.' 

May 16th. 'The Nuncio at Paris has wrote to 
Rome that the young Pretender is in the neighbour- 
hood of that place, and that the Court will make use 
of him again to raise confusion in some part of Great 
Britain, when the troops are in flanders, in order to 
oblige the King to recall them. I have seen people 
who pretend that the severity which was practised in 
Scotland last year has exasperated the whole country, 
and that greater numbers would rise on a second in- 
vasion than did then, tho' 1 cannot suppose nor can I 
understand what they mean by severity when, in all 
other countries hundreds of them would have been 
hung up as soon as taken. I wish that the really not 
using severity there may not make it absolutely 
necessary hereafter. So soon as the present danger 
is over, people seem to forget the cruelties that the 
Rebels committed, and those which they would com- 
mit again as soon as an occasion offered. 

' I assure you that the Jacobites abroad, both 
English and foreign, flatter themselves still that some- 
thing may and will be done. Holt and Munroe are 
returned here from Rome, on the way 'tis said to 
England. I should think some notice would be taken 
of them, as their behaviour at Rome has been so 
publickly insolent. They have not been with me or 


any of the English, but take the opportunity of 
masking to go to the Theater. It was said here that 
Bouverie, who was formerly with them, at Rome, and 
constantly with the Pretender's people, was forced, on 
his return to England, to give bail for his behaviour, 
and that Munroe's pension as a traveling Physician, 
had been taken from him, Pray tell me if these cir- 
cumstances are true.' 

June Qth. 'We have, two English here whom I 
can't understand, Mr. Mills and Mr. Davisou. The 
first introduced himself into the town with the title 
of Colonel in the Empress's service, and then concealed 
that title ; he came from Vienna with strong recom- 
mendations from Mr. Toussaint, and they say he is 
to command a Batallion of Marines lately raised here. 
He appears to have been much about London and 
knows everybody. He appears to be rich by the 
number of servants he keeps. Both he and Davison, 
who formerly travelled with Lord March, and was at 
the Accademy at Turin, have made up laced uniforms, 
blue and red. The former speaks no language but 
English, and the other very little french and italian. 
They make continual jaunts to Leghorn and Pisa. 
Mr. Mills has lost one of his forefingers.' 

The Empress's Colonel, who knew every body in 
England, was not known there. Walpole could learn 
nothing of him. If he ever made a noise in England, 
he, like Projectors generally, was forgotten, as soon as 
out of sight. 'Lord Bolingbroke, Sarah Malcolm, and 
old Marlborough,' says Walpole, ' are never mentioned 
but by elderly folks to their grandchildren, who had 
never heard of them. What would last PannoniV 

262 LORD HOB ART. 1747. 

(coffee house at Florence) 'a twelvemonth is forgotten 
here in twelve hours.' Walpole says of the doctor, 
'that Monro you mention was made travelling phy- 
sician, by my father's interest, who had great regard 
for the old doctor. If he has any skill in quacking 
madmen, his art may perhaps be of service now in the 
Pretender's Court.' The travelling Englishmen in 
Italy were not all in the Chevalier's service. ' Lord 
Hobart,' says Mann, ' is still at Naples, but proposes 
to be here the end of the month. His resolution, 
however, does not I believe depend upon him, but 
with some body there with whom he is vastly smitten.' 
The same letter affords the following illustration of the 
lady who was at the head of the Court at Florence : 
' The Princesse is gone to the Petraja. I must tell you 
a most delicate expression she made use of. I asked 
her if she would be at the Procession of Corpus 
Domini. "Non, monsieur, mais je vous assure que je 
suis fatigue'e de 1'idee que j'avais d'y aller." Which 
may be very true, for with that idea, she waked sooner 
than usual, and then determined not to go/ Walpole 
replies with an illustration of English bizarrerie. A 
Fleming, at Eome, one Verskovis, an artist in ivory, 
had moved from Eome to England, where Walpole 
employed and recommended him, ' but he is starving,' 
writes Walpole, ' and returning to Rome, to carve for 
the English, for whom, when he was there before, 
he could not work fast enough ! ' The Bouverie who 
figured at the Pretender's Court in Rome, was thought 
none the worse for it, in England, if he was akin to 
the person alluded to by Walpole (June 26th). ' Sir 
Jacob Bouverie, a considerable Jacobite, who is made 


Viscount Folkestone, bought his ermine at twelve 
thousand pounds a yard, from the Duchess of Kendal 
d'aujourd'hui' (Lady Yarmouth, the King's mistress). 
But a more important question of ermine had to be 
noticed by Mann. 

June 27th.- ' The Pretender's second son is to be 
made a Cardinal. The ceremony is fixt for the 3rd 
of next month ; but violent quarrels have happened 
about the Ceremonial, on this occasion. He pretends 
to wear Ermine on his Cappa as a sign of Royalty, 
and consequently to take place of Cardinal Ruffo and 
all the other Cardinals, by whom he insists on being 
visited. All this and much more has alarmed the 
Eminences. Cardinal Ruffo went to Castle Gandolfo, 
to expostulate with the Pope upon it. He as usual 
turned everything into ridicule, but the Cardinal con- 
tinued with great warmth, and in the name of all the 
Cardinals, to support their rights. Nothing has yet 
been decided, but a Congregation is to be held on pur- 
pose as soon as the Pope returns to Rome. 

' The future Young Cardinal's family is settled ; 
he is to have a Monsignore Leigh for a Maestro di 
Camera, a very noble Irishman born at Cadiz of a 
little merchant there ; two Sicilian Marquises for his 
Major Domo and Cup-bearer ; and an Abbe Folingieri 
for Segretario dell ' Embasciate. You know the Car- 
dinals have people about them with these titles, but as 
all the above are supposed to be vastly noble, the other 
Cardinals grumble at it. They say he is to be Legate 
of Avignon, for life, and that he is to have the Arch- 
bishoprick Monte Reale, which Aquaviva had, and 
which they say is worth near 100,000 Ducats a year. 


Is not he vastly in the right to become Cardinal ? 
The eldest brother, they say, is certainly to marry 
soon, but people now differ about the person.' 

July llth. 'Lord Hobart, who has left for awhile 
his loves at Eome, is here. He tells me he has sent 
you the Pope's famous speech on creating the 
youngest Pretender a Cardinal. It is to be sure, very 
ridiculous, but I don't see what the Pope could say on 
the occasion. I send it this evening to his Grace. 
They were so difficult to be got that I have been 
forced to keep a copy only for myself. 

' . . . The Queen of Naples has lately produced 
a son, for which the King gave her ~ Ducats, and -| 
more yearly for her pin money. I think it was paying 
too dear for an heir to such a crown, that may be 
taken so easily from him. The Austrians abuse us 
constantly for having prevented them making that 
conquest instead of going to ruin their army in 
Provence which, and all their misfortunes after, they 
attribute to us. . . . ' 

August 1st.- 'The Pope seems vain of his new 
little Cardinal and, to show him great honour, ordered 
that the Roman Senate should make him a visit in 
great ceremony, which was performed last week, but 
not in the manner it was designed. The intention was 
that that august Assembly, represented by four Con- 
servatori, should mount an antient Char drawn by four 
horses in front. Prince Borbonini had an old one 
which was furbished up for the occasion. Prince 
Colon na was to furnish horses, but unluckily the very 
morning of the function a dispute arose between them, 
each pretending that the Cocchio should depart from 


his palace to go to the Capitol to take the Senator, and 
each being too obstinate .to give up that honour, the 
Conservator! were forced to go in coaches, followed 
by many Prelates and noble Romans to the young 
Cardinal's house (whom they call Cardinal d' Oreo) ' 
(York) 'to whom they made a pompous Latin speech 
which he answered in the same language. I have 
been promised them both, and if they are ridiculous 
enough, I will send them to you/ 

' . . . Prince Craon and the others tell me that 
the letters from Paris are full of grief on this occa- 
sion ' (the almost fruitless victory gained at Laffeldt, 
by the French, under Saxe, over the Duke of Cum- 
berland) ' as most of the principal families have lost 
some relation. Young Beauvau, to his joy, has lost 
a M. de Richelieu, an Unkle, I think, of his wife, 
by which she inherits something considerable ; on 
which occasion, I made my compliments to the 
Princesse, last night ; which she, for decency thought 
herself obliged to receive with an Helas ! that sighed 
through the whole Gallery. Everybody allows that the 
Duke behaved as bravely as possible, that the English 
troops did wonders, and that if the Dutch had done as 
well, and the Austrians could have fought, that our 
victory would have been compleat. It is horridly 
unlucky that something should always happen to 
prevent it being so, and to deprive us of what we 
were so near obtaining.' 

Referring to the war which Spain had been so 

long carrying on, latterly, on the Spanish King's 

part, in order to provide for his brother, Don Philip ! 

Mann says, ' Surely the King of Spain will be con - 


vinced, at least of the impossibility of making a 
settlement for his Brother by such means. The 
Court of Spain has spent five times as much (without 
being at all the nearer) as would have purchased more 
than it ever had a view to conquer.' Then, turning 
to the subject of a settlement for Cardinal York, 
Mann writes : 

August 22i)d. 'An odd Phenomenon has happened 
at Rome, a Bankrupt Cardinal ! by name Borghese. 
Neither the Pope, for the honour of his Purpurea, or 
his family would assist him, so that he lately took 
the resolution to retire from Rome, and ordered his 
family ' (household) ' to be dismissed, and all he had to 
be sold, to pay his creditors, who must be contented 
with a very small matter per cento. Cardinal Gua- 
dagni, hearing his situation, would have resigned to 
him, on very generous terms, his Badia di Grotta 
Terrata, but the Pope would not give his approbation, 
and now presses Guadagni to resign it, on the same 
terms, to the new Cardinal Di Oreo, for whom they 
seem resolved to make a revenue suitable to his Royal 
and Eminent dignity.' 

September 19th. 'The Great Duke, as such, has 
made a treaty with the Grand Signer, in consequence 
of which a commerce is to be opened with the Levant, 
from which the Ministers (but nobody else) think 
great advantages are to come to Tuscany. A present 
is preparing to be sent to Constantinople, worth about 
5000 ; silks, watches, snuff-boxes, and other toys of 
John Gaston ' (the last of the Medicean Dukes) ' who 
little thought when he bought them that they would 
fall into the hands of the Turks. Louis is making six 


gold Razors which it is thought may induce the Sultan 
to shave his beard, or his favourite's, a Fuso Italiano. 

' Caffarelli sings most divinely well. The Viconti 
is strangely fallen. Our second Opera begins on 
Sunday and will be acted in a hurry, to give time 
to Caffarelli to get to Naples by the latter end of 
October, to prepare for the great Cantata which is 
to be performed among the proposed rejoicings for 
the birth of the Duke of Calabria, which are to last 
from the 4th to the 19th of November. Most of the 
English now here will return thither ; the Cantata is 
to be a Duo by Caffarelli and Egiziello, and a trio, . 
by adding Babi. Caffarelli swears he will make Egiz- 
iello sing out of tune. He did so by the Astrua, and 
then publickly beat time to her, for which he was 
sent to Prison. He has been very good here, and 
says that in this place, insignificant as it is, he has 
observed that there are people who know what good 
singing is, and has promised to give them something 
fine for the next Opera. I must tell you a bon mot 
of his. He asked the Zippoli, a very bad singer, who 
was her Protector ? She answered that she had 
none but Gesu e la Musica ! To which he replied, " I 
advise you my dear to make much of the first, for 
you can expect but little from the second." 

Caffarelli, who insulted that excellent singer, the 
Astrua, as well as the less distinguished vocalist, the 
Zippoli, was a pupil (with Farinelli) of Porpora. He 
made a great fortune, and took care of it. He built 
a superb palace, on which was inscribed, 'Amphion 
Thebas, Ego Domum ! ' He bought the estate, which 
carried with it the ducal title of Santo Dorato ; and 

268 PRINCE PAMFILI. 1747. 

in 1783, at the age of fourscore, the Sol Fa Duke 
of Santo Dorato left land and territorial title to his 
nephew. As a contrast with the liberally spending 
Caffarelli, Mann thus depicts a noted Prince of that 
time : 

November 7th. ' We have lately had here the 
rich Prince Pamfili, the heir of his brother's monstrous 
estate of ^ crowns per annum, and 1,700,000 crowns 
in ready money. I assure you I have taken care not 
to put a figure too much ; and this creature who has 
lived upon love and, at most, 10 pauls a day, .at Pisa, 
is now become more covetous since his brother's death. 
One instance will be sufficient. He was here with his 
love, a Pisan Dama, and all her family, on the Em- 
peror's day, (St. Francis) and being in deep mourning, 
was under necessity to make a coat, to dine at Prince 
Craon's. He had, he said, long determined to make 
up a plain beaver coat, for the winter ; he therefore 
took that opportunity to execute it, plain buttons, etc., 
and in order to make it Gala, he actually bought of 
the Jews some old silver lace, a stripe of which h e 
put down behind all the button-holes for that day 
only, and borrowed an old silver waistcoat of some- 
body, to wear with it, which he was obliged to open 
on both sides, to make big enough ; for though he 
starves himself, he has a big belly.' 

On the 10th October Mann describes characters of 
another sort. ' We have,' he says, 'a Spectacle which, 
for the oddity of it, everybody goes to, once ; a deep, 
horrible tragedy, represented by Maynards (sic). The 
actors and actresses and the whole troop have most 
enormous natural humps, and the Impresario designed 


to dedicate the piece to Gobbo (hump-backed) Dati, but 
was afraid for his own. The Craons were there last 
night ; she promised to carry me but forgot it, and 
I preferred the Opera. The last time the Princess was 
there, her dignity was doubly hurt. When the boxes 
applauded Saufterre (the dancer) the Pit hissed, to 
impose silence to show their regard to Denis (ballet- 
master) who, after having danced in the first Opera, 
went to Naples. The Princess thought her presence 
ought to have imposed more respect, and attributed the 
little riot, as "faute d'attention a certaines personnes." 
Then a soldier came into the box, to tell Chatelet the 
Venice Post had arrived, which he would not (accord- 
ing to their rules) pronounce, without first shouldering 
and presenting his musket. The Princess, who had 
never seen such a sight in a room, an impudent 
fellow to come in with his hat on, and gun in his 
hand, thought he was come to arrest somebody, and 
declared she was never so shocked in her life. Neither 
the Prince or the General could pacify her or make 
her sensible that it was not a direct affront to her, 
"mais qu'elle ne s'exposerait plus a des telles sur- 
prises ! " 

Manii complains of the dullness of Florence at 
this time, and that even as Minister, he has little to do, 
but he was vigilant : ' Mr. Mill,' he says, ' will soon be 
in England to take care of the prizes which the three 
great Privateers have taken, which, according to our 
papers (the Evening Post, No. 240) and his letters, as 
well as those from Vienna, are of an immense value. 
They say the Emperor's share is .100,000, and that of 
Mill 40,000, besides & more which, he says, he shall 

270 THE LADIES. 1747. 

get upon the agency of the whole prise. All this, and 
that the ships belong to the Emperor, Richecourt and 
Mill suppose I know nothing of.' 

Mann reiterates his complaint (Dec. 19th) over the 
dullness of the Tuscan city, but one portion of his 
four-paged letter is lively enough : ' Everybody 
is still in the country, so that one does not know 
where to pass the evenings in the week. I have 
somehow fallen into a new set, merely for want of 
other company ; Lorraine Dames, who receive each 
other by turns, because they cannot get on with those 
of the country, chi non le vogliono. Among them, 
however, is a daughter of old Mme. Sarasin, whose 
wig you must remember. This new comer is Comtesse 
Giovecourt, a mighty good sort of woman, and 
extremely intimate with Richecourt, whose favour 
I lost by a Lady' (Orford), 'and have a chance of 
regaining it by another ; so whimsically things turn 

' Your friend the Albizzi has been long ill and 
still in danger of falling into a consumption. The 
cause of her malady is said to be jealousy of Marquis 
Corsi, of whom she is excessively fond ; but he is too 
pretty, too young, and too rich to be constant. He 
has had loves with a famous dancer, and has taken an 
honour which an English Lord of our acquaintance 
has a greater right to (but you must not say a word of 
this to Lord Hobart) ; but what hurt Mme. Albizzi 
most, they say, was jealousy of her mother, Madame 
Dini, with Corsi, with whom he passed some days 
alone in the country ; therefore you must not be 
surprised at anything of this nature. 




' You have heard of the great doings at Naples, 
and the rivalship between Caffarelli and Egiziello, 
which luckily did not, as was expected, disturb the 
festa. Upon Caffarelli's arrival at Naples, Egiziello 
went to make him a visit, and was received by that 
saucy creature upon a stool, where he sat during the 
whole visit. The affair was made up by mediators, 
and afterwards they appeared good friends.' 




MANN opens the year 1748 with a sketch of an 
eccentric English peer, Lord Ashburnham ; the second 
Earl (1737-1812). 'He despised the nobility here 
because they did not adore him, and naturally was 
rampant to the lower rank, to obtain homage. I 
never saw his pride so much hurt as when he saw the 
court that was paid to a son of M. D'Argenson. His 
peerage was ready to burst. Clark continually tickled 
him with dissertations on the differences between an 
English Peer and a little frenchman. You know to 
be sure that he did not go to Rome, for fear of being 
seized as a hostage for the Pretender's son who was 
then in England ; though the real secret was that 
Clark, whose brother was a footman to the Pre- 
tender, did not choose to go to be claimed by him. 
Basta ! We have no English here now ; and so much 
the better. We have indeed an amphibious creature 
who causes great speculation. It is the famous Mr. 
Mill, who is known, I am told, in England, by the 
name of Mill the Projector. Well does he deserve 
that name here ; for he has filled their heads with 
such projects that will either ruin them, or hurt as 


much, if they are put in practice. Hitherto, I believe 
by the notices I have sent, they have been stopt, but 
not abandoned. He went from hence lately to proceed 
to England, but on his arrival at Vienna, they reflected 
on the dangers he might be exposed to, and sent 
O'Kelly in his stead. Mill, however, is very civil and, 
what I believe you call, a very jolly fellow.' 

Eccentric as many of the English were who 
sojourned in Florence for a time, the Florentines them- 
selves furnished some strange samples. In a long 
letter of the 6th February, in which Mann speaks at 
great length of his illness, he passes from that topic to 
announce the death of the Marchese Binuncini, 'who, 
from being tollerably, was seized with an appoplexy, 
after which he was never perfectly in his senses, and 
died a few days after, not to the great regret of his son 
(Folco) who, however, during his illness, behaved 
extremely well and distributed great charities, as is the 
custom in like cases here. He gave a large quantity 
of bread to all the poor of the quarter, 60 beds, and 
released many poor prisoners for debt, besides many 
things of the like nature. The body was exposed with 
great state the afternoon before it was buried, which 


was the day after his death ; and the procession from 
his house to, Santa Croce was very great. His will 
was soon opened, but it was made so judiciously that 
people cannot judge what he died worth. Some of 
his legacies were extraordinary : to his daughter in 
law a piece of plate worth 50 crowns, and the choice 
of a jewel ; to his two sisters, the Baronessa del Nero, 
and Mmc. Buondelmonte 50 crowns each, which his 
son, out of extraordinary generosity, doubled ; so that 

VOL. I. T 

274 LENT. 1748. 

they have 26, 5 shillings sterling each ; to his dear 
wife, an exhortation, at the death of her mother, to 
relinquish the 300 crowns a year which Casa Kinun- 
cini has always allowed her for pin money. The only 
thins; handsome is that, besides a small sum to all his 


servants, he obliges his son to pay them their wages 
for life ! 

* The young heir has not yet had time to show 
himself, nor can we judge yet whether his excessive 
riches will make him as good an oeconomist as his 

It was of similar samples that Boccacio said, * Vo 
raorionar d' un Marchese, non cosa magnifica 1 ' 

*mf * ' 

February 27th. 'We have but very few hours 
more of Carnival ; to make the most of them, there 
has been an Opera this morning in the Via della 
Pergola, and there is now a ball in the same place 
which will last till morning ; many suppers over the 
town, to lay in as much grease as they can to support 
the maigre of Lent. To-morrow will be a vile day, 
everybody sleepy and fatigued with the past pleasures, 
though they cannot bear the thoughts of their being 
over, and of the dull doings of Lent. It is indeed 
a disagreeable time, but I comfort myself with the 
approaching of the Spring; how many thousands there 
are who dread it ! What a good work the Ministers at 
Aix would do to prevent the slaughter that must 
otherwise ensue. 

' The weather is extravagant ; some few fine days 
we have had and the sun hot ; but this morning it 
snowed plentifully in the town, and it is excessive 


March 5th. ' I got as far as this last tuesday, 
but was interrupted by visitors who, having a strong 
motive for not appearing at the theater, made a merit 
of passing their evening here. O the Seccatori ! (bores) 
and, would you believe it ? no sooner were these words 
out of my pen than I receive a message from the 
Genejale and Generalessa Salin, to tell me they will 
come here to prevent me writing too much, which 
they know must hurt me. . . . You wonder at my 
taking to Lorrainers ; they took to me ; but really 
they are more sensible than the Italians. The latter 
will come to a festa in crowds, but you must re- 
member there is no Society among them.' 

' . . . I can tell you a secret, that the Princess 
will certainly cany the Prince soon to his native 
country (France), after which they both sigh, " Nescio 
qua natale solum" etc. and besides the many motives 
of disgust they have here, King Stanislaus' (the ex- 
King of Poland, residing at Nancy) 'courts them 
extremely. The Abbess of some place, a daughter of 
this Prince, died lately of the small pox, and K. 
Stanislaus of his own motion ferreted out a very 
distant cousin to give that post to. He wrote to the 
Prince about it with his own hand: "Faites moyla 
confiance; si vous avez quelque Batard dans ce pais 
aim que je lui puisse faire du bien. Venez, venez, 
nous vivrons ensemble." But how will the Princess 
bear his horrid pipe ? which he must smoak to the 
end of his life. 3 

"Walpole used to mock our English Summer as 
setting in with its usual severity. The Spring in 
Italy was equally severe. On the 25th March, Mann 

276 FIRE ON BOARD SHIP. 1748. 

tells him : ' It snows almost every clay in the neigh- 
bourhood of Florence ; and, on the mountains ; to get 
to us, they talk of the mountains being many braces 
high (sic). This makes it impossible for some English, 
as Mr. Brownlow, etc., to venture that way, though 
they are in haste to get to England. Tell Mr. Chute 
this, as he loves that harmonious little man, and will 
be glad to see and hear him play in England.' 

' . . . A horrid accident happened at Leghorn by 
an English merchant ship taking fire in the Mole 
amidst above 200 other ships. The consternation was 
equal to the dreadful consequences that were expected. 
Mr. Harvey was the lucky instrument to prevent them 
by a resolution, as judicious as it was courageous, and 
the only one that could succeed. He returned imme- 
diately to his ship, manned his boats, and whilst he 
himself was cutting the cables of the ship that was 
burning, the powder room took fire, but luckily the 
quantity of powder was not great, neither did the 
cannons (16), which fired as they grew hot, do any 
harm, so that he towed the ship out to sea. He, by 
this gallant action, merited the thanks of everybody. 
Every one pressed to him to express their acknowledg- 
ments ; the Governor went in person, and yesterday I 
read a message from the Council to desire me to 
convey their thanks to him, and to tell me they would 
acquaint the Emperor with the signal service he had 

* The Emperor has lately sent orders to continue the 
Process against the Signori that embezzled the corn of 
the publick granary, and who have been ever since in 
the Fortress ; their vast Parentado expected a milder 


fate ; poor Madame Borgherini whose father and hus- 
band are both equally concerned, fainted t'other day 
when this notice was given her, though the last had 
employed a Jesuit to carry her the news with all the 
precautions imaginable.' 

In the letter of April 9th, Mann enters into exten- 
sive details as to his fruitless applications for his 
arrears of pay. The receipt of each application is 
acknowledged, and its justice allowed, but nothing 
further is done, he says, not even by ' the person' 
whom Mann evidently remunerated in order to keep 
his grievance before the Foreign Secretary. ' Basta ! 
I can do no more !' and he then chronicles the doings 
at Rome and in Florence : ' I cannot in the least 
tell why, but the Pretender is retiring ; if this means 
anything, it does him honour. 

' Cardinal Albani has been honourably dismissed 
from meddling with the Queen's affairs at Rome. She 
wrote to him to thank him for his past services and 
accompanied it with a rich cross of Malta set with 
Diamonds, and to soften the matter still more, the 
Emperor has declared him Corn-Protector (sic) of the 
Empire and of the Hereditary States of the Queen. 
Cardinal* Mellini has been appointed her Minister 
Plenipotentiary with, I believe, all the Salary. The 
Cardinal (Albani) is excessively mortified, though he 
does not own it in his letters to me. He is vastly 
employed about his nephew's marriage with the second 
Princess of Massa and pleases himself with the prospect 
of that Estate coming to his family. The Sposa passed 
by here last week. Princess Craon made a mighty 
fuss with her puzza di Altezza, as they say here ; but 

278 CAS A CRAON. 1748. 

as she had no pretensions to deny the pas to our 
Princess, everything passed off mighty well and she 
had an epuisement, neither before or after, such as your 
Princess of Modena gave her by refusing her the right 

May 7th. 'Every body is grown stupid here. . . . 
Even scandal seems to be banished from Pannoni's 
(coffee house) which was the only thing diverting 
that I ever heard it produce. . . . Unless there be a 
theatre open Florence is, to be sure, the most unsociable 
place in the world. One must either be alone or in a 
crowd. Casa Craon is no longer any resource. It is 
so eclypsed that one never meets any body there but 
an odd set of folks who resort there merely for the 
convenience of Cards, and Candles to play at Minchiate, 
for scratches ; though, at the Old Palace, there are 
crowds on publick days. 

'We are expecting the famous Mrs. Morehead ' 
(one of the ladies who congratulated him in England, 
on the appointment which established him at Florence). 
' It is possible she may cause some diversion. Her 
history you may have heard, and how she got into 
a great Estate that belonged to a Mr. Hunt who died 
in her company at Paris, and for whom she put on 
weeds on her return. . . . She travels, I hear, with 
great magnificence, and is thought a great lady, which 
I must not contradict.' 

For five weeks Mann was at the Baths of Pisa. 
He thought his 'dear child' must be as interested as 
himself in his ailments, and he never fails to describe 
the most minute particulars. However, at the Baths, 
Mann recovered health and strength : ' I found only 


one inconvenience there/ he writes (July 2nd), c which 
was the number of visits I received daily from Leghorn, 
so that should I have it in my power to return them 
next season, I am resolved to fix some rule with regard 

' O 

to that article, and appoint two days in the week to 
receive the Leghorn Gentry/ Eichecourt had some 
stake at Pisa, and thinking the English Minister's visit 
and recovery would give a fashion to the waters and 
the place, ' he has promised/ says Mann, ' to put me 
into the book which Doctor Cocchi is, by order, 
writing about them. Next to the Pope's Neice, a 
Nun who went there last season, I expect to make 
the best figure/ 

' We have the famous Mrs. Morehead here/ 
(Florence) ' whom I must pass off for a Dama of con- 
dition, since she has passed in Lorraine and France on 
that foot ; but some ill-natured people have whispered 
her story, and I wish it does not make an eclat. She 
dines here to-morrow with all the rest/ 

On July 23rd, after a description of how he was 
repairing and beautifying his villa to the general 
admiration, Mann relates a very pretty quarrel between 
Pope, Priest, and Emperor : ' An odd affair has hap- 
pened here, of which I must give you a little account, 
as it employs the attention of every body and may 
have consequences. About a year ago, the Abbe 
Dumesnil, brother to the Major of that name, an 
intimate friend and confidant of the Court, was, on 
that account, nominated to the Bishoprick of Volterra. 
He was, by accident, making a visit at the Archbishop 
of Pisa's, when he met Senator Ruccellaj, with whom 
some little dispute arose, and though by the insolence 

280 POPE AND BISHOP. 1748. 

of the Abbd some harsh words were interchanged, yet 
they separated in appearance with civility. Dumesnil, 
however, reflecting on his future grandeur in the 
Church, thought this was a good opportunity to give 
proofs of his zeal for it, and with this view began to 
accumulate accusations against Euccellaj, as an enemy 
to the Church ; and he insisted with great haughtiness, 
that he should be removed from his employment as 
Auditor of the Jurisdizione (an employment which 
obliges him to defend the Great Duke's right against 
the encroachments of the Priests). The Regency did 
not think it at all necessary to comply with Dumesnil's 
demand . . . and the Archbishop of Pisa, and others 
present at the quarrel, were totally on the side of 
the Ruccellajs. Dumesnil therefore resolved to go to 
Vienna, to smash, as he said, that heretic and enemy 
of the Church of God. The Regency forbid him 
moving from Florence, but he escaped with the horses 
and servants of the Duke Salviati, who, it is supposed, 
likewise furnished him with money. The Emperor 
refused to listen to the angry Abbd who forthwith 
scattered maledictions and departed for Rome, where 
the Pope consecrated him Bishop of Volterra. Pope 
and Bishop soon fell out, and unclean words passed 
between them. The prelate made his escape on hear- 
ing that the Pontiff was about to lock him up, and he 
entered Volterra, preceded by his valet de chambre, 
who cried out, " Ecco ! il vostro vescovo ! " and ex- 
horted the people to receive him with respect. The 
Bishop followed, throwing money and benedictions to 
the crowd ; but no one did him honour, and nobody 
assisted at his installation but his valet. In his wrath 

1748. INDISCRETION. 281 

he excommunicated the town and galloped off to 
Florence, where he was at once seized and clapt into 

Soon after this event, all Florence was in com- 
motion at a scandal which had its source in Mann's 
pretty garden. ' A certain Countess Ubaldini,' (says 
Mann, August 23rd) ' who for her pranks had been 
banished the Pope's States, sauntering through one 
of the obscurely-illuminated side walks, discovered 
Signora Bocchaneri and Count Acciajuoli in such 
loving intercourse, that she not only watched the un- 
conscious lovers herself, but beckoned others to draw 
near and be spectators. This indiscreet practicer of 
" pranks " that made her even too bad for Kome to 
tolerate, hired a Guardo Nobile to illustrate the inci- 
dent in an impertinent sonnet.' Both were spoken of 
at an Assembly at Prince Craon's, and, the next 
morning, it was asserted that Mann had written the 
lines and repeated them aloud to the visitors. The 
fury of the Florentine husbands was only exceeded by 
that of their wives. They were not to be appeased till 
Mann explained and asserted the honour of his garden 
as a locality where no gentleman would presume to 
kiss a lady, in a side walk. For some time, the safety 
of ladies in the enchanted groves was not thought to 
be sufficiently warranted. ' Would you believe it, a 
very great Dama, who is Grandmother to children of 
14, told me, with a languishing voice, that really, till 
some publick disapprobation was shown, she could not 
venture for fear they should say the same things of 
her 1 ' Ultimately, the author and the disperser of 
copies of the sonnet were found out and banished for 


six months. Both were in the Noble Guard. Mann 
then gave a concert in his garden, but insulting pla- 
cards were affixed to his gates, to shame the nobili who 
allowed their wives to attend. The Minister resolved 
that he would cease to open his grounds to the world 
generally uninvited, and only receive guests there by 
private invitation. 

On the above social trait Mann writes with even 
more than his usual profuseness, but after the serious 
triviality, there comes an interesting historic person- 
age : ' The Cardinal D'Orco, either out of Devotion, 
or from a desire to get some rich bishoprick, has 
determined to take Priest's Orders, which the Pope 
has consented to with reluctance ; fearing, I suppose, 
that there may be occasion for his getting heirs to 
the crown of England. He has already begun the 
progress of Sub-Deacon's Orders, and is to be a com- 
pleat Priest, the first of September, and is to say his 
first Mass, the 8th, in his own Chappel, being the 
Virgin's Birthday, when his father is to receive the 
body of her son from his hands.' 

On September 3rd, Mann writes : ' The Cardinal 
D'Orck advances a-pace in Priesthood. He has re- 
ceived all the inferior orders, and is to be a compleat 
Priest in a few days. His brother is furious and 
declares he will never see him.' A passage in a subse- 
quent long letter, crammed with mere political reports, 
tells us further of Henry Stuart : ' The Cardinal is 
all devotion. He fasts and prays as much as his 
mother used to do, and they say, has ruined his con- 
stitution already. Did you ever hear of a bon mot of 
the Duke de Eichelieu's when he was at Dunkirk, 


preparing for the embarkation. A Council was to be 
held, and they waited only for the second son who 
was at his prayers. On his coming, the Duke de 
Richelieu told him publickly that he might, perhaps, 
by prayers, gain the Kingdom of Heaven, but never 
the Kingdom of Great Britain.' The anger of Charles 
Edward at his brother becoming an ecclesiastic was 
not soon appeased. Some weeks after the above letter, 
Mann writes : ' We have heard of all the obstinacies 
of the Pretender's son, and the effects that they have 
produced. The next thing we expect to hear is his 
being arrived at Bologna, where it is believed he will 
fix, till he can get over his aversion to Rome and bear 
the sight of his Cardinal brother, by seeing the Legate. 
His arrest at Paris makes a great noise. Adieu, here 
are all the English to be presented to your Princess.' 

September 3rd. ' Mr. Forrester who travels with 
Lord Annandale convinced the Princess of the great 
love and regard his wife had for him, by the pains and 
troubles she took to correct him, whenever she thought 
lie deserved it. " Comment vous corriger ? " " Oui, 
Madame, par des coups de baton." which were no 
equivocal proof of her affection and desire to amend 
him, and for which he always owned he was more 
sensibly obliged than if she had not thought him 
worth her resentment. . . .' 

Thursday. ' I omitted to give my usual Assembly, 
and I had the satisfaction to hear that it displeased 
greatly. I was glad however of an opportunity that 
offered to give one to the Countess Acciajuoli for a 
foreign lady she serves. It was by invitation, with 
the exclusion of all those who deserved it. The 


Ladies were exactly 80 ; the men out of all proportion 
even of three to one, which is the common calculation. 
It was really handsome, and I have finished with 
eclt for the season.' 

September 5th. ' I had great company yesterday 
at dinner, Prince Craon, Prince Beauvau,' (his son) 
* Count Eichecourt, the Pandolfinis (the eldest son 
has become Count, and Secretary of State to the 
Eegency). But besides this, with other great company, 
the Princesse elle-meme honoured my table. So soon 
as I heard she was in town, I went to the Opera to 
her to invite her, when she told me she had already 
determined to surprize me. It was no small affair to 
adjust things for her, but everything succeeded very 
well ; we were twelve at table ; and I expect to see 
in the gazzettes that the Ministro d'Inghilterra diede 
tanto pranzo, as was mentioned some little time ago, 
on a much less occasion, to 8 English captains. The 
only secret is to add one or two of the country to 
make it talked of ; and then they thank you So much 
for all favours that one would think one had saved 
them from starving.' 

The Peace of Aix la Chapelle gave a little breathing 
time to Europe. Its terms formed a sort of Epigram 
on the folly, wickedness, and uselessness of war ; for 
the contracting parties fell back nearly into the posi- 
tions they occupied before war was declared. On Oct. 
llth, Mann writes : ' They say the Peace is arrived 
at Genoa and in Lombardy, though that is all we 
have heard of it. The situation of the combatants 
seems to be like that of the Italian Limbo, which 
nobody understands and which at least is doubtful.' 


'The Austrians and Piedmontese are endeavouring 
to make the most of the States they are to abandon. 
The Spaniards are doing the same in Savoy, by 
exacting vast contributions. The French are dancing 
and singing at Genoa, not much to the diversion of 
the inhabitants, who are for the most part excluded 
from the Opera they have made, act, sing, and dance 
themselves. Even the Orchestra is all of French 
officers ; no mercenaries are admitted to this perfor- 
mance, except the woemen, French, for the parts in 
the Opera, and Italian for the dances. I have read 
the Piece, but don't well know what it is about ; there 
are so many Gods and Goddesses, Rivers, Geuiis, etc., 
that interrupt the little story, that were it worth 
attending to, one should with difficulty follow it. Le 
Genie de la France says in the Prologue, " que Louis 
ne punit ses ennemis, qui tremblent, qu'en les con- 
damnant au repos ! " The French and Genoese are 
vastly tired of each other. Whenever the former retire 
it is highly probable that the populace of Genoa will 
rise again against the nobility and (though not with 
that view) revenge the Queen's (Maria Theresa's) 
quarrel better than her army has known how to 
do it. 

'. . . An odd accident has happened here. In the 
last week a person arrived who announced himself at 
the Gates and to Marquis Riccardi, under the name 
and title of Milord Richard Onslow, fils de I'Orateur 
de la Chambre basse, Duke of Kingston, and as such 
introduced to all the Ladies. I did not see him for 
some days, as he avoided me, but Marquis Riccardi 
insisted upon it that he was exactly such as he had 

286 AN IMPOSTOR. 1748. 

announced himself. I made it plainly appear that it 
could not be ; to which he answered " Certo ! si, 
Signore ! " but being resolved to see him, I went into 
Mme. Galli's box. The first thing he said was, that 
he was very much sorry that he had not met me at 
home. His accent was very foreign ; he left me too 
soon to enquire into his family. I told the company, 
however, that he was not an Englishman, which they 
seemed to smile at and totally disbelieve. The next 
night I met him at Count Capponi's, whose daughter 
was marrying Marquis Torreziani. I then took him 
aside to question him, when he persisted in the same 
idle story of being the Speaker's son, who being a 
Lord, he would call himself so, too. I grew very 
angry, and he vastly confused, begging I would defer 
all further explanation till the next morning, when 
he would show me letters to justify himself. I told 
him that was quite unnecessary, as what he had said 
was sufficient to convince me, and that I would imme- 
diately tell Prince Craon and Count Richecourt, who 
were then present, that Marquis Eiccardi had presented 
him to them, with a title he had no pretentious to. 
The thing soon made much noise, and he went away 
with Riccardi as soon as he could ; complained to him 
of me, and threatened that I should soon be brought 
to know the English Nobility better. 

' I had a violent dispute with Riccardi at the 
Opera afterwards, as he persisted still to assert that 
he was a Lord, and said so many absurdities to 
support it, that in presence of many people I told 
him that I might have expected such a discourse 
from an Indian ' but not from one who had resided in 

1748. A SUICIDE. 287 

England in a publick character. In short, the whole 
company was vastly diverted, and I told him that if 
his Lord was wise he would run away that night. 

'The next morning we heard he had set out on 
foot from his auberge, since which we have only 
heard that he is gone towards Kome, in order, as is 
most probable, to receive the money from Belloni, for 
which he had forged himself credit by imitating the 
hands of Pictet, Walthers and Mr. Salvini at Paris, as 
appears by his papers which the Fiscal has examined 
and brought to me. I have not seen then all, but 
shall to-morrow. He had four servants with laced 
liveries, who have been stripped this afternoon. His 
cloaths are to be sold to pay the few debts he has 
contracted here ; but the Bankers at Marseilles, Lions, 
Geneva, etc., must lose all they have given him. We 
have found that his name is Daniel Bets, or something 
like it, and that he is either a Dutch man or namand/ 

In the letters of the 13th November there is a 
long narrative which refers to the Droit d'Aubaine, 
by which the goods of a foreigner, dying sud- 
denly, were forfeited to the State. A young English- 
man, unnamed, committed suicide at Leghorn. ' The 
young fellow/ says Mann, ' had been long enough in 
Italy to purge off the English spleen which made him 
cut his throat.' However, the English Consul took 
charge of his effects, and the Council of Kegency at 
Florence laid loud and violent claim to them on behalf 
of the Emperor. Goldworthy, prompted by Mann, 
refused to surrender the property. Prince Craon had 
in Council asserted the Emperor's jurisdiction. Mann 
met the Prince at dinner, and explained his objections 


to the assertion then made : ' Well, well ! ' replied the 
weak old Regent, ' reckon that I said nothing at all 
about it.' And the poor fellow's property was saved 
to his heirs. 

By December 13th, there was a 'young fellow' of 
higher rank on his way to Italy, namely, Lord 
Walpole, the Earl of Orford's son. ' I shall be vastly 
glad to see him/ says Mann, ' but they write me that 
he is to fix for some time at Geneva. In some 
respects, I don't like that place for him. There are, 
I am told, many young girls who set up for conquests, 
and whom our young people think vastly genteel and 
amiable because they are the first foreign woemen they 
are permitted to be free with. ... I should dread 
Lord Walpole 's having any strong engagement there 
where there is not the bar of Religion to prevent the 
only bad consequences to one in his situation.' As 
Mann constantly remarks, the entertaining of English' 
visitors to Florence, who came with letters of intro- 
duction, added greatly to his expenses, and he adds : 
' I can hear nothing of my great arrears, nor would 
there, I believe, be any likelihood of their listening to 
me, if I was to apply for an encrease of character 
from Minister to Ambassador.' 

1749. THE YOUNG PllflTENDBK. 289 



THE new year opens with an old complaint. ' I am 
going to pay my Court to the Princess/ Mann writes 
on the 23rd January, 'going with most of the English, 
whom I am to present. Oh, the number of English ! 
I am absolutely ruined in feasting them. Prince 
Craon has announced to me, that his son-in-law, M. de 
Mirepoix, is going Ambassadour to England, and 
Madame will accompany him. Her brother Prince 
Beauvau will certainly take that opportunity of 
gratifying his inclination to see England every year, 
as the Prince told me.' 

January 3lst. 'Our Italy has talked a great 
deal of the young Pretender's Imprisonment at Vin- 
ceunes. The manner of his being seized displeased 
the Craons and Richecourt extremely. Rome talks 
now much of his being at Avignon, and would be glad 
to induce him to leave it. The Pope assembled his 
Cardinals last Tuesday, Buffo, Passionei, Valenti, 
Riviera, and Lanti, to consult about it. They deter- 
mined that soft insinuations and amiable remonstrances 
should be made to him, with the offer of the choice 
of any City in the Ecclesiastical States of Italy, for 

VOL. I. U 


his residence ; but, in case this method foiled, it was 
resolved at the same time, to expose the town of 
AA T ignon to any violence which the resentment of 
France might dictate rather than to use forcible 
means to drive him from thence. So we may prob- 
ably see a new scene, as the young man's behaviour 
does not seem to denote that persuasions will operate 
much. May one suppose, however, that France will 
think itself obliged to trouble itself any further about 
him, or to quarrel \vith the Pope, for our sake ? ' 

February 7th. 'Prince Craon has received his 
conge and withall so gracious that the poor man 
almost forgets the angherie that made him ask it. 
The Emperor invites him and the Princess to take 
Vienna in their way, has given him a thousand 
zecchins for his journey, and has assigned them a 
pension of as much, for their life. The Florentines are 
amazed at all this, and the Lorrainers think it a great 
deal. The Princess looks pleased indeed, but I dare 
say she thinks it a poor reward for the signal services 
she has rendered to the House of Lorraine for 70 years. 
I whisper this only, for really every one who sees her 
would abate 20 at least. She declares, however, that 
she must turn an old woman in Lorraine, in the midst 
of all her Grand-children. However, I think she may 
displace Madame de Boufflers, her daughter, who is 
the great favourite of King Stanislaus, if she will but 
take to smoaking a little ; at least if she will bear his 

'Adieu. It strikes 12 at night ; for all our clocks, 
by order of the Court, have been put alia francese, 
which confounds the Florentines, extremely.' 


March 8th. 'Rome makes a fuss about the Young 
Pretender at Avignon. Is he to remain there ? . . . 
I think he is much more out of the way there than at 
Rome, where it is all chance if one discovers anything. 
Avignon is no passage, nor is there any call for 
strangers, a prohibition might even be given without 
prejudice, consequently, all who do go there might 
easily be known. He has lately sent a Mr. Lockart 
to Rome to sollicit money of the Pope, who swears 
he will give him none. That person, in appearance, 
has no commission to the father, from which one is 
to suppose they are still at variance. O'Brien, now 
called Lord Lechmere, has lately received the Grand 
Cordon Rouge, from France, and at the same time 
the news of his wife being banished to a certain 
distance from Paris. Tencin and others of that Cabal 
used to meet at her house, and she is supposed to have 
discovered their secrets to Spain during the Congress, 
with which she mixed their complaints of M. Sotto 
Mayor, by which means she has lost her pension, and 
the favour of the Court of France/ 

March 2lst. 'The Young Pretender left Avignon 
in a very misterious manner, on the night of the 25th, 
with only one person, after having feigned being ill, 
the better to conceal his departure. He took the 
route of Dauphin^ which is all we know, hitherto. 
Do you think we shall hear of him from Berlin, or 
Scotland, first ? I have seen in our papers that orders 
had been sent into Scotland for regulating the Patroles 
and Guards in the mountains. This was previous to 
his departure from Avignon, and looks as if they had 
been informed of it, or at least suspected some motion 

292 THE JACOBITES. 1749. 

there in his favour. At Kome, some say that he is 
gone to treat of a marriage for himself. Others that 
he is gone only to some private place, to treat with 
people who were afraid to go to him ; consequently, 
that something of great importance is in agitation.' 

April 18tk. 'All the news I have to send you of 
Italy is, that the Pope is totally employed in cleansing 
his churches and making Bulls for the regulation of 
the Anno Santo, in order to draw as many strangers as 
he can to Rome. The King and Queen of Naples, 
they say, will be there, and some say that the King 
of Portugal will gratify his curiosity and devotion 
in the like manner. I can't however believe it 

'We are totally ignorant of the motions of the 
Pretender's son. So many reports are spread that one 
is totally at a loss what to believe. Most people agree 
that he has been privately to Paris to make a visit to 
the Princesse de Talmont (?) a Poland (sic) and one of 
the Queen's ladies who took his part when he was 
arrested and sent to Viuceiines. They say that she 
has treated a match for him in Poland, where some 
suppose now he is gone ; others say he is gone to 
Sweden, others to Berlin. Some believe that he will 
soon be again at Avignon, where his family equipages 
arid even the table is kept, as if they expected him 
daily. Then they say he is to come into Italy, to 
Bologna or Ferrara. He has obliged his father to 
send away O'Brien (whom they call Lord Lechmere) 
who was to have left Rome a few days ago, because 
the son would have no confidence or communication 
with the father, so long as that person was entrusted 


by him. O'Brien's wife is in France, but was sent from 
Paris, by order of the Court, some time ago. 

' The new Duke of Parma has disgusted all his 
new subjects. He is so horribly French that they 
cannot please' him ; and he is so horribly poor that they 
are quite disappointed and disgusted. For want of 
money to feed his servants, he has quartered them on 
the principal families. His soldiers desert even his 
Gardes du Corps. The Duke of Modena is fortifying 
the Mirandola and intends to be very considerable. 
His vying with his neighbour of Parma, will probably 
be his ruin ; both their Dutchesses are expected soon 
in Italy, which will probably make those places agree- 
able for some time at least to strangers.' 

May 23rd. ' You may remember that upon Mons. 
de Mirepoix being named Ambassador to England, 
you desired that Prince de Craon would mention you 
in his letter to Madame. This he promised to do ; 
but the day before his departure, he seemed to re- 
collect as of a sudden, that he was to write to her 
about you. I did not contradict it, and he sat down 
then to do it, he did not show me the letter, but as he 
named Mr. St. Leger at the same time, I concluded 
he would name him in it, so that my curiosity, with 
the facility of doing it, engaged me to open the letter 
which I send you, that you may read it and judge 
whether you will deliver it. In which case it will be 
easy to seal by putting a large dab of hot wax under 
the arms.' 

June 20th. c I write to you in a Hurricane which 
is terrible and threatens great mischief. If your 
summer is as uncouth as ours, your diversions at 


Eanelagh and Vauxhall must be greatly interrupted. 
We have not had one evening fit for my garden. I 
still live in my winter Appartmeuts in a cloth eoat. 
At .Rome they have had a turbine which Paparini, in 
a pompous printed description, says ; "si chiama in 
francese, oufagan" which has done great mischief. You 
will image the force of it, by its having rooted up, and 
what is still more extraordinary, carried off so as not 
to be found, the vast Pines and Cipresses in Villa 
Negrone. It grazed the town only, but destroyed 
everything in its way ; had it gone through the city, 
it is thought it would have done the same. The 
heavens, I find, are more serene at Ranelagh, so as to 
permit the Jubilee Masquerade of which you have 
given me so charming a description. . . . Our Island 
will become as famous for Masquerades as for 
Methodism. You say I must prepare myself for it 
(Methodism), but among all the English here I can't 
get a definition of it.' 

July 25th. Mr. and Mrs. Barrett, the former an 
invalid, the latter a charming lady, with a leaning 
towards Methodism, were visiting Florence, and were, 
as friends of Mr. Chute, objects of cordial attention on 
the part of Mann. ' They have been vastly visited ' 
(he writes), ' and have begun to go to some conver- 
sazioni. I am preparing one on purpose for Sunday ; 
the Dames to be invited already amount to 150 ; 
judge what a number of men there must be. 1 wish 
I could invite them too ' (the men went, uninvited) 
' that I might exclude some hundreds who only come 
to scramble for sorbets and to pocket the glasses ! 
But I whisp&r this, lest the nobility should be offended. 

1749. A PAINTED DUKE. 295 

' The Duke of Modena is now at Venice an 
uncouth figure with his white forehead and red cheeks : 
when I saw him many years ago at Bologna, he had a 
great wen between his eye-brows, on which he used 
to hang his wig : then the quantity of paint on the 
rest of his face, which trickled down mixed with 
sweat, made him full as ridiculous a figure as he can 
be. ... He continued to be ridiculous in every part 
of his conduct during the war, both Publick and 
Domestick, and yet I am persuaded that the Dutchess 
and his family will be sorry that his country is 
restored to him, for which they must quit their more 
pleasing abodes to ennuyer themselves with him. He 
is at Venice with them, waiting, I suppose, for the 
erection of a triumphal arch, or some emblem of 
valour and prudence to celebrate his return to Modena. 

1 "We have a Lockart here, who I believe was in the 
Guards when he deserted to the Rebels. He certainly 
is amongst them. He came here from Rome, recom- 
mended by Cardinal Carini, to his relations. He has 
not been with me.' 

August 15th. ' It is plain our countrymen think 
that the approaching Jubilee will be far more pompous 
than the shows you have had. We hear of crowds 
being already as far as Paris on their way thither. 
Rome expects to be enriched by them, and probably 
will not be mistaken. Were there only one Jubilee in 
a century, one should not wonder, but the fathers of 
those who have such a mistaken notion of it could 
undeceive them, and tell them that there is no time so 
improper to see the real curiosities of Rome. There 
will be no Opera that year in all the Ecclesiastical 

20G .4 TRIP TO THE JUBILEE. 1749. 

States ; in short, you know that the whole is dedicated 
to the good of Catholick souls, the purging them of all 
past sins, and the furnishing them with Indulgences 
for the future. Hereticks are excluded from all sure 
benefits, and consequently will pass their time very ill 
there. I am convinced that if people had a true idea 
of this Jubilee, many would be prevented taking a 
trip thither. The Young Pretender is so hidden that 
nobody, not even the Pope or his father, knows where 
lie is.' 

November 7th. ' I don't like the old insipid Italian 
Conversations, where there is often a great crowd but 
not the best society. One must have a Cicisbea of 
one's own to be upon a foot with other people, but that 
would be infinitely too much trouble, and unless she 
were like Mrs. Barrett, I think I should not like her. 
She has the greatest sweetness of temper I ever met 
with, and has extreme good sense. . . . Marquis 
Costi's wedding is the only gayety stirring ; he is to 
be married to-morrow to a Medici. Your friend, Mme. 
Albizzi, who is his Cicisbea, made him break off two 
matches before, and, not succeeding so well in this, is 
gone into the country upon a promise that she shall 
have all his attentions a week after the marriage. It 
is the fashion now for the favourite Cicisbea to wink 
at her lover's marrying, upon promise of return a few 
days after. Sisistori did so with the Antinori ; his 
brother the Colonel, with the Riccardi ; and many 
others I could name.' 

November 28th. 'I live a strange life since the 
departure of the Barretts and some few English I was 
intimate with ; who are all gone to Rome for this 

1749. GERMAN NAVY. 297 

Jubilee ; not that I think it will take as much as the 
Pope expected. Do you know that he has wrote to all 
his Sons, the Catholick Princes, to desire them to keep 
good friends, not to disturb the peace and sanctity of 
this holy year. He has spent a good deal of money 
in furbishing up and decorating his theaters, the 
churches, and if he has not a great deal of company, 
he will be a loser by it.' 

It was at this time the ambition of Austria to 
make the German Empire, or the Austrian portion of 
it,- a great maritime power. The government had 
abandoned the project of Mills (a Promoter, per- 
haps the father of that unscrupulous and villainous 
race) for founding an Austro East Indian Com- 
pany : ' All their views now/ says Mann, ' are 
directed to Trieste, which the Empress-Queen is 
resolved shall totally eclipse Venice, as Leghorn is 
to do all the Ports in the Mediterranean. Three old 
ships, bought in England some years ago, for Cor- 
mondel (sic) are to be turned into Imperial Men of 
War, and to lay the first foundation of a Puissance 
Maritime in this part of the world ! ' 


January 2nd. 'Madame Antinori and others 
have formed their own opinion of my attentions to 
Mrs. Barrett. ... I cannot agree with what you say 
with regard to her. What you call prudery, I 
attributed to the coldness of the English character. 
I own she is not briUante, but then I think she has 
great good sense, excessively quiet I own, and 

- )( J8 '.'AitXIl'AL. 17- ".i i. 

susceptible of friendship though not of Love, which 
one does not always seek, though the Italians have 
no idea of any other affection. They judge of all 
women by themselves. ... I own J. was happy in 
a <juiet family society, not very gay, but agreeable; 
perhaps this argues an unfitncss for a more sprightly 
life. . . . J Relieve me that in Florence such a family 
(as the Barretts) is a great resource, and I most 
sincerely wish it was here at present. They are now 
at Naples, he vastly gay, and as novelty diverts him, 
lie thinks himself better in his health, but J am 
persuaded that his opinion will last no longer than 
he is amused. There are crowds of English at the 
Jubilee, The first great function is over, and in a 
very little time people will forget they are in the holy 
year, but from the want of all amusements.' 

February 13th. ' It is impossible to be in a 
country like this, at so mad a season, and not to bo 
in some degree tainted with its madness. The first 
half of our Carnival was so dull that nobody knew 
it. Nothing but a bad Opera, and unfrequented, to 
distinguish it from the rest of the year. We did not 
(-veil suspect that people reserved themselves for the 
latter part of it ; but then, like all other passions 
suppressed for a time, masking, intriguing, and 
jollity of all kinds broke out with greater fury, 
which has surpassed that of other Carnivals. 1, as 
a spectator only, was so fatigued that I have not 
recovered it yet. The contrast now, however, is too 
great, and .1 do not wonder at people being out of 
humour. Devotion and the reflection on many of the 
sweets of past pleasures, make the scene compleatly 


dull, at present. Florence is vastly altered since you 
was here, and it alters for the worse, every day. 
People grow poorer and consequently more discon- 
tented; and, not being able to vent their anger where 
it might be due, they squabble with each other. 
There is not the least society, except among the 
Lorrainers, who are chatty enough, but rather 
ignorant and insignificant ; and yet, not to be 
always alone, I am forced to take to them. I go to 
their homes some evenings, and. they come to me. 
Quadrille and Piquet make their amusement. Mr. 
Pelham, Milbanke, and one or two other English 
always sup here ; but I am doing all I can to 
persuade the former to go to England, where he has 
long been expected to marry Miss Pelham. It is 
madness in him to neglect such an offer ; but the 
Countess Acciajuoli has too great an ascendant over 
him, and lias so often made him put off the day of 
his departure as he had fixed it. He is, with the 
consent of the whole family, to go with the Countess 
into the country for a few days, with the secret hopes 
undoubtedly that something may come of it, to make 
amends for her dislike to her husband. The family, 
which is extremely antient, and counts a lineal descent 
from the Counts of Athens, wants an heir, to prevent 
the Estate devolving to the Church ; but I tell him 
daily that it imports him much more to hasten to 
make an heir to the Duke of Newcastle than to the 
Dukes of Athens. . . .' 

'. . . The Craons were so poorly housed at and 
near Florence, that a change from one to the other 
villa, involved carrying the furniture. The Princess 

300 LITER A TUR E. 1 750. 

is iiow much better off in Lorraine. Stanislaus* 
(says Mann) ' has obliged her to live with him at 
Nancy, and has allotted her the Queen's appartments 
which she was formerly so much used to in Leopold's 
time. They say even that after poor Prince Craon's 
death, she is to be Queen Leczinska. They expect 
Madame de Mirepoix, her daughter, when her husband 
attends the King (of England) to Hanover. P. Craon 
has wrote me the most kind and affectionate letter ; 
he says he is vastly happy, and that nothing is 
wanting to make him compleatly so, but the birth 
of a boy, de la facon de son fils, which they hope for 
in April. M. de Mirepoix will certainly give a ball 
on the occasion, to have the pleasure of dancing at it, 
and to convince the heavy English that the French 
are as light at fifty as they are at twenty.' 

The same letter, which is one of the longest of 
Mann's long epistles, contains one of the few references 
he makes to literary subjects. The following is of 
pleasant interest : 

' You bid me send you Dr. Cocclii's opinion of 
Montesquieu's " Esprit des Loix." He has not read 
it, but I must tell you that many here pretend to find 
fault with it ; unreasonably, .1 think. They tax him 
of having made use of other authors' sentiments as 
his own ; though they don't pretend to deny that he 
has introduced them judiciously. They allow that 
it was not necessary to make notes every time, but at 
least that he ought to have made some declaration or 
apology, in the preface. They say besides, that in 
many places he is too concise, consequently obscure. 
For my own part, where I have not understood him 


I have attributed it to my own fault ; and upon the 
whole, I must own that I have never learnt so much 
from any other book ; and hope still to learn more, 
by a second reading of it this Lent. I Irave not seen 
Heynault's Abrege, nor is it to be got here, though 
the French bookseller has promised to send for it. 

' We have a new book here, called " Trattato della 
Publica Felicita," by Muratori, the Duke of Modena's 
Librarian ; which made a great noise before it was 
seen here, but it was then found to be a very middling 
performance. The Abbe Buondelmonte has wrote a 
little dab, which has been most terribly criticized by 
Lami, in the "Novelle Litterarie." Senator Rucellaj 
has been writing plays, or rather, translating them, 
though he won't allow it. He has chosen Addison's 
"Drummer" which he had read in French only, 
translated or rather imitated by Destouches. Rucellaj 
calls his too, the "Tamburro Notturuo." It was to 
have been acted this Carnival, but he quarrelled with 
the actors, and he keeps it still hidden till he finds 
proper people to do it justice, after Easter. If it is no 
better than his " Misantrope," it will be a most 
wretched performance. A propos to that. He was 
most terribly mortified last summer by Madame de 
Ligneville, Princess Craon's sister-in-law, who is 
allowed by everybody to have as much wit as 
judgement. She was talking in general with the 
Senatori about Italian comedies; and she engaged 
Rucellaj to lend her some ; among them he sent his 
own " Misantrope," which she read, and not knowing 
it was his, abused most justly and unmercifully. The 
next time she saw him in a great circle of Litterati, 


who were all too well pleased with her saying what 
they all thought (but out of complaisance had con- 
cealed) to undeceive her as to the author ; but it was 
too late, she was vastly confused for some time, but 
had gone too far to retract. The only way to mitigate 
it, was to say that, indeed she had read it over hastily, 
and that perhaps on reading it again should alter her 
opinions ; but she never mentioned a word to him of it 
afterwards, and he, from being the greatest admirer of 
her judgement, wit, and understanding, had ever after 
the most contemptible opinion of them ! ' 

From ruffled authors, our Minister proceeds to take 
note of man and beast. On March 13th, he says: 
'We have been entertained with a most shabby Tripo- 
line Ambassador whom people's curiosity led to see as 
much as it will the Rhinoceros which we expect from 
Rome, where it is gone to the Jubilee. This animal 
is to be recommended to me with its master, Vauder 
Meer, whom the Emperor has made a Baron for the 
merit of the Beast. You must not be surprised that a 
Baron de I'Empire should follow this trade; when we 
are told that Augustus himself did not disdain to be 
a Rhinocerontajo, by shewing one publickly to the 
Romans ; and this I believe is the only one that has 
been in Italy since that time though I have never heard 
that a medal of it was struck as has now been done in 
honour of this. 

'The Tripoliue Ambassador, as I have said, was 
followed by crowds whenever he stirred out, with 
which he was offended till Naziato Baldocci, the Master 
of the Ceremonies who attended him, told him it was 
to do him honour ; so they persuaded him when, on 

1750. A NEW FASHION. 303 

his arrival at the gates of Bologna and pressing through 
the streets, the people gave him a solennissimajischiata 
(a most solemn hissing and whistling) with which mark 
of their respect he was taught to be greatly pleased, 
and bristled his whiskers with joy.' 

April nth. ' We have now a Mr. Scrim here, 
the son of the great Apothecary of Bath, who is by 
much the finest and most delicate man here ; he has 
the finest cloaths, always wears lace, has a fine equipage 
and gives great dinners. At one of these to many 
English, on every salver that was presented when 
people called for drink, there were two CarafFes ; one 
with Burgundy, with a printed lay bill pasted on it, 
was taken up by one of the company, who said aloud 
that it looked like a dose from an Apothecary's shop, 
and he hoped it wasn't Physick, which he accompanied 
by putting it to his nose. He afterwards protested 
that he did not do it on purpose, and indeed he was 
as much disconcerted as now Mr. Schrim (sic. Query 
Skreane ?) appeared to be. It cured him ever after 
of giving Burgundy in caraffes.' 

May 8th. ' Madame Don Philip has brought the 
mode into Italy of dressing her head a la Rhino- 
ceros, which all our ladies here follow ; so that the 
preceding mode a la Commetta (sic) is only fit for 
Madame Snares and such antiquated beauties. . . . 
I have been a regular Courtier to the Marquis of 
Baden Durlach. . . . The late Queen ' (Caroline, wife 
of George II.) ' was his great aunt, and he is nephew to 
the Prince of Orange. . . . Count Eichecourt, observing 
that he hardly ever opens his mouth but to speak 
English, has engaged us in all his parties, and 

entertains 'him at dinner every day. They tell me 
I should, luit 1 am afraid of not doing it well for MI 
large a company as 1 must invite with him. The two 
evenings that there was no burletta, lie passed at the 

C 1 1 

Count's ; the first evening there was an elegant con- 
cert, at which Verroccini shone much and particularly 
in a Sonata, in which he Tilings in Tweed's >SWr. 
which lie always plays when 1 am present. Only 
voium; ladies were invited, and were in the greatest 
(Jala. Count Ivieherourt said the old ones might go 
to Chapel, for he would have none of them. . . 1 
never saw anybody more smitten than the Ahmjuis, 
luit the Vernacci was as insensible as he was timorous., 
though she must have much more sense than she has 
to inicss even that he has a liking for her. Kichecourt 

o o 

-hows him royal honours, goe.- to the coach door to 
meet him, and always waits upon him to it. and at 
the English Inn when; he is lodged, attends two or 
three hours in his antechamber, whilst under Pretence 
of a cold, the AIar<|uis laid in bed to read the, Alemoirs 
of a Woman of Pleasure, which Stosch lent him. 1 
will send you by the iirst opportunity, -Kuceelafs 
translation of Addison's "Drummer, or Haunted 
House." It has been acted twice but makes a most 
woeful appearance on an Italian stage. I expected it 
would have been damned the first ni'ht ; but the 


audience only groaned with impatience and ennuy. 
Few will go again, though the Hurletta which is acted 
alternately in the same theater is alwavs crouded.' 

June 'K)tli. ' We have had a most pitifull little 
liarthfjuake, too ; not worth mentioning. It did not 
evcu alarm the old woenieii, or furnish the priests, with 

1750. WIT OF VILLABS. 305 

an excuse to preach about judgements, though they 
would not have dared to attribute it to Electricity, 
gravitation or any natural cause. The Inquisition 
and priestly craft obliges them to pocket up all these 
for Judgements and miracles, as may best serve their 
turn ; but nothing of this kind has been preached on 
this occasion ; no old house has been thrown down, no 
China jar cracked to give the Priests a handle to 
be hung on to raise the price of such commodities ; 
I shall not be surprised to hear that some fine Lady 
has given the full price for those jars, and that she 
should keep them with as much veneration as some 
Generals have done their Hats which a Musket ball 
has pierced. Some french officers in the war in Italy 
in the year '34 were accused of diverting themselves 
with shooting at their own hats to dance with at the 
Balls when Marshal Villars danced a minuet supported 
by two Aide de Camps (sic}.' 

' Did you ever hear what was allowed to be a bon 
mot of his ? Being asked by somebody, how old he 
was, he answered : " J'auray bientot Mil-an ;" upon 
which town he had then a view.' 

July 18th. ' Since my jaunt to Pisa I have taken 
such a gout for the country that I have been rambling 
abroad to some country houses. I staid three days 
at a very fine one of Marquis Acciajuoli's, situated 
most abominably among the mountains towards 
Volterra. If I could afford it, I really would take 
a Villa near Florence, but I am afraid of its becoming 
a cheesecake house for all the English, though the 
King's Arms is vastly frequented by them in town, so 
that I have not a moment to myself.' 

VOL. I. * 


(Ill those days, each Ambassador, or other repre-r 
sentative of his sovereign, placed the shield of his 
country's arms in front of the house in which he 
dwelt ; and Innkeepers considered it a favour to be 
allowed to put up the national arms of any Ambas- 
sador who had passed a night in their hostelry). 

* I fancy I should be quieter there, and yet I am 
afraid to venture, for fear of their friendly visits in 
the morning to avoid the heat, and their lasting the 
whole day ; here, I can be denied for some parts 
of it. 

' We are to have crouds from Turin. A Colonel 
Shuckburgh and his wife are here, who in order to be 
veiy intimate with me, have showed me a letter from 
somebody who acquaints them that my Lord Orford 
is to recommend them to me, and they enquire every 
Post, if I have received his letters. They are eternal 
players at whist, which I pretend not to know, at the 
risk of being much despised by them for my ignorance 
of so fashionable a game/ 

August 30th. 'In compliance to your Inclinations, 
I have invited the little Venetian Ambassadress to my 
Garden on Sunday evening. She takes it all upon her 
own account, though it literally is for Mrs. Barrett. 
The first day after her arrival, she laid in bed the whole 
day. The next, which was yesterday, she made an 
effort and got dressed by three to dine at Niccolini's, 
where 22 people were waiting for her. Of English, 
the Barretts folks, as Mrs. Davis calls them, Mr. 
Stanhope and myself were there. Einuncini, one of 
her former lovers, was permitted to serve her the 
whole dinner- time. You liked her too,. but it was in 

1750. .1 LEADER OF FASHION. 3()7 

the days of her beauty, which I think she has quite 
lost with the small pox, though she is as affected 
as ever. A Mr. Stephens, of whom she had said very 
impertinent things, and particularly about a black coat 
which he had worn some days, told her, upon her 
asking for whom he was in mourning, that it was for 
the beauty she had lost in England ! She tells every- 
body how she diverted herself witli the povere Dame 
Inglese; that she invented eveiy day some new 
extravagant dress, in which she appeared at Court 
in order to laugh the next day at the number that 
imitated it. In short, if it were not to offend you, 
I would say that in all her ways and behaviour she is 
exactly like a celebrated Cautarina whose head is 
turned by the self persuasion of her own perfections. 
She has said no good things here yet, though she 
was so famous for them in England.' 

'My lists for Sunday have gone forth to the number 
of 164 Daine; twenty or thirty I must abate for 
illness or other impediments, Lady Caroline D . . . 
(illegible] who arrived here two days ago, won't conic, 
being resolved never to go into any company, Italian 
I mean, for she seeks that of the English . . . What 
people do you send us ! Mr. D . . . (illegible) raises 
my compassion to the utmost degree, to see a man who 
might in every respect be happy, resolve to be miser- 
able, by fancying himself ill. He is ten times worse 
than Mr. Barrett. He told me last night that nobody 
ever was so unfortunate, and that he had been at 
^ 7 iterbo within an hour of his perfect recovery. He 
explained it by telling me that having gone through 
a salivation to drive out the Devil of a Fever he had 


on his spirits, the injudicious Physician gave him 
some gentle medicine which struck inward the break- 
ing-out which had begun to appear, and by that means 
destroyed all his hopes, by leaving him worse than 
ever. It is really a madness one cannot account for. 
He told me that he would take everything that every- 
body should recommend to him. "But, suppose," said 
I, "that any honest good Physician should recommend 
nothing to you, would you follow his prescription ? " 
"Oh no!" said he, "that would be the same as to bid 
me dye." Don't mention these follies of him in 
England. He seems a very sensible man, except in 
this point. 

'-There has been a quarrel between the Pope and 
the Venetians, about the Patriarch of Aquilaija. 
They have recalled their Ambassador and turned the 
Nuncio out of Venice, notwithstanding the menaces 
of the Court of Vienna to consider any resentment 
shown by them to the Pope on this occasion, as done 
to that Court. The Venetians, however, are alarmed 
and, they say, have taken Waldeck into their service. 
. . . The haughtiness of the Queen' (Empress) 'on 
this occasion may probably give the French a fair 
pretence to raise a great combustion on this foolish 
account, in Italy. The Venetians have prepared a 
manifest to be sent to all the Courts of Europe, but 
the publication of it has been suspended perhaps till 
their Ambassador's return.' 

August 2lst. 'The Venetian Ambassador left Borne 
with eclat, without taking' leave ; and the Senate 
turned the Nuncio away, without any ceremony. 
They shut up the Nunciatura and the Dotaria, and 


forbid any money being sent to Rome, for benefices, 
etc., all which money they have paid to the military 
case. The Empress threatened them violently, before; 
but has not since taken any step to resent those 
injuries done to the Pope. The latter repents ex- 
tremely of what he has done, but it is too late to 
recall it ; so that it is supposed that things must 
remain in this situation for this Pope's life.' 

' We have Lord Poultney here who publickly 
declares against all parties. Somebody was recom- 
mending an antiquarian to him at Rome, when 
another advised him not to make use of him, being 
a known Jacobite. " Oh I" says he, " that's no reason 
at all. I have nothing to do with that, as I am of 
no party." Doesn't this prove that he is ' (sic). 

Mann complains of the ' crouds ' of English who 
mar his home enjoyments, but he makes special 
exception of the couple of young men, Messrs. Pelham 
and Milbanke, who, he writes on August 21st, 'run 
away this night. We have lived in the greatest 
intimacy. The former is a very good-natured little 
man ; the latter has all the good qualities one would 
always wish to find in any one ; and both have great 
partiality for me. I have made use of all the weight 
I have with Mr. Pelham to persuade him to make 
use of all the interest he may have with his relatives 
to do something genteel for Milbanke, who deserves 
everything from him, and more than he can expect 
from his own family. He is the youngest son of the 
late Sir Ralph Milbanke who died suddenly and had 
made no provision for his younger children ; many of 
them are, however, employed. This one here, after a 


school and university education, was designed for the 
Law, which he left, to come abroad with Mr. Pelham, 
who is of his own age, and with whom he was brought 
up. I never yet saw anybody who had known Mr. ' 
Milbanko, that did not interest himself for him. I 
shall miss them extremely. They were commonly 
both, but particularly Milbanke, of all my gentle 
riding parties, I called him my Cavelerizzo Mag- 
oiore, as he is vastly clever at all manly exercises 
and totally directed my Scuderia, In short, I don't 
know a more deserving young creature. ... I have 
mentioned they are to run away to-night. Nobody 
yet knows of this design, but myself. The attach- 
ment Mr. Pelham has with the Countess Acciajuoli 
would make the separation too touching for either 
of them to bear ; for I never saw any couple more 
wraped up (.s?'c) in each other, than they are ; the whole 
family is as fond of him as he is of them; but he 
must go. Colonel Pelham has conjured him to set 
out for Hanover, to meet his sister, Mrs. Temple, who 
has been sent abroad, he says, in hopes that exercise, 
the change of air, and amusements may prevent her 
falling into a consumption, from her immoderate grief 
for the loss of her husband and son. I have pressed 
him long to go, before he had this additional motive, 
as he is designed for the eldest Miss Pelham, now 
unmarried ; and by that means he, most probably, 
will be considered as the Heir to the Pelham family ; 
views too important to be neglected for any transient 

October 22nd. ' The quarrel between the Pope 
and the Venetians subsided for some time, and the 


latter, by acting vigorously, have hitherto remained 
victorious on the side of honour, that is by shewino- 
the greatest resentment to the Pope and abusing him 
publickly. That was not the only mortification the 
Pope was obliged to swallow. Pasquin treated him 
very ludicrously in his own capital. Marforio asks 
Pasquin, " Perche si triste ? " " Perche ! " replies he, 
" perche non avremo piu Commedia ! Pantalone & 
partito, e il Dottore e impazzato ! " The old Bolognese 
Doctor was excessively offended at this coarse wit, 
in which characters from the Italian Comedy were 
applied to the Venetian ambassador and to the 
Pope, (' We shall have no more comedy ; Pantalone 
(The Venetians) is gone away, and the Doctor (Pope) 
is gone mad ! ') 

' You are certainly right about the bad taste of the 
Florentine villas. That of Acciajuoli is a proof of 
it. One would think that their chief pride was to 
shew that they could prop up a house by vast walls 
and IntreLchments more expensive than the habita- 
tion itself. Palmieri's, very near Florence, is another 
proof of it. I had almost broke my neck in coming- 
down from Lt yesterday on horseback. I had been 
about Fiesole, to take a pretty villa for about a 
month. The access to it in a coach is very good, 
and the plain? below charming to ride about on horse- 
back. Most of the villas on the hill of Fiesole look 
exactly like a Chinese Fan, with monstrous houses 
upon trees. 

' There was expectation lately of a Grand Festino 
which has failed. If the Dauphiness had been brought 
to bed of a son, Count Lorenzi (French minister at 


Florence) intended to have married for joy and given 
a Great Ball which his court would have paid for ; 
but as it was only a daughter, and that he was forbid 
making any rejoicing on that occasion, he intends to 
extend his respect to his Court by making none for his 
marriage, which he undertakes in a few days, with an 
Uglio, a great bouncing girl of about 19 ; how it will 
go with his weak constitution and game leg, I can't 
tell. I am invited to see him hop into this state, next 

'We were to have had another Festino upon a quite 
different occasion, that of old Count Riccardi's leaving 
the world. He had a sort of an apoplectick fit; but, 
before he would be blooded, he went round to all 
the Appartments of his house to announce it to his 
sons and daughters, so fond is he of telling news. 
Not being permitted to go out of his house, he 
meditated a great conversation by way of taking leave, 
and he thought the invitations had been made, but 
his people turned it into a Cioccolata for hslf a dozen 
ladies, which had almost made him dye of & pet. 

' . . . They have just published a new Edict about 
the Tuscan nobility which is to be divicbd into two 
ranks, those that can prove 200 years are to be 
Patrizii; the others, Nobili only; by widci distinction, 
as they have all been equal hitherto, the Jatter will be, 
as it were, degraded, and all will be at a vast expense 
and trouble to give in their proofs and quarters 
properly blazoned. Then animosities must ensue 
between the two ranks, and have an iafluence in their 
marriages, etc., etc., etc. Many of tie chief families, 
I hear, intend to take no notice of tiis Edict, let the 

1750. MANN AT FIE SOLE. 313 

consequence be what it will of their not being in the 
Libro d' Oro.' 

Mann's letter of October 9th is written at ' Fiesole 
Hill.' 'Pray mark/ he says, 'where this letter is 
dated. You see I have a hill as well as you, and, I 
am sure, a much greater, if that be any merit. I will 
not however compare it with the beauties of Straw- 
berry Hill, though mine is more beset with houses 
which afford, I believe, the most Chinesque prospect 
that any fan or sckreen-painter can imagine. Mine is 
situated rather low upon the hill, at a place called the 
Forbici, the ascent to which is so easy that to come with 
a pair of horses or even to walk up and down, is a 
diversion. The English have already found their way 
to it. Sir Matthew Featherstone, another sick husband, 
has this instant been here to make me his first visit. 

His Lady Featherstone and a pretty Miss , I really 

forget her name, are in town, to whom I must make 
a visit to-morrow, and I suppose invite them to this 
place for the next day. It will be less trouble than 
giving her a dinner in Town. You will wonder, 
perhaps, that after living so many years in Florence, 
I should now think of a Villa ; but the reason is plain ; 
the search of a little variety is the chief motive. I 
must however be honest enough to confess that had 
the Barretts been in Florence, or had they proposed to 
me to go with them to the Baths, this Villegiatura 
would never have come into my head. I dare say 
they will not be pleased at not finding me in Florence, 
on their return ; but it is my turn to fare il Prezzioso. 
I shall perhaps invite them here. This will be another 
trial whether he will permit his wife to be under the 
same roof. 


'. . . Kapin has recorded that the great great 
grandfather of my Lady Countess was a butcher. On 
which account, her Ladyship, seeing Kapin among my 
books, asked me how I could keep it, that it was the 
falsest lying history in the world ! . . . Did you ever 
hear of a Count Aremberg (an ancestor of the present 
Duke), who insisted on being descended from Adam? 
A relation of his, to whom he was making it clear, 
answered : " Ma foi, mon cousin, nous avons de 
grandes obligations a Noe, pour avoir bien voulu 
garder les archives de notre famille dans son Arc ! " 


During the time of the Mississipi scheme in France, 
a footman, who had got great wealth and an Equipage 
of his own, going hastily out of a house, he by dis- 
traction got up into his old place. His servants 
shewing their surprize, said : " mais, Monsieur ! " He 
recovered himself by saying: "c'est que j'ai voulu 
voir combien de laquais je pourrois mettre derriere 
cette voiture ! " Other examples of silly people follow 
in a December letter. 

Florence, December 4th. 'Doctor Cocchi has a 
pension for writing a book on the Baths of Pisa, a 
mark of the Emperor's Imperial Munificence, as 
many Florins as make about fifteen Pounds Sterling 
a year ! the half of which is to be deducted the first 
year for the Patent and fees ! such are the rewards for 
merit, learning, and infinite trouble in this country. 
He very prudently foresaw this, and therefore took 
the opportunity of securing to himself a much greater 
reward in the honour he hoped to obtain by that work, 
and which the publick had not deprived him of. A 
hint was given to him by order of Richecourt, that 


he might be made nobile as a reward for that book ; 
but that he declined as thinking it too insignificant, 
No wonder Richecourt should propose it, having 
nothing but nobility in his head.' 

'A foolish vain Cavaliere, some years ago, making 
a merit of his affability or condenscenion (sic), before 
some strangers and in the presence of Dr. Cocchi, 
gave as an instance, that "benche Cavaliere, io 11011 
ho difticolta di permettere alle gente inferiore come 
il Signor Dottor Cochi ed altre peisonc di merito di 
sedere con me " (although Cavalier, I have no difficulty 
in allowing inferior persons, like Dr. Cocchi and other 
people of merit, to be seated with me), and he appealed 
to Cocchi to confirm his gentle assertion, which Cocchi 
did by saying, "E vero, signor Cavaliere, ma Lei 
sapra forse che gli uomini Ittustri sono da preferirsi 
agli IttutiStrissimi." (Quite true, Signor Cavalier, but 
you are perhaps aware that men of merit take pre- 
cedence of the mere Men of Quality.) This was 
allowed to be a very proper answer.' 

Both the illustrious and most illustrious were 
curious as to the quality of Mann's 'blood,' and the 
Minister got his genealogical tree to show its descent 
in all its branches. ' I shall hang it up/ he says, 
' in some inner room, though it is the custom as you 
know of this country to expose these Alberi Gentilizie 
in their Halls, or most publick parts of their house. 
Besides, I shall only take occasion accidently to let 
some few see it, who have made it necessary. This is 
all the revenge I design to take for their malice. . . . 

'. . . I have frequent disputes about my priviledges, 
etc., but am always forced to yield ; and at this very 

316 A GENUINE HERO. 1750. 

instant I am forced to receive as a favour their not 
obliging me to go to Leghorn with all my servants 
to cloath them with English cloth, that being contra- 
band, though there is no other in the country, and that 
no distinction was ever made with regard to us and 
the unlimited priviledges time out of mind to introduce 
whatever is for the use of ourselves and families. 
Bichecourt owns this, but says he won't allow it for the 
future. He laughs at all the right I pretend to claim, 
and as no notice is taken of such sort of things, I can 
get no redress. He is the only one in the Kegency 
that both starts and approves of these difficulties. . . . 
'. . . I must tell you an extraordinary piece of 
heroism which was lately shewn in Corsica when M. 
Carsay (?), the French Commandant, had condemmed 
a Corsican to dye. During the interval of his sentence 
and the time for his execution, he escaped by the 
negligence of the sentinel, who was to be shot for it. 
The Corsican upon hearing of this, immediately pro- 
duced himself, to submit to his sentence, sayiug that it 
was not just that an innocent man should dye on his 
account. Carsay, struck with his generosity, pardoned 
them both. Last week 142 galley slaves escaped from 
Pisa, and are now wandering about the country seek- 
ing whom they must destroy for their own subsistence.' 



January 1st. 'We are now at the entrance of our 
Carnival, and forced to be contented with the worst 
Opera and more wretched Intermezzi that ever was 
permitted in the Via della Pergola ; but an accident 
has happened that has made the town think itself 
happy in the continuation of them, the dread of a 
stop of all Carnavalesque diversions. The Empress- 
Dowager is dead. (Elizabeth, daughter of Louis 
Rhodolph, Duke of Brunswick.). The news of it 
arrived yesterday, and orders are expected by the 
next post relating to the tokens of Grief which the 
country must give. If the death of Madame Royale, 
the Emperor's mother, be any rule, a general and deep 
mourning must take place of all publick as well 
as private entertainments ; for then, all domestick 
festins were forbid. The poor Empress Dowager 
whom nobody can acquit of voluntarily giving this 
displeasure to the town, is however not pardoned : 
" She might at least have put it off till Quadragesima ! 
(they say). It would have been more polite not to 
force people's inclinations not to mourn out of 


318 NEW YEAR'S DAY. 1751. 

' I thought I hud taken sufficient precautions to 
prevent being interrupted by visits ; but there are 
certain people who think they have a right to be 
troublesome at all hours ; the Custom of the Day' 
(New Year's day) 'justifies them, so I must have 
patience, and must myself go round this afternoon 
to act the same part.' 

January 29th. ' I have for a fortnight been 
nursing the most abominable cold . . . and write to 
you from bed, which Dr. Cocchi says, "is the only 
good climate at this time of the year, in Tuscany." 
Indeed no climate ever produced worse weather. . . . 
We have had a little fracas here, and for the first 
time, Ginori has got the better of Richecourt, in a 
trial of Interest, about the building a town, I mean 
a suburb to Leghorn. Ginori's plan, after some years 
contest (?)... has been preferred to Richecourt 's who 
is extremely piqued ; however, it is to be executed 
immediately, and Ginori, with two or three people 
he has already found, have engaged to build eighty 
houses, in the Spring. You will judge they are not 
to be palaces ; I think they are to cost 200 crowns 
each. The view of this is to entice French, Genoese 
and Roman fishermen to come and settle there, and 
then to turn them into sailors . . . 

'. . . You must not expect any Connection in my 
Letter. I can't fix five minutes, in one posture, so 
inconvenient it is to write in bed.' 

February ISth-. After dwelling on the languid 
diversions of the season, the deserted theatres, the 
gloomy balls, and the capricious tyranny of Riche- 
court, Mann says: 'to make his court to a 


favourite of his whom the fumes of a hot pye from 
a box below disordered, Richecourt immediately called 
for the " Prince " of the Accademy, and of his own 
authority gave strict orders that no hot pye or dish 
with meat should enter the theater ; an obedience to 
which order authorizes the people at the doors to put 
their dirty paws into every plate or dish of Macharoni 
(sic) to discover a latent piggion grosso. The very 
night after, an excellent Macharoni pye was refused 
admittance, to the great mortification of the Cicisbeo 
who had prepared it, and of the many Ladies who 
were to be regaled with it ! 

' This Carnival was destined to be unlucky. You 
know it used to end with Mardi Gras . . . and now 
by an express .order of the Archbishop, this very 
Mardi Gras is to be Mardi Maiyre, a contradiction 
of terms, for that high priest has ordered the Jubilee, 
i suite of the Holy Year, to begin on that day. though 
the Pope himself has dispensed his own State from it. 
You cannot think how this offends.' 

' Young Vincenzo Albati has been for some years 
in an unhappy situation. ... He and his family, one 
of the best in Florence, were reduced to want by 
his worthless father, who was one of the people 
engaged in the robbery of the Abbondanza. He 
luckily died in prison, and before the sentence was 
pronounced, but the Estate was forfeited to pay that 
debt. Well, this Vincenzo Albati has been appointed 
by the Emperor to go and reside at Vienna, with the 
title of Conseiller Intime in the Tuscan Council, there 
to facilitate the affairs of this country which they 
there know nothing of, He is to have 4000 Florins 


a year. . . . Richecourt has procured him this advan- 
tageous post, and he could not choose better, but 
surely it is a mauvais coup de politique for one here 
who has hitherto and still wishes to command and 
direct their deliberations from hence, to put it in the 
power of any one to weaken his command, and one 
whom he has reduced to beggary, a Tuscan whose 
whole country he has offended. Albati will become 
considerable from his own merit. Prince Craon, 
finding himself teazed with affairs which he could 
not understand, asked Richecourt to work for him. 
The Princess foretold how it would be, nor was she in 
the least mistaken. The Florentines look upon this 
as an Epoque worth observation. 

* It has not ceased four days together raining since 
the middle of October. All Italy is under water, 
which will produce great misery. I am impatient for 
some good weather to go frequently to attend my 
workmen at Bracci's villa. What say you to that 
purchase ? ' 

March 12th. ' On Wednesday, we had a pompous 
ceremony for the late Empress Dowager, whose 
obsequies were performed in the church of St. 
Laurence, a tedious function through which I was 
forced to sit, having been invited en ceremonie, and 
attended the whole time, by a person appointed by 
the Regency. Count Lorenzi made his excuses, the 
motive of which is believed to be his not wishing to 
give me place in publick, which he must have done 
if I had thought of taking it, though I certainly, 
through inadvertency, should have let him slip above 


' A propos to place, we have here a Monsieur de 
Vandieres, Madame de Pompadour's brother, with 
whom the Florentines make a great fuss. When he 
was made Marquis, the French called him le Marquis 
d'Avant-hier ! One of his companions, coming into 
the church on Wednesday, asked a Lorraine officer : 
"Connoissez vous Monsieur de Vandieres?" " Guy, 
Monsieur." "Sgaurez vous me montrer la place qu'on 
luy a destine' ici ?" "La Place qu'on lui a destine' ? 
Oh, Monsieur, croyez vous, parcequ'il est fr&re de 
la Concubine du Roy, qu'on lui a destine une place 
ici ? "- " Mais, Monsieur, je croyais peut-etre par 
politique." " Ma foy, Monsieur, a serait le pousser 
bien loin ! " Upon which the Frenchman mixed with 
the crowd, to look for this great man. You know his 
name is Poisson. It is said he addressed himself some 
time ago to Marquis d'Argenson to get him the Cordon 
Bleu. The Marquis received the proposal with sur- 
prise, and told him, "Ma foy, Monsieur, le Poisson est 
trop petit pour mettre au bleu ! " You know it is a 
particular way of dressing fish, and especially a Sauce 
for large ones. He has with him the Abbe Blanc, 
who was in England some time, and has published 
some Letters, " Sur les Anglois." 

April 2nd. ' All that I can say about Beau 
Wortley and the Duchess of Queensberry is that the 
first is quite unaccountable, as I don't believe that 
Lady Mary supplies him with any Diamonds or money 
to buy them ; she keeps them all for her Lover with 
whom she lives at Brescia. The Dutchess is very 
mad, and the answer about her house being like that 
of Socrates, savours much of the literature of Lady 
VOL. i. T 

322 MORALS IN COURTS. 1751. 

Pomfret, who " would not be a Curtius to jump into 
a pit to save other ' women's ' reputations." 

' We have had a report, whilst M. de Vandieres 
was gone to Leghorn, that his Sister, Mme. de Pom- 
padour, had left the King of France. Others say 
that she retired only to the Capuchines to take the 
Jubilee, and that it was out of policy, knowing how 
much His Christian Majesty is afraid of the Devil, 
that he might not be tempted into doing anything 
that might displease his Confessor, to her disadvantage. 
How ridiculous is this farce, and so much the more as 
it is exhibited from a throne. 

' You have heard of the Duke of Bouffler's death, 
by an overturn in his chair. This accident was not 
the only afflicting circumstance to poor Prince Craon, 
his father-in law. He (the Duke) had some employ- 
ment at Court which gave occasion for his papers 
being sealed up, and afterwards examined ; when lo ! 
a box of letters came to light from his wife, who was 
as great a favourite with Stanislaus (the ex-King of 
Poland, at Nancy) as her mother, our Princess (de 
Craon), was formerly with Leopold. In these letters, 
wrote as we may imagine with the freedom of a wife 
to her husband, who had given leave to some familiar 
flippancies, she turned into ridicule and exposed the 
weaknesses of her royal lover. This shocked the 
poor old man vastly, and it is said that nothing 
but the favour Prince Craon is in, can make up the 
matter. ' 

April 30th. 'Dr. Cocchi's opinion of the report 
made by the Physicians and Surgeons' (of the fatal 
illness of the Prince of Wales) * is that the cause of his 


death was formed in the pleurisy he had had some time 
before ; he says it is impossible it should be of a longer 
standing. Poor Mr. Whithed's seems to have been 
of the same nature, though more hasty in its effects. 
I have not courage yet to undertake to give this 
melancholy news to the poor girl, who will be in 
despair, for she really adored him, and lived upon 
the hopes of seeing him again, which he always en- 
couraged. Their child is an extremely pretty girl, but 
is too young to be sensible of her loss. I lately sent 
him her picture, at his request, but I believe he could 
not have seen it.' 

May lth. ' I have been forced to act the part of 
a, Comforter to the Lucchi' (Whithed's mistress) 'whose 
despair made me fear the worst of consequences, that of 
turning her brain. I could not conceal from her the 
care he had taken of her and the child, thinking it the 
properest method to calm her, and to be sure it must 
have been some consolation, though hitherto she seems 
only sensible to the loss ; but I am impatient to re- 
ceive a confirmation of her legacy, not that I think 
there can be any doubt of the authenticity of the copy 
of the Will, which Mr. Chute and my brother saw. I 
am sure Mr. Chute will take care of their interest as 
soon as he is capable of attending to any thing. 

'The only thing that has interested the Court of 
Florence of late is a number of very low seditious 
billets that were dispersed in the night, they were 
manuscript, all by the same hand, and only contained 
words to this effect: " Coraggio! o Fiorentini, risvegliate 
vi ! e tempo di farvi sentire ! (Courage, Florentines ! 
arise ! It is time to make yourselves be felt !) but they 

324 THE PIOUS LUC CHI. 1751. 

had no effect, few people were even informed of 
them. . . . 

' . . . The dread of misery would add great weight 
to the affliction ' (of Whithed's Italian mistress) ' though 
she is as yet totally indifferent to every other passion ; 
as she thinks of nothing else all day, so she dreams of 
him every night, which she calls seeing him, and, by his 
smiling upon her, is convinced that he is in Paradise, 
through her intercession ! She made a whole Convent 
of Nuns receive the Sacrament for that purpose, and 
has ruined herself in Masses ! " Si vedi," she says, 
" che li hanno fatto bene." (One sees they have been 
beneficial to him.) Was I to deprive her of this 
consolation, I really think she would run mad. Tell 
Mr. Chute of what importance it is to let them know 
that they will not be reduced to want. 

'.'".. Cardinal Tencin has retired to his Arch- 
bishoprick at Lyons. . . . Previous to his taking that 
resolution he wrote to the Pope to acquaint him with 
it, who lost not a moment to forbid him doing it, but 
his letter arrived too late. The Pretender too will be 

July 2nd. ' I have lately bought a very fine 
picture for Lord Kockingham, a Guercino that he had 
seen at Siena, and which he and many others had 
offered money for. . . . 

' . . . Never was any country so altered as this ; 
no society, nor any amusement to keep off the Spleen. 
I sometimes stay at home for a week together for want 
of knowing where to go. ... I made the Lucchi go 
into the country, and it has had the effect upon her 
health that I hoped. The different objects have in some 


measure diverted her melancholy, though she lives as 
retired there as she always did in town. It is very 
uncommon to find so much attachment and gratitude 
in that rank of life.' 

July 30th. ' I am almost engaged in a furious 
quarrel here with Bichecourt and his Clerk Torna- 
quinei. . . . The motive of it is the revival of a strange 
pretention started about 3 years ago by the Count, 
not only to consider all the English at Leghorn as 
the Emperor's subjects, but to make them stile them- 
selves so ! The affair then surprized both our King 
and the Ministers and produced very strong orders 
to me to oppose so artfull and insiduous an insinua- 
tion. I obeyed them in more gentle terms, but 
strong, and thought I had put an end to the Dispute, 
which however they have now renewed with excessive 
ill menaces, all by letter with Abbe Tornaquinei, the 
Secretary of State, who unfortunately seems to have 
forgot how much he has abused to me the author of 
that pretention, as absurd and tending to the destruc- 
tion of Leghorn, though he has now so servilely 
obeyed the dictates of him. Lorenzi having the same 
orders from his Court ' (of France) ' that I have on this 
point, and further to act in conjunction with me, has 
received the same treatment, but however as yet we 
have the last word, or rather the last letter, which the 
Count and his Abbe will find very difficult to digest. 
We have both been obliged to determine not to treat 
with Count Richecourt about any business by word of 
mouth, not to expose ourselves to impertinences we 
could not bear. Do but imagine his telling me a little 
while ao-o, when I told him I had presented a Memorial 

326 AN EPIGRAM. 1751. 

from the Consul and English Merchants at Leghorn to 
the Secretary of State, in order to be laid before the 
Council, relating to an affair of vast importance : 
" Oui, Monsieur, j'ai vu veritablement un papier qui 
m'a fait rire ! " " Vous a fait rire ? C'est singulier qu'il 
eut produit un si drdle effet ! " Somebody coming in 
prevented the continuation of our discourse. Could 
anything be more insolent ? A Florentine of good 
sense hearing of the changes' (in the Ministry) 'in 
England exclaimed : "It is only our Ministers that 
are eternal I " Here is an Epigram some Priest has 
made upon Kichecourt : 

" Lex prima ulcisci, secunda est vivere raptu, 
Tertia moechari, quarta negare Deum." 

' Prince Craon used to say " C'est un malfaisant ! " 
and the late Electress used to say, relating to the 
affairs she had with the Count : " Cet homme m'em- 
poisonne tout ! " . . . 

' . . . We have crouds of English, and more daily 
expected, I wish I could contrive some way to run 
from them ! ' 

August 2Qth. 'We have a larger flight of Wood- 
cocks this year than has been seen for many years 
past ; besides near thirty stareing boys, we have a 
large family of Lord Kilmurray and his lady, who is 
Aunt to your new Relation Mr. Shirley' (whom the 
dowager Lady Orford had recently married). ' There 
is besides, Mr. Nightingale, her brother, with his son 
and daughter. My Lady is almost a Methodist, 
though not quite a convert to his Sister, Lady 
Huntingdon. Miss Nightingale has lived most among 


them, and says she knows all their misteries, their 
Hymns, their Canticles, and their nonsense. She is 
vastly lively, and though she has two essential defects 
in her person, she is rather pretty, but not enough to 
give the Florentines any idea of the beauties we hear 
so much talked of in England. I am impatient for 
Mr. Conway's arrival, to give them a better idea 
at least of our young men.' 

September 24th. ' I concluded a strong Memorial 
J made a few days ago, by order, with the expression' 
(referring to the claim made by the Imperial Govern- 
ment at Vienna to reduce the British merchants at 
Leghorn to the status of Austrian subjects) '"This 
pretension is contrary to ancient and universal usage, 
and opposed to all the rules of the rights of nations." 

' The joy for the birth of the Due de Bourgogne is 
not to be confined to France. Count Lorenzi has 
orders de faire une fete which he designs shall be a 
Ball, in which he may spend if he pleases more than 
the 4000 livres which have been allowed him on this 
occasion. His Countess will shine for the honour 
of the King her Master, which expression she has so 
much adopted that, at Cards, when she plays a King, 
she says, " Ecco ! il Re, mio Signore ! " 

October 8th. 'We' (Mann and the Council at 
Florence) ' are upon very formal terms since the 
Memorial which I presented. Violent dispatches have 
been sent to Vienna with strong advices to the 
Emperor not to part with his English subjects, 
" because, to yield on this point would be the ruin of 
the commerce of Leghorn." You must know that 
the Emperor is fond of commerce, and they tickle his 

328 LADY M. W. MONTAGU. 1751. 

ears with it upon all occasions. I told the person 
that mentioned the above expression to me, that there 
seemed to be a small mistake, for that if the Emperor 
did not yield, it would produce the ruin of the com- 
merce of Leghorn; or that, if the English did, it would 
be their ruin ; but there is no danger of their exposing 
themselves to that risk, assurances of which I am to 
send home by this post in their name, and that they 
are too sensible of the blessings they enjoy as the 
King's subjects ever to think of becoming those of 
the Great Duke, or to swerve in the least from their 
Duty and Allegiance to His Majesty. 

' A Gentleman tells me that some time after Lady 
Mary ' (Wortley Montagu) ' had been at Brescia, the 
opinion prevailed that she was kept in durance by her 
young officer ; the Governor or Commissary there 
invited her to dinner, on purpose to enquire into it, 
with offers to free her ; but she said her confinement 
was voluntary. Since, however, she wrote to Madame 
Micheli, with whom she had always been in cor- 
respondence, to take leave of her, alleging that her 
lover would not permit her to write or receive any 
letter without his seeing it.' 

November Ztith. In this letter Mann describes 
the government at Florence as * solely directed by 
Bichecourt, whose servile colleagues never publickly 
oppose his decisions, however arbitrary or absurd ; and 
though they frequently expose themselves to share the 
disapprobation which comes from Vienna . . . they 
rejoice with their intimates out of hatred to him ; ' 
but, says the writer, ' for the common transactions of 
the town they are all confined to the knowledge of 


what Cicisbeos have been displaced and what new 
establishments have been made. The great news of 
this kind is that Madame Acciajuoli, who immediately 
after the departure of her joined Cicisbeos, Mr. Pelham 
and Milbank, took to Jacky Langlois, whom the 
town thought an unworthy successor, has now turned 
him off for a young Marquis. Pucci succeeded 
Lord Buckingham with the Siristori whom that Pucci 
has abandoned abruptly without a just cause, con- 
sequently has offended against le Legge d Amicizia, 
as Madame Acciajuoli has done likewise with regard 
to her friend the young and handsome Siristori, by 
debauching her Cavaliere servente from her. These 
are the circumstances that employ the gay Florentine 
world. An English traveller frequently deranges the 
whole harmony of Cicisbeoship.' 

' We have here two great admirers of England, 
Niccolini and your friend the Chevalier Lorenzi, who 
talk of nothing else . . . Lorenzi' (brother of the 
Count Lorenzi who represented France at the Tuscan 
Court) ' sticks to the degag^e English mode of a frock 
in the morning. About Lady Mary Wortley, I will 
try to get other informations. Niccolini has promised 
to help me ; his correspondence is universal, and he 
has a vanity in instructing me about the English and 
everything that relates to England.' 

December 3rd. 'Notwithstanding all my pre- 
cautions, Mr. Conway lay one night at the English 
Inn, where he was arrived before I knew he had left 
Leghorn. Next morning I brought him here, and he 
is now lodged in your Appartment. ... He made 
some resistance, nor yielded till I threatened to 
complain to you. 

330 MB. CONWAY. 1751. 

' I am sorry that the season of the year admits of 
no diversion, and that everybody is still in the country 
to profit of the finest Autumn we have had for many 
years. Devotion only will bring them back, which 
will at the same time make them inaccessible, the 
nearer we approach to Christmas/ 

December 26th. ' I am so happy with Mr. 
Conway, that I can almost figure to myself the happy 
time 1 passed with you here. He inhabits the same 
Appartment, and 1 the same I did then. By this 
means, since the great alterations I have made, we 
divide the whole house and are both at large His 
great Antechamber is the Assembly Eoom twice a 
week, to which he ushers forth when he is tired of 
translating, or other retired occupations in which 
nobody interrupts him. I leave him after breakfast, 
which commonly passes in Italian and, unless by 
accident we go out together in the morning, I seldom 
see him till three o'clock at dinner. Lord Stormont is 
frequently with us then, and we do not separate till 
about 5, for an hour or two, till it is time to go to 
some Conversation, after which we return to supper 
tete a tete, and seldom separate till one. 

' He is vastly desirous of improving himself in 
Italian, which however he knows a good deal of and 
only wants practice for the common terms and phrases. 
. . . He will perhaps go as far as Turin to meet Lady 
Ailesbury, and I hope bring her hither. He is averse 
to carrying her to Mahon, though she seems to prefer 
that place to any other without him, and if he should 
be obliged to return hither, it will cause a little 
amorous contract (sic) between them, as he does not 


think the air of that place good enough for her; 
and if she was to know that reason, she would pique 
herself upon sharing any danger with him. If she 
is as good as he is, they must be a happy couple.' 


January 7th. ' Mr. Conway is to set out to- 
morrow for Eome and Naples. On his return, he 
will pass as much time here as circumstances then 
will admit of. I wish they may be such as to permit 
Lady Ailesbury to meet him here, as I think no 
place can be perfectly agreeable to him without her.' 
(Mr. Conway and Lord Stormont were, according to 
Mann, two of the most perfect gentlemen that ever 
came from England into Italy.) 

January 28th. ' You ask me what an Uomo nero 
is. " Uomo nero " is a general term for all servants 
out of livery ; what we call a gentleman servant, but 
you know the Italians won't allow the least tincture 
of gentilizia to those under the rank of Cavaliere ; all 
others are at most persone civili. They are vastly 
astonished to hear Lady Kilmurray who (as Mr. Chute 
said of Mrs. Goldworthy) talks from hand to mouth, 
talk of il Gentiluomo di My Lord ; but she translated 
backwards and forwards into all the languages she 
knew. Marquis Niccolini she called My Lord, in 
English, and by as literal a translation into French, 
called Count Salins, Monseigneur, and yet she lived 
in France with Lady Ferrers, her mother, great part 
of her younger days. 

' Marquis Tempi died a few days ago of an 


apoplexy ; his family and relations are the more 
afflicted as it deprives them of the pleasures of the 
Carnival. You may remember him by the connection 
he had with your friend the Marchese Albizzi, whose 
mother's Cicisbeo he had been for 30 years. A 
death however much more important to the publick 
at the present season is that of our Impresario of the 
Opera, and husband to the first woman, which it 
was feared would interrupt it, at least till another 
had learnt her part ; but the poor creature not only 
sung two hours after he died (though she then only 
knew that he was in agony) but continues. I luckily 
thought of proposing to make a benefit night for her, 
which has been accepted, and I hope will produce a 
good deal ; for she is left with two children and is 

Among the swaggering young Englishmen, unlike 
the Conways, Stormonts, and some others who came 
under Mann's view in Florence, was a Mr. Vernon who, 
Admiral Vernon being then in fashion, passed 
himself off as the Admiral's nephew. ' We heard 
afterwards/ (says Mann, March 10th) 'that being in 
France with some company ' (in 1740) ' the dis- 
course did not please him, upon which he abruptly 
said, " Finissons, ce discours m'ennuie ! " to which a 
French gentleman replied : " Eh bien ! Monsieur, si 
ce discours vous ennuie, vous n'avez qu'a lever le siege 
comme a fait Monsieur votre Oncle"- the news of 
which ' (the affair at Carthagena) ' had just reached 
Paris. . . . 

' . . . Count Lorenzi did himself great honour by 
having a son within the year of his marriage ; but 


unluckily the child died a few days ago, by the 
carelessness of his nurse. The Count's disappointment 
was great. Kichecourt, to console him, said " vous 
n'avez perdu que la faon." . . .' Soon after this joke, 
Mann, hearing of the death of his father, wrote 
thus: 'From a Villa near Florence, March 31st. I 
borrowed this little villa of Dr. Cocchi, both to avoid 
the troublesome ceremonies which are practised in this 
country, on the death of so near a relation, and to 
dissipate the melancholly reflections which naturally 
arise from the prospect of my future situation. The 
house is annexed to a Church, and the country people 
are vastly edified by my curiosity, by peeping through 
the windows of a closet, to see the ceremonies of the 
Holy Week, which they attributed to Devotion ; but 
were vastly scandalized to hear that the same day 
I had a chicken for my dinner, which all Florence 
soon knew, and which was echoed back to me as the 
news of the town, where people have nothing to 
employ themselves about, except the notions of Mr. 
St. Odil who is going Minister to Eome to give more 
power to the Priests and Inquisition. He was always 
the greatest antagonist at Vienna of Kichecourt, who 
is vastly jealous of him here, and excludes everybody 
from him.' 

May 5th. Mann had early in the year sent his 
portrait, by Astley, to Walpole ; after praise of the 
painter, he writes : ' Astley has furnished my great 
room with some excellent copies, particularly one of 
Lord Rockingham's Guercino, which I purchased 
for him at Sienna. . . . Your old friend, Louis (?) 
came accidentally to me yesterday, to show me a 

83 1 A GUERCINO, BY ASTLEY. 1752. 

small picture of Correggio, for which he asks a 
thousand crowns, and casting his eye upon that copy, 
cried out with admiration: " h^ ! voila done ce 
fameux Guercin ! " which, by its reputation, he had 
been about formerly buying. I let him draw himself 
into the terrible scrape of praising it, for a quarter of 
an hour, for its preservation, etc., etc., and then 
mortified him vastly by gently hinting to him his 
mistake, which he excused by his not having had his 
spectacles, " Sans quoy, Monsieur, vous comprenez bien 
que je ne me serois point trompe ! " Don't however 
raise Astley's vanity by mentioning this, or let my 
Lord know that I had his picture copied. I am not 
quite convinced it was right, without his leave, which 
there was no time to ask.' 

June 3lst. ' Our tranquility has been a little 
disturbed . . . there is actually a Rebellion in Tunis. 
. . . The old Bey has got possession of a fort towards 
the sea, which gives him an opportunity to block up 
the town that way, as he had done before by land. 
His Rebel Son is master of the chief fortress in the 
town, and has lately discovered a large quantity of 
nitre, with which he daily makes as much gunpowder 
as he wants, of which he had none before. He has 
earned all the provisions into his castle, for the 
maintenance of his troops, which has almost occa- 
sioned a famine in the town. 

' The Tripolins, having offended the French Court, 
by seizing one of their vessels, a small Escadre was 
sent there to demand satisfaction and the head of 
a French Renegado, which was peremptorily refused; 
upon which the Commandant of their ships acquainted 

1752. SIX LIVES FOR ONE. 335 

the Bey that he would send for the ships that waited 
his orders at Malta, to joyn him and bombard the 
town. This threat had the proper effect. The Bey 
desired time to consider of it till the next morning, 
and then sent him a message that he would give 
him 5 zecchins, as an indemnification for the French 
vessel that had been taken, and that as he had not 
authority to punish the Renegade, or give him up, he 
hoped the French King would, in lieu of him, accept 
six of his subjects who were slaves ; and promised 
at the same time that the other should never be 
employed on board his ships, or permitted to go to 
sea, on pain of death. The French Commander 
accepted of those conditions (!) and immediately 
despatched notice to different ports that his country- 
men might continue their trade to the Levant, which 
this accident had interrupted. Many of their vessels 
had taken refuge at Leghorn. I am afraid that our 
reparation was not so compleat for a much greater 
offence, in taking a rich paquet boat from Lisbon. 

'. . . We are at the eve of some events that people 
pretend may produce others. It is said that the 
Empress has consented that a body of her troops, 
10 Batallions and 6 Squadrons, should live in 
Tuscany, merely for the good of the country, and 
that they are actually assembling in Lombardy for 
that purpose.' 

August llth. 'We have now such crouds of 
English of both sexes that I have not a moment to 
myself. Upon a muster yesterday, I think there 
were four or five and thirty. The females are Mrs. 
Arbuthnot and her sister, who has not been used to 


the world, and therefore " don't chuse to go into it, 
but prefer the society of their honest countrymen to 
all the Italians whatsomdever." The other is rather 
a fine Lady of Kentish breed, refined in France, from 
whence she has brought the newest modes. She is 
young and rather pretty. Her husband is a rich West 
Indian, Mr. Young by name, who, I hear, has made a 
great figure in England, which, I am told, makes 
travelling necessary, in point of economy. He makes 
a figure however here, and has a Concert once a week 
at his house. I have Danes and Saxons too recom- 
mended to me ; in short, I never had so many people 
on my hands at once. It is quite ridiculous to see me 
at the head of a train, at Count Richecourt's, or 
marching into an Assembly. He takes no further 
notice of them, after a polite reception, but any 
Minister who would undertake all the English ought 
to have separate appointments. I cannot avoid ruin- 
ing myself.' 

In a letter of August 31st, Mann returns to his 
'roaring, rich West Indian, Young, who talks of his 
money, and swaggers in his gate as if both his coat 
pockets were full of it. He buys pictures upon his 
own judgment, and declares it to be better than 
any body's. Hugford, the English painter, allows 
the assertion, since Young gave him two hundred 
zecchins for a Danae, which Hugford calls a Titian ! 
The picture is allowed to have merit, but it has been 
so often washed and retouched that one does not 
know whose to call it. The great Mengs, whom Sir 
Hanbury Williams recommended to me, on Mengs' 
way to Rome, to work for his master, the King of 

1752. A WEST INDIAN. 337 

Poland, not only denys the originality of it, but said it 
was worth nothing. Mr. Young has heard of this, and 

says that Mengs must be the most D d ignorant 

fellow in the world, for said he "I will assert and 
lay any man a thousand pounds that it is much better 
than the Venus in the Tribuna." You will certainly 
hear much talk of it when it arrives in England, and 
probably be tempted to go to see it. In the meantime, 
speak to Astley about it, who knows the picture 
extremely well. You may then see Mr. Young's 
Organ, which cost him three thousand pounds, and 
his electrical instruments which cost forty thousand 
pounds ; but he must retrench, he says, because the 
late Hurricane did so much harm to his Sugar-canes, 
that he shan't receive above one third of his Estate ; 
not above <j this year. 

'Nobody enjoys this swaggerer more than the 
present Lord Bruce, whom I love extremely, for the 
great regard with which he speaks of Mr. Conway 
and Lady Ailesbury. Young has heard of the report 
of the claim which the Duke of Somerset is to make 
to part of his Estate, but seems persuaded that no- 
thing can come of it. Should it, however, go on, he 
intends to set out immediately for England/ 

A great proportion of the remainder of this letter 
deals with more exalted individuals than swaggering 
West Indians. In Florence, for example : 

' . . . The Duke of Marlborough, I suppose, is very 
glad that Lord Somers's papers, which were in the 
hands of Mr. Yorke, have been burnt. Prince Craon 
assured me often that he had seen a pardon signed 
by the Pretender, for the late Duke. You know the 

VOL. I. 


former lived in Craon's house, for some time, in 
Lorraine. There have been great embroils in the 
Pretender's house at Kome, which have produced, 
they say, a total separation of Cardinal York from 
his father, in spite of all the pains which the Pope 
took to bring about a reconciliation. He has now 
given that commission to Cardinal Doria, at Bologna, 
where the young Cardinal has fixt his Eesidence, with 
a firm resolution, it is said, not to return to Rome, but 
upon conditions of being permitted to live alone, and 
to have the sole and independent management of his 
own Revenues. Some people believe that Cardinal 
York will be made perpetual Legate of Bologna ; but 
I own, I cannot think that the other Cardinals will 
permit the Pope to deprive some of them, York's 
successors, of so considerable a Government, to raise 
as it were a Principality for him. If this should 
ever happen, I shall be inclined to believe that the 
Chevalier and his Son have condescended to quarrel 
in appearance, and that they have more policy than 
the world has hitherto thought them capable of. 

' The Report of the Eldest Son's having changed 
his religion is dropt, but not contradicted. Nothing 
was ever more publickly talked of at Rome, for some 
time, so that nothing less then a publick profession of 
his Faith will be sufficient to satisfy the scruples which 
that report has raised. Perhaps, he may now go to 
Rome to make it, as some Politicians pretend that the 
Cardinal's retreat to Bologna was on purpose to give 
his brother an opportunity to make a visit to his father, 
without breaking his oath of not meeting his brother in 
that habit. Stosch is still positively of opinion that 

1752. THE ESTERHAZYS. 339 

the young Pretender does not exist, though he is 
forced to write about him, every week.' 

The letters which chronicle the incidents towards 
the close of the year are half mirthful, half melan- 
choly. Among the sadder circumstances may be 
noted the deaths of Marquis Riccardi and his son, 
within four days of each other. ' The family is quite 
decayed, and the creditors in the greatest confusion. 
Marquis Rinuncini is now the great man of Florence. 
They say he has above ^ crowns a year, which he 
spends chiefly in the country, where at the head of 
a hundred low dependants he makes the greatest 
figure. He has plays acted by his children, and great 
feastings continually for sycophants.' 

The greatest 'feasting' however which Florence 
had witnessed or enjoyed for many years, was on the 
occasion of the visit of the Prince and Princess 
Esterhazy ' to whom the whole town was by order of 
the emperor to show all possible attentions ; he was 
received by a discharge of the cannons, and was per- 
mitted to lodge at the house Prince Craon lived in, 
this is all the Court has done for him, but it has 
roused the nobility, who vye with each other in giving 
him feasts of all kinds, of which I have partaken. The 
first was a great cold maigre dinner at the chevalier 
Antinori's, one of our Regents, at which the whole 
company, consisting of 24 people, were starved with 
cold and Hunger. Pandolfini gave a much better en 
gras a few days after, but the excessive cold of the 
Hall in which we dined gave me a head ach, that 
obliged me to keep in bed for 24 hours afterwards. 
My friend Madame Antinori, sister to your friend the 

340 BANQUETS. 1752. 

Griffoni, gave a very handsome ball ; Marquis Corri 
gave a much finer and a supper to the whole company, 
which was the largest as well as the finest entertain- 
ment I ever saw ; the table was served in his fine 
Gallery. The ladies and distinguished men only were 
seated, but above two hundred others stood behind 
in four rows, and all were fed. Most of the principal 
dishes were changed three times, the Prince and 
Princess were surprised at the magnificence and order 
of the whole entertainment, which broke up about 4 to 
give place again to the Ball, which lasted till seven in 
the morning. The company had hardly time to recover 
a sufficient stock of spirits to dance the next evening 
at the Neapolitan Minister's, who brought himself to 
great shame, by the vilest festin that was ever given. 
He is the same Viviani whom you may remember to 
have seen at Prince Craon's, and who deserted to the 
Spaniards on Montemar's arrival in Italy, for which 
he would have been confined in a fortress had they 
caught him he afterwards went into Spain, and was 
employed at Court as a language Master, from thence 
he returned to Naples, and got some little employ- 
ment, which not being sufficient to keep him, he 
contrived to be named a sort of Minister here only to 
live in Tuscany, without any appointments however 
and no other credentials than a letter from Marquis 
Toglieni to Count Richecourt, but the desire of figur- 
ing as a minister, engaged him, in spite of his ruined 
circumstances, and the want of the most common 
furniture in his house (all which he had sold some 
time ago), to give a fete to Prince Esterhazy, the most 
shattered ill composed matter you ever saw, and quite 


the disgrace of ministerhood. The next morning they 
set out for Pisa and Leghorn, and at the former place 
received an invitation by a nobile Lucchese from the 
Kepublick to go there, where the greatest honours are 
to be shewn them. They are expected back to-morrow, 
and every day during their stay is to be distinguished 
by some great entertainment. The Princess is very 
unlike your favourite Princess Craon in person, having 
no pretence to beauty, though much younger, but is 
vastly obliging she is originally of Milanese extrac- 
tion, Lunati, but born in Loraine, her Father having 
been invited there by Leopold who would have given 
the preference to Madame Lunati, who they say was 
much handsomer, but her husband less complaisant. 
She seeing the inclination of the Duke, desired her 
husband to carry her immediately from his Court, 
telling him that she would not otherwise answer for 
her virtue ; this shocked him immensely, and threw 
him into a melancholy which Leopold soon observed 
and asked the reason of. Mon r Lunati hesitated for 
some time, and then told him that the motive was, 
the necessity he found himself under, after all the 
favors and honours he had received from his Highness, 
to ask his leave to retire. This excited his curiosity 
still more, which Mr. Lunati satisfied by protesting 
to him that his life and everything he possessed was 
at the Duke's disposition except his wife. "Je vous 
entends, restez; vous n'aurez pas lieu de vous plaindre 
de moy sur ce sujet." And immediately attached 
himself where he found no such scruples. This 
anecdote I think you will not be displeased to know.' 
At a time when in English society 'there were 


three who loved their neighbours' wives, and one who 
loved his own/ there was a scandalous affair in 
England, in which the name of Mr. Child, brother of 
Lord Tilney, was unpleasantly prominent. Mr. Child 
left England with some precipitation, 'but/ says Mann, 
' this can be of no great consequence to him, if he had 
time to secure the money which he had in the funds/ 
Mann consoled Lord Tilney, who was then in Florence, 
by remarking that ' it would only be an obligation to 
his brother to live abroad till the affair could be made 
up/ He proceeds to say: 'The Italians are astonished 
that the laws in England punish so severely in cases 
of this kind. . . . They look upon the woman only 
to be in fault, and such an one here would be punished 
by confinement to a Villa, or be put into a convent at 
worst/ Then, addressing himself to the subject of the 
drama, he observes : ' Portici acts Tragedies and 
Comedies, but in the former he is far short of the 
encomiums which Garrick and others gave him in 
England. In short, he is Signor Anselmo or Pan- 
crazio in every heroick character. His wife will not 
condescend to act plays, which she thinks are beneath 
a burletta, and says it would be turning histrione, 
under which denomination she stiles every performance 
not in musick. This difference in opinion has made 
a total separation between them. She sings at Leg- 
horn ; and he acts at Florence. ' Signora Portici 
thought her husband was, to use Edmund Kean's 
words applied to Macready, 'not an actor, but a 

1753. WELLING. 343 


BEFORE the Spring, Mann was engaged in endeavours 
to stop the acting of a drama which might have 
proved a real tragedy. On March 23rd, .he writes : 
* All the steps which the Regency and I were taking 
to prevent a duel' (between Captain Lee and 'a 
Lorraine Officer ') ' were frustrated by the animosity 
of the military gentry, according to whose Ideas, 
the extinction of one of the parties is necessary, or 
at least a vast quantity of blood to wash off a slap 
on the face ; but in this they have been disappointed 
in their turn, for though the two Heroes acted up 
to those notions, Fortune directed that just as much 
harm should be done and no more than was absolutely 
necessary to finish the affair. Lee was wounded in 
his arm with a sword, and near three hours after- 
wards disabled his antagonist with a pistol. The 
Lorraine officer returned to Florence to take refuge 
in a Church, where he still remains, to secure himself 
from the resentment of the Regency, for going out 
of the town contrary to their orders, and of which 
crime the Emperor himself is now to judge. Lee 
would have returned to Bologna, whence he proceeded 

344 HONOUR. 1753. 

to fight, but the Cardinal Legate reflecting to be sure 
that an Excommunication which ipso facto he in- 
curred was of little signification, would have nothing 
to do with an Heretick, therefore notified to him that 
he must not stay in the State which he had so highly 
insulted, so that Lee, who was then very ill, was 
obliged to proceed to Venice, where repose and proper 
care of his wound has almost put him in a position 
to proceed on his journey to England. It is quite 
ridiculous, but still quite agreeable to form, to see 
with what cordiality they enquire after each other's 
health, and how much they seem to interest them- 
selves for each other's recovery. The family of the 
Lorraine Officer think their honour recovered ; the 
Eegency, as well as myself, is pleased that no more 
harm has happened, the Corps Militaire is satisfied, 
and nothing now remains but to see how the Emperor 
will take it.' Meanwhile, Mann, after long references 
to English politics and to Walpole's life at Strawberry, 
takes care to notify the fact, that ' Madame Riche- 
court is here greatly improved by wearing stays in 
England. I feasted her largely last Sunday, which 
has drawn on other entertainments.' 

Among the more expensive of those entertain- 
ments are to be reckoned the banquets to Prince San 
Severino, who tarried in Florence when on his way as 
Ambassador from the King of Naples to the King 
of England. ' I have feasted him every day ' (writes 
Mann, April 6th), ' and attended him to Conversations 
every night. He was recommended to me by Cardinal 
Albani, not out of form only but as his friend de tout 
son coeur. . . . After dinner yesterday, I carried the 

1753. SEEING COMPANY. 345 

Prince and Viviani (the Neapolitan Minister) to the 
Porta San Gallo where Viviani desired him to take 
particular notice of the triumphal arch, which, he 
assured him, was begun and finished in one day, or 
twenty-four hours, at most. I started at this, and only 
replied non tanto presto, but he stuck to his assertion 
and confirmed the Prince in the idea he had before 
given him of his absurdity. If in the political stile 
he writes such lies as these to his Court what must it 
think of him ? The new Minister is of quite different 
stamp, very modest, civil, and, I believe, sensible, by 
much the most decent Neapolitan I have seen, and 
nothing at all of Corrello in him. I dare say he will 
please in England. He would attend on his sick 
companion to-day, a Cavaliere di Malta who goes 
with him into England, and to whom I had given 
an Indigestion. They dine however again here to- 
morrow, and I am to give them a Conversation at 
night. My friend, Madame Antinori, is to whisper 
to thirty Dame to come. This is the Method of in- 
viting a small number without offending others. The 
Lorraine Ladies are to come as usual without the 
whisper, but they are so horribly ugly that I should 
have been quite ashamed of shewing them alone. I 
intend to put them into the dark room where your 
old Barni laid. 

' . . . . We shall have the Prince of Anspach 
here soon, to whom I must pay great court. Lord 
and Lady Rochford are coming too, who 'will expect 
as much ; then Sir James Gray will be passing to 
Naples, and I must give him Mr. Conway's appart- 
men t | '__ (Gray gave trouble and was a parvenu. 


Walpole says that his father was first a box-keeper, 
then footman to James the Second, 'and this is the 
man exchanged against Prince Severino ! ') 

The Prince of Anspach was not thought much of 
in Florence. ' I have been employed ' (May 4th) ' in 
paying my court to the Prince of Anspach, nobody 
else took the least notice of him. The members of 
the Regency have been so absurd as to say they 
expected the first visit, which the Prince I am sure 
never thought of. I waited on him the day after 
his arrival, with many English. He received us en 
Prince, debout, but vastly civil. I asked his Governor 
leave to propose any amusement to him ; in short, I 
asked him to dine with me the next day, and in the 
mean time attended him to the Gallery Pitti, Boboli, 
etc. I received him at his coach, with many English 
whom I chose to distinguish on this occasion, Lord 
Tilney, Gwin, etc. The Prince did not bring his 
Pages, nor would permit my shewing him any dis- 
tinctions, not so much as a fauteuil, that was placed 
at the head of the table. The company was numerous, 
and both the dinner and dessert tollerably well. In 
the afternoon I took him in my coach, and made the 
whole tour of the town to the Porta San Gallo, where 
there were vast crowds of ladies whom I afterwards 
carried him to visit in their boxes at the Theater, and 
the next morning he set out for Bologna, seemingly 
vastly satisfied with my attentions to him. He is 
to take Anspach in his way to Paris, from whence he 
is to go to England next winter. 

'Adieu, my dear Sir, my nerves are in such a 
twitter that I can hardly hold my pen. I attribute 


it to my having left off snuff for three days past, as 
I apprehended that the quantity, which was great, 
gave me head-ache. I think of nothing but snuff, 
sleeping and waking. If I am dry or hungry, it is 
only for snuff, and yet I have still resolution to resist, 
on hopes that this titillation of my nerves will go off, 
otherwise I must return to snuff again. I'll bathe 
this afternoon, to see what that will do. Doctor 
Cocchi bade me take a little, but that's more difficult 
than not to take any at all.' 

On June 8th, Mann was still in grief on the 
same subject, but Walpole showed him no sympathy. 
After narrating his nervous sufferings when he gave 
up the luxury, and his ' headaches ' when he yielded 
to it, he passes in the ' letter of the above date to the 
arrival of Lord and Lady Rochford, in Florence. ' I 
had great curiosity to know them. I studied her a 
good deal and think her very clever, but her person is 
so much altered from what I may suppose it was, that 
I think she must lay aside all thoughts of making 
any conquests. She is beyond measure dejected to 
find that she even can't confine the affections of her 
lord. There is a certain crisis in women's lives, which 
she has arrived at, that few have good sense enough 
to support, especially such as have lived in the gay 
world in their^ youths. English women have not the 
resource which women in other countries find in that 
age, in devotion, which is all gaiety, but with us 
so solemn that it heightens melancholy sometimes 
into despair. Mr. Chute, I remember, told me of 
a woman of a certain age, whose friend upbraided 
her for turning Roman Catholick, and, asking what 


could induce her, was answered : " Why surely, dear 
Madam, you must allow that the Roman Catholick 
religion is much more entertaining." 

At this time, Theodore, King of Corsica, as he 
called himself, but really Baron Theodore Stephen de 
Neuhoff, a native of Lorraine, son of a Wesphalian 
father, was in a London prison, for debt. He had 
been in various continental sendees, and had taken 
advantage of troubled times to land in Corsica, where 
the people, to escape King Log, elected him, King 
Stork (1739.) After reigning and rioting eight 
months, he left the Island, ostensibly to seek aid 
against his enemies, the Genoese. He never returned. 
Mann has already written of him as he appeared in 
Florence. The Minister now adds these further 
details : 

' Theodore made villainous use of the most insig- 
nificant letters he drew from me, when he sculked 
about Tuscany, under pretence of having the English 
newspapers, or by forwarding letters to me from his 
friends in England. He used to shew the greatest 
impatience to rescue the packet from me, then retire 
with great mistery, and return after a certain time to 
the people about him, and at a distance hold my letter 
in his hand and pretend to read out of it what he 
chose they should believe, sometimes that a fleet 
of ships was coming to Leghorn for his service which, 
the next post, had been retarded by contrary winds. 
Thus he kept his hungry courtiers about him, and got 
everything they could pawn to feed him, by making my 
letter say that he vas to have great sums of money 
for him. At last, the sum of pounds was actually 

1753. FEA8TINGS. 349 

in my hands, but that I had been obliged to make use 
of it myself, to get my plate, jewels, and many 
valuable things out of pawn, for which I asked him 
ten thousand pardons, and which he was forced to 
grant, not to disgust me, as I was the channel by 
which he was to receive the necessary means to mount 
his throne ! All this his own secretary believed and 
very inocently told me, after he had quitted him ; 
upon which I desisted at once sending him any 
Gazettes or writing at all to him/ 

On this 8th of June, Mann notices that Mr. West 
had gone to Reggio, to be warm. ' Indeed he has been 
too lavish of his natural heat, which will require a 
whole Florentine summer to restore. We have also 
had here for a little time, the good natured fat Mr. 
Parry who would do well to stay through that season, 
to melt his fat. What a terrible misfortune it is ! 
He says he has diminished 6 inches since he left 
England. . . . What would you do with the croud of 
people I have to dine with me to-day, no less than 16, 
upon my word. I never willingly exceed 12, but the 
sudden arrival of my Lord Bolinbroke ' (Frederick St. 
John, who succeeded his uncle the celebrated Viscount 
Bolingbroke in 1751) ' with three others, obliged me to 
add them to day, though I don't* think I have dishes 
and plates for so many, but I find it very convenient 
of late to adopt a maxim of Prince Craon, who never 
had enough of anything for his dinners and Conversa- 
tions, and always asked more company to the former 
than his table would hold. He used to say to ^his 
servants, Ne vous embarrassez pas; tout $a s'ar- 
rangera de soy mdme,$o it did by the complaisance 


of his guests, who were forced to wait for drink till the 
Goblets were not employed by others riotous English- 
men would not have so much civility. 

' Here are the French lines you ask for : 

" Deux Henris immoles par nos braves ayeux, 
L'un a la Liberte, et 1'autre a nos Dieux, 
Nous animent, Louis, aux memes entreprises. 
Us revivent en Toi, ces anciens Tyrans. 
Grains notre Desespoir. La Noblesse a des Guises ; 
Paris des Eavaillacs, le Clerge des Clements." 

' Such Ecclesiastic fury makes one shudder every time 
one repeats the above lines.' 

At this period, there was living in Mann's house, 
Wilton, ' that ingineous, modest, sculptor who so well 
deserves the encomiums which were given him in The 
World ' (it was in The Inspector) ' unsought most cer- 
tainly, but justly his due,' so writes Mann, adding that, 
Wilton's father, who was originally a common work- 
man, but had become a most successful executant of 
architectural ornaments in plaster, had sent to his son 
that especial number of The World (Inspector). The 
son had become celebrated by carrying off the Jubilee 
Gold Medal, given by the Pope in 1750. Till 1755, 
Wilton was busily occupied in Florence, as a sculptor, 
on copies and commissions. In that year he returned 
to London (where he ended his eminently successful 
career, in 1803), accompanied by Sir William Chambers, 
who married his daughter, and Cipriani, the latter a 
native of Florence, with both of whom Mann was in- 
timate. It is a curious trait of this Florentine artist's 
life, that a painter so accomplished as Cipriani was the 


pupil of such an undistinguished limner as Hugford, 
an Englishman who was settled in the Tuscan capital. 
Besides the above, there was John Astley, the son of a 
Shropshire village apothecary, of whose ability as a 
painter, Mann entertained a most favourable opinion. 
Astley lived to be very rich and very foolish; but 
before his extravagances in London obtained for him 
the designation he was proud of, namely, 'Beau 
Astley/ he lived in poor condition in Florence. He was 
the English painter there who, being one of a party of 
artists, spending in the neighbourhood a festive but 
sultry evening, followed the example of his heated 
fellows, by taking off his coat ; whereby it was seen 
that the back of his waistcoat was made out of one of 
his canvas studies, representing a landscape with a 
waterfall ! Of Wilton, Mann writes, November 9th, 
1750 : 

'A Statue he did at Rome, and a copy of the 
Venus which he made here for Lord Rockingham, 
gained him great applause. Swift's Bust (an original) 
and a most glorious one of Homer, with some others 
already in England, are proofs of his abilities. He 
has finished another Venus, which is admired by all 
the Professors (as well as Connoisseurs) here ; a 
Bacchus for Lord Tilney, of his own invention, far 
advanced ; with many other works which will be seen 
in England; but is there really any taste for sculpture 
there, beyond a looking-glass-polished-chimney-piece? 
which taste, with regard to Sculpture, stands in 
the same proportion as a most laboriously finished 
Flemish picture does to a Raphael, or any great Italian 
hand. . . . Louis 14th, who really had as little know- 

352 BIANCA CAPELLO. 1753. 

ledge of the Fine Arts as anybody, sacrificed vast sums, 
and made the finest Institutions, merely to gain the 
reputation of a Connoisseur ; and yet they say that, 
in private, he made a joke of his own ignorance ! . . . 
' I send you the portrait you so often went to see 
at Casa Vitelli, of the Bianca Capello, by Vasari ; 
which, as your Proxy, I have made love to, a long 
while. I will now own to you that I have been in 
possession of it some little time ; it has hung in my 
bed-chamber, and reproached me indeed of infidelity 
in depriving you of what I originally designed for 
you ; but as I had determined to be honest at last, 
I could not part with it so hastily. I would willingly 
have sent it with its venerable rich frame of a foot 
broad, but it would have added to the weight and 

size of the case You will observe one odd 

circumstance, which is that the heads seem (sic) not 
to have been finished. The portrait was certainly the 
last that was made of her, a very little time before 
she dyed, as appears by the age.' (Bianca Capello, 
noble and poor, eloped with Cavaliere Buonaventura, 
who was also so poor, that he was glad to be a 
Giovane di Banco, at Venice. A banker's clerk, in 
fact. Her family pursued her, and her husband 
carried her off to Florence), ' where,' says Mann, 
' they lived for many years in the most private 
manner, till the Great Duke Francesco fell in love 
with her and at last consented that her husband 
should be murdered by the family of Kicci, that he 
might marry her.' (She had then a daughter living, 
by the first marriage, and she had not only been 
the Great Duke's mistress, but presented to him as his 


son, a child, afterwards known as Antonio de' Medici, 
which child she bought, and then murdered those who 
were in the secret. On the day she was proclaimed 
Grand Duchess, her daughter was married to a 
Bentivoglio, of Bologna (1579.) As Grand Duchess 
she became execrable for her cruel and capricious 
tyranny.) Tart of her story/ says Mann, ' is reckoned 
fabulous. The truth I believe is that both she and 
her husband were poisoned by his brother (Cardinal 
Ferdinand de' Medici), who succeeded him. The late 
Great Duchess would never acknowledge her or 
permit her ritratto to be engraved with those of her 
ancestors, and would have cut her out of the hang- 
ings of Poggio Imperiale, had she ever been permitted, 
as she wished, to live there 3 (The Grand Electress 
denied Bianca's title to the rank of Grand Duchess) 
' though either before, or immediately after Francesco 
Jiad married her, the Republick of Venice sent a 
Diploma declaring her to be a daughter of the 
Republick. I must still add, by way of history, that 
upon the death of Marquis Vitelli, his wife who, 
you know, followed old General Braitwitz to Naples, 
from whence, by way of parenthesis, Marquis Fres- 
cobaldi, her brother, had interest enough to cause her 
to be sent away by that- Court, for the decorum of her 
family, she, as is the custom of the country, insisted 
upon the restitution of her Dote, which was jj crowns, 
to make up which sum, her son, the young Marquis 
Vitelli, was forced to sell a fine villa and all the 
furniture of a house in town, by which means this 
portrait fell into my hands. You will excuse this 
detail, when you reflect that the history of a picture 

VOL. I. 2 A 


is the only sure proof of its originality. . . . Whilst 
the picture still hung in the dark at Casa Vitelli, it 
was always called a Bronzini ' (Agnolo Bronzini was 
a Florentine of great repute in the 16th century. He 
completed the Chapel of St. Lorenzo, which was left 
unfinished by his master, Panormo, and he painted 
the portraits of the most illustrious persons of the 
House of Medici) 'but all the Connoisseurs now have 
declared it to be of Vasari, a master much less stiff 
and dry than the former.' (Vasari, contemporary with 
Bronzini, was introduced to the Medici family by 
Cardinal da Cortona. He found liberal patrons in 
the Dukes of Tuscany, but his celebrity chiefly rests 
on his well-known biographical and critical work, in 
which he gives the lives of Italian painters, down to 
and including those of his own time. Walpole, in 
a letter, dated December 6th, is warm in the expres- 
sion of his thanks to Mann, 'who has so much obliging- 
ness and attention in his friendships that in the 
middle of public business, and teazed to death with 
all kinds of commissions, and overrun with cubs and 
cubaccionis of every kind, can, for twelve years 
together, remember any single picture, or bust, or 
morsel of virtu that a friend of his ever liked . . . 
and sends it to his friend in the manner in the world 
to make it the most agreeable.' Troubled as Mann 
was with English cubs and cubaccionis, he had con- 
tempt ever outspoken for the leading Florentines 
themselves.) 'All here is so servilely dull that Eiche- 
court himself can I believe hardly have any pleasure 
in commanding them. Dante calls them "Gente avara, 
iusidiosa, e falsa," since which time they have ac- 


quired a just title to the additional epithet, vile, which 
makes a principal ingredient in their character/ 

In this general estimate of the Florentines of the 
last century, Walpole agreed with almost ungenerous 
alacrity. In reference to the duel between Captain 
Lee and a Lorraine officer, previously mentioned, Wal- 
pole writes : ' I am glad you have got rid of your duel 
blood-guiltless. Captain Lee had ill luck in fighting 
with a Lorraine officer ; he might have boxed the ears 
of the whole Florentine nobility (con rispetto si dice), 
and not have occasioned you half the trouble you 
have had in accommodating this quarrel.' 


The new year found Mann depressed. The Min- 
ister, as Pope says, 'grew sick and damned the climate 
like a lord/ but Pope referred to the London atmo- 
sphere. It was not worse than that of Florence. 

January 18th, 1754. 'I am sorry to perceive 
that I grow extremely indolent ; I am afraid it is the 
English spleen that I have got, which however I am 
resolved to shake off" as soon as the foggy, horrid, 
English weather will permit me to use any exercise.' 
(He had lost taste for the Carnival and its' once dear 
delights). ' I have not been to the theater this week, 
and when I do go I am impatient till the second 
Act and Dance is over, that I may return home. I 
sometimes endeavour to persuade myself that the 
amusements are not what they used to be ; but, when 
I see that all the young folks are as well pleased 
with them as I used to be, I am forced to confess 


that my degbut is the effect of my being grown old, 
for which stage of life this is the very worst country 
in the world, as there is not the least society. . . . 
Everything here is in a state of languor not to be 
described, though indeed it agrees pretty much in 
that respect with other countrys, except France, 
where their disputes ' (between the King and the 
Parliament) 'might come to something if there was 
anybody to lead them.' (There was, however, some- 
thing stirring elsewhere.) * Have you heard of the 
King of Naples' almost declaration of war with the 
Island of Malta against the Grand Master's refusal 
to admit of a Eoyal Visitation of the Bishoprick of 
Malta and its Cathedral, by the Bishop of Susiana (?) 
on the part of the King of Naples, who stiles himself 
on this occasion, Patrone Sovrano e Legato Reale ; 
and for disobedience to him as such, he has prohibited 
all commerce with that Island, consequently intends 
to starve it, for it produces nothing ; the most 
common necessaries are imported from Sicily ; besides 
which he has sequestered eveiything that belongs to 
the Order of Malta within his Dominions, or to any 
Chevalier that does not reside in them. As to the 
main point about the right of Visitation or not, 
people differ. Most agree that it has been done 
perhaps 150 years ago ; but they don't seem to allow 
that Charles the Fifth gave them (the Knights) the 
Island of Malta with that condition, or assumed to 
himself and his heirs, the titles which the King of 
Naples takes on this occasion ; the last of which, 
Legato Reale, must mean from the Pope, who does 
not care to enter into the dispute. ... It is probable 


that many or most of the Courts will interfere in 
behalf of Malta, though France, the most interested 
of any, seems the most indifferent. That Court, 
not long ago, offered to the Order, Les Isles St. 
Marguerite, and perhaps would not be sorry to see 
the Knights obliged to accept of them, on its own 
conditions. The very situation would make the 
whole Order and its force subservient to France/ 

The Pope had a more important subject in hand 
than the freedom of Malta from episcopal visitation. 

March 29th. ' The news we have here consists in 
a whisper that the disagreements between Kome and 
this place are adjusted ; the principal condition of 
which is, the Admission, or to speak more properly, 
the Re-Establishment of the Inquisition, which has 
been inactive for some years. It is now to be on the 
foot as it is at Venice, which, since it could not be 
totally demolished, is the least dangerous. That was 
not to be in the least hoped for in these days of 
Devotion, which is an absolute necessary qualification 
for advancement, or to maintain any degree of favour. 
This was flatly said to Richecourt (whose powers as 
Regent for the Emperor, in his dukedom of Tuscany, 
are now increased to the utmost) by his Mistress 
(Maria Theresa) when he was last at Vienna. You 
know she is all devotion, and he is ever since become 
a most obsequious courtier.' 

While the Pope was thus re-establishing that bad 
old state of things which illustrates the Papal idea of 
supervision of faith and morals, a drama was being 
enacted in another part of Italy, which takes us back 
to the very liveliest of feudal times. 

358 A LITTLE WAR. 1754. 

April 19th. 'You will hardly believe me when I 
tell you we are here in a state of war with a neigh- 
bouring, not Prince or State ; and that after the first 
hostilities, our first Column of troops is marched ; that 
another of equal strength is to follow in a day or 
two, not to the enemy's country, but to the frontier 
of our own, to prevent him committing any Insults. 
You will never be able to guess. . . . His name is 
Marchese Del Monte, whose family is very numerous, 
and which in many branches possesses an Imperial 
Fief, called Monte di Santa Maria, near Cortona, and 
between this and the Pope's State. The cause of the 
rupture is this. A younger brother of that family, 
having committed many excesses, had received orders 
from our Regency not to come into this state. In 
contempt of this prohibition he even affected to come 
down from the fief into Cortona with his attendants 
armed ; so that it was necessary to make use of some 
stratagem to lay hold of him. This was effected by 
some Sbirri going into the house where he was, 
under pretence of searching for contraband goods. . . . 
They seized him and carried him to the common 
prison. Some of his attendants who escaped fled 
with this notice to the Feudo, from whence two of his 
brothers marched that night with about a hundred of 
their subjects well armed. They arrived at Cortona 
before the opening of the gates, which they did not 
beat down, for want of cannon. They peaceably 
waited till the gates were opened, to take possession 
of them. . . . They then marched to the Bagello's 
(Sheriff's) house, round which they began to place 
fascines in order to set fire to it, on a supposition that 

1754 A LITTLE WAR. 359 

the prison was annexed to it; but on being better 
informed that the prison was at the Pretorian Palace, 
where the Commissary resides, they marched hither, 
forced open his Appartments and afterwards the 
publick prisons, from whence they set all the prisoners 
at Liberty, and carried off their Brother in triumph. 

' One of the brothers is a Dominican Friar. He 
was particularly desirous that the Commissary should 
be thrown out of the window, but the others inter- 
fered. The Regency waited some days, to receive 
the most exact particulars of this hostility ; and on 
Saturday despatched them by a Courier to Vienna, 
intending to wait the Emperor's orders ; but fresh 
advice being received from the Mountain that the 
Marchesi were putting themselves into a posture of 
defence, and were making dispositions that denoted 
their design of making a second incursion into the 
State, as they had done into the Pope's, from whence 
they had carried off much provision of all the sorts 
they could find, that these Brothers, who were Cadets 
of the family, had made themselves masters of the 
whole fief; had plundered the houses and lands of 
their relations, and particularly of that branch which 
is settled at Florence; and had carried all these 
provisions into their Castle, which is at the top of the 
Mountain, and had published an order that, on pain 
of death, all the inhabitants capable of bearing arms, 
should, on the sound of the Tocsin, immediately repair 
thither ; the Regency, I say, hearing of their warlike 
dispositions, ordered a Captain with 130 men to march 
towards Cortona, to a place called Castiglione, where, 
it is supposed, unless they all deserted, that some of 

360 DESERTERS. 1754. 

them arrived yesterday. The like number is ordered 
from the Garrison at Leghorn, who are to go to 
Borgo San Sepolcro, in hopes that their dispositions 
may keep the Delmontians in awe till the return of 
the Courier from Vienna with orders to march with a 
sufficient force to demolish the whole race of them, 
which will be no easy matter. The whole Feudo 
consists of a large Mountain, the inhabitants of which 
are chiefly Banditti, Contrabandieri, and Zingani, the 
last (Gipsies) literally look upon themselves as at 
home there ; and all are so devoted to the name of 
Del Monte that they will expose themselves to any 
danger on this account. One of the family is always 
Regent of the whole ; but on this occasion, the turbu- 
lent cadets have turned him out ; and it is said that 
they can get together 800 of those resolute, desperate 
people, against whom regular troops don't care to 
fight. This is our present situation, and what makes 
it more disagreeable is, that at the eve of a war, our 
troops desert so fast that we shall have none left soon. 
A few days ago, 36, in a body, sabre d la main, 
attempted to force the Porta San Gallo, but the Guard 
had just time to let down the Barrier; not being 
able to escape, they took refuge in the Churches near, 
but the next day they surrendered by capitulation/ 

May 3rd. ' The Dominican Friar of the Del 
Monte family, who has left off his frock for a cuirass, 
and who, in the Patent by which he commands his 
subjects to steal as much corn, oyl, or what can 
furnish his castle against a siege, styles himself Per la 
Grazia di Dio, Marchese Del Monte, Reggente del 
Feudo di Santa Maria, etc., and has fixed a price on 

1754. POPE AND EMPEROR. 361 

the head of Marquis Del Monte, our quiet Florentine 
(nephew of Niccolini), whose part of the Fief he has 
plundered because he refused to joyn with him, and 
has dispersed the Bones of their ancestors, in order to 
convert their leaden coffins into musket balls, in short 
this mad Friar seems to think he shall be able to 
defend himself with the assistance of his Banditti, 
Contrabandieri, and Zingani, against the troops which 
he foresees the Emperor will send against him. 

' But the last letters from Eome inform us that the 
Emperor, either as such or as Great Duke, will highly 
incur the Papal displeasure if he sends his troops to 
chastize the Friar, as the Court of Rome not only 
disputes the Imperiality of that Fief, but declares that 
it makes part of the Ecclesiastical State, consequently 
that the Pope must take the quarrel upon himself, if 
any troops set their feet on that ground. Baron St. 
Odil could get no other answer from Cardinal Valenti, 


on this subject, but that the Pope had despatched his 
orders to M. de Richelieu to treat directly with the 
Emperor before he leaves that country, and they say 
that he has orders to propose, as a means to end any 
dispute on that occasion, that the Emperor and Pope 
should joyn their troops to chastize those Del Monte 
who have offended, the first at Cortona, the second at 
Citta di Castello, and not to make any mention of the 
supreme jurisdiction over that Fief; which expedient, 
in my humble opinion, would confirm the Pope's pre- 
tensions too much. I should not be sorry to see a 
quarrel between the Pope and Great Duke, provided it 
was to spread no farther.' 

May 17 th. 'Major Breton, at the head of half his 

362 ROME AND TUSCANY. 1754. 

troops, ' marched in the evening' (of ]&ay 3rd) 'with a 
design to reach the rebellious Fief of Santa Maria, by 
break of day ; at which time precisely he had given 
orders to the leaders of the other half of his troops to 
meet him in order to make the Blockade complete ; 
but, unluckily, a shower of rain retarded his march for 
many hours, and prevented the other instalment, which 
took a different route, from joining him till the after- 
noon, for whose arrival, Messieurs Del Monte and their 
followers, not thinking it prudent to wait, sallied out 
of the back door, whilst the Major re-guarded the 
front ; at which they afterwards entered ; so that 
though the Rebels escaped, they have taken their 
castle ; consequently, by being Masters of the Field of 
Battle, they have gained a compleat victory ; and had 
those Rebels had any ground of their own, the troops 
would have lived at discretion upon it. They are all 
dispersed in the Pope's State to the great terror of its 
Inhabitants, though he threatened to take the quarrel 
upon himself, if the Emperor should do what he 
exactly has done ; so that it now only remains to see 
what will be the effect of these menaces. 

' At least, there will be a delay of the accommoda- 
tion between Tuscany and Rome, to chastize by that 
means the Great Duke, for the faults of the Emperor 
who, if he was wise, would save himself from the 
Inconveniences which must always ensue from his 
friendship as Great Duke with the Court of Rome, by 
constantly keeping up a certain degree of quarrel with 
it, during which, no usurpation can be made on his 
authority, or on the liberty of his subjects, by the 


June Itth. ' The Del Monte have not acted up to 
the first step of rescuing their brother from the com- 
mon prisons at Cortona, and being masters of that 
town for some hours, which may be justified by the 
irregularity of treating a man of rank, independent 
of Tuscany, with such contempt. It is said that the 
Emperor hasmuch disapproved of the manner in which 
the Great Duke's people acted on that occasion, and 
though he has endeavoured to chastize them, yet it has 
been in quality of Emperor taking the part of Tuscany, 
a great Imperial Fief, against the mountain of Santa 
Maria, a smaller Fief of the same nature. 

' I told you that the Hero of this petite piece 
escaped, and that his people were dispersed. He is 
supposed to be in the Kingdom of Naples, and the 
Regency, by order of the Emperor, has made instances 
to its Ministers here that the Dominican Friar may be 
seized. Most of the troops are returned from thence ; 
there is only a small detachment to prevent the Friar's 
return, and re-assembling his people to take Cortona 
again for good.' 

July 5th. ' The mad Friar, when least expected, 
returned to the neighbourhood of his Fief, and com- 
mitted such disorders with eight of his followers, in 
the Pope's State, that the Commissary of Citta del 
Castello sent a body of 80 soldiers and sbirri to block 
them up in the Palazzo to which they had retired. 
From the windows they killed two or three of the 
besiegers, wounded others, and in the night found 
means to escape by a passage underground. This, they 
say, has greatly irritated the Pope who, it is supposed, 
will fix a price upon his head. A detachment of 120 


of his troops still remains there. The Pope is returned 
from Castel Gandolfo, not well.' 

August 9th. 'We have been alarmed by a third 
apparition of the Del Monte Friar, in the shape of a 
common robber on the highway. We thought he had 
turned Mahometan at Constantinople, for which place 
it was said he had embarked in the Adriatick, but he 
lately returned in company of six Bandits and robbed 
two factors (one, of another Marquis, Del Monte, his 
cousin) as they returned from market, stript them 
naked, tied them to trees, and would have killed them, 
had not the Bandits been more merciful than he was. 
The Tuscan troops who still live on the Fief could not 
take him, as he took refuge in the Pope's State.' 

September 13th. 'The Hero of the Del Monte 
affair might have deserved your compassion, had he 
limited his bravery to the recovering his brother from 
an infamous prison, and defending himself, ever after, 
against those who would chastize him for it ; but the 
Dominican Friar is turned a Robber and Assassin on 
the highway, attended by about twenty resolute Ban- 
ditti, who strike terror into the whole Tuscan as well 
as Ecclesiastical State. Therefore, to frighten them 
in their turn, an Edict has been published here, 
promising a reward of 2000 crowns to any one who 
shall seize any of the three brothers alive, and 1000 
for killing them; 300, for each of their followers alive; 
and 100, dead ; besides a pardon for whatever crimes 
the Seizers or Killers may stand accused of; or a 
liberty to name a friend (who might be a criminal) 
in case they do not stand in need of such a favour 


' The Court of Rome, they say, will follow the 
example of Tuscany, and publish an Edict of the same 
tenour, with this alteration probably, that the number 
of crowns will be changed for the same number of 
Indulgences for their Souls. This is the least the 
Pope can do for his new Tuscan friends who have 
received his Nuncio with open arms, who is to open 
the Inquisition, and consequently a gate to all sorts 
of priestly tyranny and iniquity. The wisest here 
tremble for the effects of this reconciliation, being very 
sure that it must tend to the aggrandizing a power, 
from which no earthly good, at least, can be expected.' 

While the Del Monte romance was progressing 
towards the inevitable catastrophe, incidents of a more 
trifling, but not less interesting nature to the Italians, 
had to be noted. ' I must tell you/ Mann writes, 
May 3rd, 'that the Pope, lamenting lately to the 
new Cardinal Sarsali (?) the death of Cardinal Liviz- 
zani and many of his intimate friends, the other 
(Cardinal S.) attributed it to the antiquity of the 
Moon of March, die aveva persino ammazzato Gesu 
Cristo, at which the Pope smiled. That pious 
Imbecile is going to his Archbishoprick of Naples, 
where no doubt such sentiments will recommend him 
to the Queen, whose piety distinguishes itself by the 
veneration she has for the Abbess of a Convent at 
Capua, with whom, whilst the Court is at Caserta, she 
goes to dine every Saturday. The follies recounted 
of these visits are both numerous and credible, con- 
sidering the place and pitch of their understandings ; 
among which, one is worthy to be mentioned, and is 
that the Madre Badessa assured the Queen that she 

366 MIRACLES. 1754. 

had been playing the whole night with Gesu Cristo, 
at Bambina (a Game at Cards), which I dare say her 
Majesty believed as much as the Nun had dreamt it, 
and that they were both persuaded of it. 

'Adieu ! I can send you nothing but such follies as 
these from such a country, where the most unpreju- 
diced are afraid to own that they do not believe that 
the straw-hat of St. Catherine, or the measure of her 
waist in a ribbon, or the eating, either dry or in sops, 
little scraps of paper with the word Gesu, Maria, or 
any Saint, upon it, will not cure a fever, or procure 

Pursuing the subject of the influence of the 
Saints, Mann writes, June 14th : 'I have been obliged 
to step out to make a visit of congratulation to Count 
Lorenzi, upon the birth of a son and heir ; a favour 
which his Countess received from the Madonna di 
Loretto ; and indeed the whole town considered it as 
a miracle ; and what is a further proof of it is, that all 
the females that accompanied her on that journey, 
obtained the same favour, her Chamber-maid, and 
even the Mare that drew the chaise.' 

There was one person at Rome, for whom the 
Saints would do nothing. ' The Pretender,' Mann 
writes, July 5th, ' has not been at Albano this season, 
on account of his health, which seems to decay very 
fast. His own apprehensions, which are sometimes 
carried even to a folly, make people think him in 
more danger than I believe he is, as yet.' 

Another great personage 'going to decay,' was 
Richecourt, the Emperor's Regent in Tuscany, Lady 
Walpole's (Orford's) old lover. August 9th. ' He 

1754. THE PAPAL NUNCIO. 367 

was seized with a disorder in the head that produced 
an effect not quite unlike madness . . . some call it a 
slight touch of an apoplexy. ... He was vastly fright- 
ened, and is firmly persuaded of the truth of what his 
friends told him, that a dissipation of spirits, either 
by over fatigue of body or mind must be fatal to him, 
and that this was a lesson he ought not to neglect. . . . 
Don't mention this hero's decay, as nothing can be so 
injurious to a Minister, as to say his head is turned ! 
Mureilles still teaches to dance, though he has lost 
all use of his legs ; but some little share of brains is 
necessary for the Government even of Tuscany. . . . ' 
(Sep. 13th.) 'At Leghorn, they wait for our letters 
with impatience, to know whether Bichecourt is merry 
or sad, in order to judge of the probability of a return 
of his late disorder, and meet to compare notes.' 

Florence soon had another object to attract the 
inhabitants. Richecourt's health was forgotten in the 
arrival of the Papal Nuncio, with power to establish 
the Inquisition. ' I have not made acquaintance with 
this new Minister yet. You know that as such we 
are not to know each other, but, as Signer Biglia and 
Mr. Mann, we may converse. He seemed to want to 
begin last night at Count Richecourt's Assembly, but 
as we are to negociate a visit, I would not disappoint 
my plenipotentiaries. He lives for the present in the 
Convent of Santo Spirito, and was conducted last 
Saturday night to the Lodge that looks upon my 
Garden, to see the company and lights at a distance, 
though, as the evening was cool, the Dames retired to 
finish their Parties in the rooms.' 

' Signora Boccaneri, whom you saw, when she was 


a fanciulla at the Princess's, famous for both singing 
and dancing, has furnished the town with a new 
scene. . . . Nobody can give any account why her 
husband, after having admitted lovers of all conditions 
. . . should have been offended with a young Pro- 
caccia, a decent, smart, young man, who was contended 
for by many of the first Dames .... Jealousy led 
him to discover and get into his possession, from the 
hands of each of the lovers, a reciprocal contract, or 
promise of marriage, after his death ; though he is 
younger than she is. ... Seeing the affair was of so 
serious a nature, he thought it prudent to provide for 
the safety of his life ... so communicated the whole 
to the Regency, who have relegated the young fellow 
to the Island of Porto Ferraro, and the lady, I think, 
to Prato.' 

November 8th. 'All our Regents have deserted us. 
I really don't know who it is that governs us. They 
all fled the Eve of St. Charles's day, which makes 
Gala here for Prince Charles, and though we had been 
bid to leave off the mourning which is to last three 
months for the Queen of Portugal, we had nobody to 
shew ourselves to, on that day or since. . . . We have 
still our St. Martin's summer to come ; and people 
have too much faith in him not to prolong their Ville- 
giatura. I never knew the town so empty. This has 
affected the Duke of Bridgewater who, after a short 
stay, set out this morning to Rome, with a promise, 
which I did not insist upon, of returning here at a 
better season.' (This was the 3rd and last Duke of 
Bridgewater. He was so silly, when young, that it 
was in contemplation to set him aside, for the next 


heir. He, however, succeeded, and held the Dukedom 
above half a century: 17481803.) 'Yet my Lord 
and Lady Corke' (sic, and so spelt by Lord Cork him- 
self), 'who went from hence a week ago, with a resolu- 
tion of settling at Pisa, for the whole winter, agreeable 
to an established scheme of (Economy, which brought 
them out of England, have not been able to resist 
the duluess of that place, so that I expect them back 
this evening. They are extreme good people. My 
Lord you know, is an author.' (In 1751, the Earl 
of Cork, who described Pisa as a place where only 
cameleons could live, and where horses grazed in the 
streets, after playing with the Muses and giving 
evidence of his classical tastes, attained both notoriety 
and celebrity by his ' Remarks on the Life and 
Writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift,' the work which 
Warburton coarsely assailed, and Johnson roughly 
justified. It was in reference to this famous book 
that Mann proceeded to say of this literary scion of a 
literary race) 'Lord Corke is so far unprejudiced as 
an author, that I made him quite give up his hero, on 
the points of honour, honesty, and even patriotism, 
which he has so tortured ; in return for which, I 
allowed Lord Bolinbroke stile and clearness of expres- 
sion whenever he understands himself. . . . 

' . . . Some time ago I had a day or two's con- 
versation' (before Bolinbroke's Letter to Sir William 
Wyndham was published) 'with Mr. Fraigneau (?) who 
lived some years with Ld. Bolinbroke ; he did not 
in the least satisfy me on many points, though he took 
great pains to defend him in all. Among others, when 
I asked him how he could justify his behaviour, after 

VOL. i. 


his return to England, or his ingratitude to your 
father, to whom he owed that favour, he said, that 
the first, he was persuaded, was calculated as a better 
method to get into play than a quiet submission would 
have been ; and that, to his certain knowledge, it has 
succeeded so well, that had the late King' (George I.) 
'returned from Hanover, Lord B. was to have taken 
Sir Eobert Walpole's place ; of which circumstance 
Fraigneau informed Thos. Pelham, after Lord Bolin- 
broke's death, and though at first Mr. P. treated it 
with scoff, yet yielded it to the proofs he supported it 

December 13th. ' My Lord Corke is a very good 
man, and much more agreeable than I should have 
thought the author of the Letters on Swift, to his son, 
could well be. (Economy has brought my Lord and 
Lady abroad, though they don't well know how to put 
it in practice. We have another more roving genius 
here in Lord Huntingdon, who will most certainly 
make a great figure. He has parts equal to anything 
he undertakes, and a perseverance that surmounts all 
difficulties. He has acquired great knowledge of the 
world, in his travels ; with that, very easy politeness, 
which distinguishes those who have kept the best com- 
pany ; at the same time that the learned find him 
perfectly well acquainted with every part of Literature 
that the best Education furnishes, he has learnt Italian 
to a surprizing degree of perfection, in a month, which 
he studies for three hours every morning, and then 
passes as many more with Doctor Cocchi and his 
medals ; after which, he stays till past 4 in the 
gallery, to examine the Statues and Busts, with Wilton' 


(the English Sculptor). 'In short, he takes the best 
method to succeed in everything that he sets about ; 
and, with all his application, he loves dress, so that in 
every article, I think he is made to shine with great 
gout and Ease. I seldom mention any of the English 
to you, because so few are ever worth mentioning, 
except for their absurdities, but Lord Huntingdon and 
his friend, Lord Stormont, with your friend, Colonel 
Conway, are such glaring instances of merit and parts 
as cannot pass anywhere unobserved.' 

That ' rare bird ' among English specimens abroad, 
the Earl of Huntingdon, who died a bachelor, in 
1789, was a student, for a year and a half, at the 
Academy of Caen. Chesterfield held him up to his 
son as the model of a true gentleman, and the bright 
example of the union of a scholar with the man of the 
world. Chesterfield says : ' Lord Stormont is well 
spoken of here. However, in your connections, if 
you form any with them, show rather a preference 
to Lord Huntingdon, for reasons which you will easily 
guess/ Mann ends the year with these words : ' We 
are not as yet sensible of the authority the Court of 
Kome has acquired over us ; they are too cunning to 
begin severely. Nothing has appeared as yet, but two 
Edicts of the Nuncio, to restrain the licentiousness of 
his Priests and Friars, the latter being absolutely 
forbid to go out alone ; just as if a companion of the 
same frock would interfere in his friend's pleasures.' 



January 17 th. 'We are in daily expectation of 
hearing of Cardinal Valenti's death ; he lays waiting 
for it himself, his last fit has already killed one whole 
side. Cardinals Mellini and Forregiani are likewise 
far gone : but, when least expected, have been pre- 
ceded by the bold Cardinal Querini, who has always 
been at open war with the Pope and Cardinal Ricci. 
The vacancies will hasten the promotion which is 
called that of the Corona, and as the Pretender is 
allowed to keep his at Rome, he too has a nomination, 
which he has given to the Bishop of Sens.' 

The thoughts of the Florentines were soon, how- 
ever, busy with the serious trifling of the Carnival, 
which, says Mann, March 5th, includes ' every thought 
or occupation but such as relate to masking and balls 
in the Theater, which, however, are as solemn as the 
gravest bare-faced Assemblies. Here is none of that 
fun which, travellers tell me, our Masquerades in 
England abound with. No stolen matches from 
thence, no Nuns in disguise who step to a neighbour- 
ing Bagnio with their Gallants, in short nothing that 
unnerves a sober spectator.' Lent followed with its 


solemnities, from which English amateurs of antiques, 
and Florentine dealers in busts, statues, and ancient 
pictures, were aroused by an Edict from the Eegency, 
prohibiting the exportation of those and other objects 
coming under the denomination of Cose Rare. 

' It is strange/ Mann writes, ' that people, under 
pretence of maintaining the lustre of a country, should 
adopt measures so exactly opposite to those by which 
it was raised to a certain pitch of reputation. The 
family of Medici, to whom all Europe is indebted for 
the restoration of Arts and Sciences, made no such 
Edict, which, with regard to the things that really 
serve for the ornament of the country, was unneces- 
sary, as the removal of the Collection in the Gallery 
is provided against by an article in the Act of Suc- 

Living curiosities, however, flowed into Florence. 
A daughter of the Duke of Modena, wife of the 
Duke de Penthievre, died at Paris, on the 30th 
April, 1754, at the age of 27 years. This Duke was 
a ' Grand Admiral,' but no sailor, though he was 
a brave soldier. He and his wife were extremely 
devout. ' We have had the Duke de Penthievre here 
for a few days. He travels to dissipate his grief for 
the loss of his wife, but he won't be dissipated. He 
carries Grief about in triumph. It is incredible with 
what expense as well as trouble, he travels. His train 
is most numerous, among which is M. le Garde des 
Bijoux, as well as many other unnecessary folks of 
whom he can make no use. His method is to travel 
as slow as he can, for he won't go fast, or more than 
two posts a day, from one town to another ; and when 


there, not to see the curiosities, much less the inhabi- 
tants of it. People's curiosity here to see him was 
equal to the pains he took to hide himself, though the 
Ladies followed him to all his Masses and Churches, 
and would have been glad to see the tip of one of the 
tresses of his wife's hair, which he carries pleated in 
his breast, with many other tokens that he intends to 
bemoan the loss of her, for a long time, unless he falls 
in love at Modena or Turin.' Mann does not say that 
the Duke travelled as Comte de Dinan, or that Florian 
was his secretary and friend. It may be added that 
the Duke's daughter married the Due de Chartres, and 
became the mother of Louis Philippe. 

On the 15th February, Mann was raised to the 
dignity of a Baronet, with reversion to his brother 
Galfridus. Walpole congratulated him on his being 
raised to chivalry, and Sir Horace bore his honours 
modestly, and wished the English Government would 
increase his pay, and discharge all arrears that were 
due. In Florence, this promotion in rank gave rise to 
some gossip among the Italians. ' I can't account for 
the whisper that was spread of my having been at 
Rome,' writes Sir Horace, April 12th ; ' I have hardly 
been out of my house during the very severe winter, 
nor do I love travelling. I don't even go to Pisa for 
the famous triennial battle of the bridge, which is to 
be to-morrow, unless the report be true that the 
Regency has absolutely forbid it, on account of a riot 
which happened there a few days ago ; as the two 
Banners were carrying to be blessed, they met in the 
street, and fought so desperately before the time, that 
some people were killed on both sides. Nothing can 


exceed the fury of the Pisans on this subject. Santa 
Maria ! and St. Antonio ! are appellations that pro- 
duce as much animosity as ever the Guelphs and 
Ghibellines did.' 

One of the most singular visitors to Florence this 
year, was the celebrated sister of Frederick the Great, 
Frederica Sophia Wilhelmina, the wife of the Mar- 
grave of Bareith. In her ' Memoirs,' published more 
than sixty years ago, she describes German princes and 
manners in such terms as to give the reader an im- 
pression that the scenes in imperial, royal, princely, 
and high-noble houses, were like those to be seen in 
extravaganzas and the introductions to pantomimes. 
The individuals seem to move and speak to the most 
outrageously comic music, and reading the Margra- 
vine's pages now, the capering, stumbling, quarrelling, 
and ever laughably restless personages, recall to the 
mind the clever 'Paynes or the equally clever Vokes 
family in the most burlesque of their representations. 
The Princess, born in 1707, was married to the Mar- 
grave in 1731. After her arrival in Florence, the 
Eegent, Kichecourt, gave her an ' Academic de Belles 
Lettres/ that is, a dinner and assembly of learned 
people, a fitting compliment, it was thought, to the 
learned Margravine of Bareith. 'For whose amuse- 
ment,' says Sir Horace, May 10th, 'there was the 
Gioco della Sibilla. She proposed all the questions to 
the Sibilla who is represented by a child. Buondel- 
monte and Lami were the interpreters. The first 
question was, which was the greatest man, Aristotle or 
Alexander ? The answer to this was " Stella." Great 
pains was taken to make a comparison between them, 

376 A CURIOUS GAME. 1755. 

but unluckily, Buondelmonte seemed to forget that 
Aristotle had been mentioned, and as it was more 
convenient to chuse somebody of the same trade, 
he adopted Charles the 12th, and then Cromwell, to 
compare with Alexander ; and, after having wandered 
extremely, he could not avoid to talk a great deal of 
nonsense, to prove that " Stella " was a very clear and 
proper answer to the question proposed ; that Alex- 
ander was a star of the first luster, of which he gave 
a definition, and thereby showed that he was as bad an 
astronomer as he was an historian. Lami came off 
better in both respects. The second question was : 
Why the ancient Tuscans were more given to the 
Science of Divination than the other People of Italy ? 
To which the Sibil, with her usual clearness, answered 
" Trota "- upon which, infinite nonsense was talked ; 
as well as upon the third question : whether matter 
was divisible d I'infini. The answer was " Tamburo," 
upon which Buondelmonte began by observing that 
the Sibil already denoted that it was a question that 
had made a great noise in the world ! 

' This ridiculous amusement lasted for many hours. 
Many Ladies were invited, and as they neither under- 
stood a word of what was said, nor could have their 
Cicisbeos by them, to talk of something else, they 
were almost asleep. The Margravine honoured me 
with some observations, as I happened to be the only 
man near her, and though she was inclined to approve, 
she allowed me to say that it was a torturing of 
common sense, to adapt the Sibil's answers to the 
questions, and that they were often above the portee 
of the Interpreters to talk extempore upon . . . and 


that upon the whole, this sort of amusement was a 
proof of the decay of knowledge in the country ; but, 
Count Eichecourt came up, and by his great enco- 
niums upon the learning which the Interpreters had 
shown, as well as of the great use of such an Institu- 
tion, to form the judgments of young as well as old 
people, by torturing their brains to prove that the Art 
of Divination in Ancient Etrusco was like a " Trout," 
stoped our mouths, and I make no doubt that any 
great Lady of spirito, who comes here for the future, 
will insist upon having an Accademia and II Gioco 
delta Sibilla made for her. 

' Count Bichecourt entertained the Margrave and 
his Court at Dinner, at which I had the honour to 
assist. Great state was observed and the conversa- 
tion was very languid ; to enliven which, I suppose, 
the Margrave asked the Master of the Table, which 
he had rather have been, St. Francis or Caesar ? He 
did not decide. There was a concert of Musick after 
dinner, which all the men would willingly have dis- 
pensed with, as we were forced to stand the whole 
time, for want of an order from Her Eoyal Highness 
to sit down. She was pleased to distinguish me, by 
talking to me, the whole time ; for, as she is a great 
composer of Musick, as well as of Operas, Tragedies, 
etc., the performers did not please her at all ; even the 
Margrave, she said, played much better; so she did 
not attend, but talked to me of her Brother, shewed 
me his picture, and took occasion to say that it 
was very unfortunate that the King of England, 
her Unckle, had not that goodness for his family 
that might be expected, and that her brother very 


seriously lamented the misunderstanding that was 
between them. I retorted her accusation, laid the 
whole blame upon the King of Prussia, who, I 
said, had not even that regard for his Unckle which 
that quality (sic) might exact, besides the decency 
observed between princes ; and that, to make the 
breach the wider, he had espoused an Interest totally 
opposite to that which our King espoused. . . . My 
discourse led me to the brink of disrespect, which 
however I avoided, and she was not at all offended. 
A Lady who was near, overheard a part of our dis- 
course, and some of my answers have been since 
quoted about the town. She took occasion to turn 
into ridicule the report that was spread of both her 
and the Margrave's design of changing their religion 
at Rome. I said that those who had the honour to 
approach her, could never give credit to it.' 

The ex-lady Walpole, or Lady Orford, who before 
and after her husband's death, had various lovers in 
Florence, but chiefly Richecourt, had, since her return 
to England, married at Keith's Chapel, May Fair, Mr. 
Shirley; from whom she soon separated, and in 1755 
again established herself at Florence. Sir Horace 
Mann had an extreme horror at the idea of that some- 
what audacious lady again settling in that city and 
unsettling all society into which she could penetrate. 
However, the reality was not up to the mark of the 
idea. The lady took her fortune with her, and Floren- 
tine society welcomed her back with such an accom- 
paniment. Mann was among them, but he excused it 
on the ground of the lady's total change of manners. 
' She lives,' he says, May 30th, ' with great decorum. 

1755. MANN'S ARM8.\ 379 

All the ladies have been to see her . . . She has the 
same house near the town, in which she lived formerly 

. . . this happens to be near Count Richecourt's, who 
is at the Pisa baths. His daughter dined with her 
here a few days ago, and promised to be a good neigh- 
bour. In return the ex-Countess Dowager gave her a 
superb set of jewels.' (The whole is a good illustration 
of Lord Cork's assertion that, above all things, Floren- 
tine ladies loved decorum. Another lady was about 
to astonish them.) 'Your friend, the Venetian Am- 
bassadress is studying a harlequin dance with which 
she is to surprize the audience, by way of Intermezzo 
to the tragedy which is acting at Frescati, by Roman 
Princes and Princesses.' 

Mr. Chute, at Sir Horace Mann's request, furnished 
him with a motto for Mann's shield of arms, to be 
exhibited to Italian Princes and Princesses. Chute, in 
part allusion to the goats in Mann's arms, happily 
suggested, ' Per ardua stabiles,' steady in difficult 
places. 'All your friends approve it,' wrote Walpole. 
' It alludes so well to the goats,' wrote Mann, July 
19th, 'that I am justified in taking it. Lord Corke, 
Doctor Cocchi, and others approve of it, extremely.' 

With the King's arms in front of his house, his 
pedigree in his hall, his new title, and the new legend 
on his seal, the Florentines who had affected most to 
doubt Mann's right to be of 'blood,' now acknow- 
ledged that Sir Horace was a gentleman and, like St. 
Patrick, ' came of decent people.' One of the first 
public events he had to announce was the following: 

' Tuscany is engaged in a war with Algiers, which, 
however, it cannot support, as the expense of keeping 

380 FRENCH GUESTS. 1755. 

two thirds of the whole fleet (that is, two ships) and 
of some little precautions to defend the Coast, is too 
great to be continued, and so much the more as the 
Count wants a very large sum of money to carry to 
Vienna in September.' 

At this time, France and England were on such 
delicate and dangerous terms that when a French 
Commandant, meeting Captain Howe at sea, asked 
him if it was war or peace, Howe replied by firing a 
broadside into him. M. de Mirepoix made indignant 
complaint to our Ministry, and those gentlemen 
replied that it was ' a mistake ' which, they said, was 
adding 'unelronie indecente d une Insulte eclatante.' 
For all this, Sir Horace was on a good understanding 
with Lorenzi, the French Ambassador, at Florence. 

August 18th. 'I have not broke as yet with 
Count Lorenzi who, two days ago, presented two 
Frenchmen to me at an Assembly, telling me, he 
would bring them to my home. I made the common 
reply que je serois charme de faire connoissance avec 
ces Messieurs. One, who is a President du Parlement 
de Dijon, answered : Ah! Monsieur, ilfaut se presser, 
upon which I invited them to dinner the next day.' 

Sir Horace was busied in endeavouring to procure 
a Last Supper for Mr. Chute's Chapel at the Vine. 
The pictures he saw were too long for the dimensions 
sent by that not too pious gentleman. ' The Guests,' 
writes Sir Horace, ' being only placed in front and at 
the ends of the table.' He did not despair, however, 
of getting a Last Supper, which ' shall edify the most 
delicate Protestant Believer.' In the course of his 
remarks, he says : 'I went, yesterday, with Dr. Cocchi 


to look at a Cenacolo in the Palace Pitti.' Had it suited 
he would have had it copied, but he adds : ' I was 
greatly tempted to steal a piece of Chapel Furniture 
from the private Oratory of John Gaston,' (Giovanni, 
the last of the Medicean Grand Dukes) 'which till then 
had escaped my observation, and which alone would 
answer the end of giving a true Catholick air to our 
friend's Chapel. It was a little Tabernacle of about 
two feet, with folding doors, which always stand open 
to shew a small Madonna and Child in her arms, 
surrounded by some Angels and Saints, all composed, 
as the man assured me, of Martyrs' bones pulverized 
and worked up into a paste. What reflections does 
not such a private retreat of Princes and Governors 
of mankind produce ? ' 

The little English colony in Florence soon under- 
stood whether war or peace prevailed. The dispute 
between England and France referred to a boundary 
question in America. The locality was a riddle to 
Sir Horace and his friends, owing, he says, to * bad 
maps.' The very best did not mark, throughout, the 
course of the Ohio ! At the same time, the two 
French Ambassadors in Tuscany and Modena were 
threatening the English ' with all the Indignation of 
their Master/ and forbidding them their houses, but 
promising to be civil again as soon as England re- 
pented of her ways. Next, came the news of the 
defeat and death of General Braddock which caused 
great depression among the English in Florence. The 
brave and rash warrior fell into an ambuscade, in a 
wood near Fort de Quesne, where he was overwhelmed 
by French and Indians. The retreat of the fugitives 


was covered by Major Washington and his Provincials. 
Our Minister and his countrymen in the Tuscan 
capital were depressed and discouraged by the news 
of this unlocked for defeat. The latter began to 

September 20th, ' Lord Corke has taken a very 
sudden resolution, on the receipt of some letters, to 
set out for England in a few days, though he had 
made all his dispositions to pass the winter here. 
This, he and my Lady, in an appointed visit from 
the country, communicated to me, with an air of 
gravity that surprized me. I cannot guess the motive, 
but believe it to be a family one. Some time after, 
he desired I would give testimony, in my letter to the 
Ministry, of his conduct here, saying that he knew he 
had been formerly misrepresented to the King, and 
assured me that though his early connections with 
certain people (Jacobites) might have given cause to 
suspect his principles, yet nobody was more seriously 
attached to the present Establishment than he was, 
being convinced from his heart that the nation could 
only be happy under it, and indeed the whole tenour 
of his conversation since I have known him, has been 
agreeable to that assertion.' 

Another of the departing English was Miss Pitt. 
Walpole has sketched her in his Letters. ' The famous 
Miss Pitt is going away with Mr. Preston, who has 
lately left off business at Leghorn, in order, they say, 
to marry her. The ceremony is to be performed in 
Germany, and they are to live this winter in Holland. 
She has had a violent quarrel lately with a Mrs. Pru- 
jean (?) about Religion, in defence of which she has 


told the strangest lies, endeavouring thereby to induce 
the country-people where they lived to pull her house 
down. Mr. P. has wrote a long letter in French to 
Miss Pitt, of which he has given copies to many. A 
miserable performance. This has given occasion to 
Colonel Warren, a friend to both, to lament their 
indiscretion in sparging their Dissenteries to the 

Mann regretted the departure of Lord Cork. The 
Earl has left testimony in his book on Italy, to the 
merits of Sir Horace ; his hospitality, geniality, tact, 
good taste, and also to his honest heart and his 
horrible head-aches. Another visitor, Alexander 
Drummond, Consul at Aleppo, recorded in 'a very 
vulgar, foolish book of travels ' (Walpole calls it) his 
opinion 'that Mann was extremely polite, that he 
possessed the most agreeable qualities that distin- 
guish the fine gentleman, that his house was a 
palace, his garden when lit up, was a little epitome 
of Vauxhall ; and that Mann's Conversazioni resemble 
our Card Assemblies.' Walpole laughs at this simile, 
to say ' that an assembly is like an assembly.' Consul 
Drummond spoke of the Florentine ladies at these 
Assemblies with a saucy freedom, very like that of 
Walpole himself ; and as the latter called the Consul's 
book foolish and vulgar, Mann ignored the author. 
' I protest,' says Sir Horace, ' that I do not remember 
the creature.' Mann and 'the Colony' were next 
agitated by the threatened invasion of England by 
France. If made, he doubts their power to escape 
' in their flat-bottomed boats.' He adds : ' It is pro- 
bable that, on the like occasions, they will employ 


their Irish and Scotch troops, who little deserve our 
compassion.' Then follow the subjoined singular 
passages : 

November \th. 'I wish you could tell me for 
certain whether the young Pretender is to be of the 
party, that I might let the Pope, and perhaps his 
father too, know where he is. The former, not long 
ago, shewed great curiosity to know, and assured Mr. 
Hope that he believed his father was as ignorant of the 
place of his existence, as he was. Our clumsy Baron/ 
(Stosch) ' persists in his opinion that he does not exist 
at all I Others here account for the secret by a 
supposition that he was mad, and confined in some 
Convent, or house, near Avignon. His people now 
assert, as it was natural to suppose they would, that 
he is well and in France ; and France will probably 
not deny it, whether it be true or not. . . .' 

The Elector of Cologne was then puzzling people 
as to his whereabouts as much as the young Pre- 
tender. This Prince -prelate, 'who fancied he should 
divert himself extremely at Rome, left it lately on a 
sudden. He expected a distinguished reception from 
the Pope. His first disappointment engaged him to 
go into the country, upon a supposition that, though 
unasked, the Pope would alter his behaviour, but that 
not being the case, he took the pretence (though he is 
weak enough to be in earnest) of hastening to St. 
Hubert's shrine, to prevent the effects of having been 
licked and slobbered by a favourite dog, that after- 
wards run mad ; for which that Saint makes an 
Amlet (sic) that has more virtue than any Relick 
in the Holy Sanctuary at Rome. We have here in 


Florence, a miraculous nail, which was a present from 
San Donato, which, I have heard Mr. Acton say, he 
saw applyed "red hot to the hand that had been 
bitten, the flesh of which fryed and hissed, but with- 
out the least pain to the patient, who was most 
effectually cured by it." Had the Elector known this, 
he certainly would have stopt here, to apply the nail 
to his cheeks.' 


The letters addressed to Walpole in the early 
months of this year are unimportant. In part, they are 
replies to Walpole, on English politics ; in part, they 
are taken up with deep expressions of sympathy for 
the writer's brother, Galfridus, who was dangerously 
ill of what seemed consumption, and of, undoubtedly, 
an unsympathetic wife. Why quicksilver was ad- 
ministered to Galfridus for this complicated disease 
puzzled Doctor Cocchi and other Florentine physicians 
from whom Sir Horace sought enlightenment. Cocchi 
condemned Naples, as a place unfit for' persons in a 
' decline.' Lisbon was not to be thought of, since 
the recent Earthquake ; one effect of which was 
to move Florence to the expression of much kindly 
feeling, for a Florentine merchant whose daughter 
perished in his house, from which, however, he had 
the good fortune to rescue his ledger and his cash-box. 
One other circumstance Mann deals with at immense 
length; but, briefly, it is this. The Emperor gave 
a ' patent ' to the Lucchese to make a certain new 
road, and they at once addressed themselves to the 
VOL. i. 2 c 

386 AN OLD JOKE. 1756. 

work. The Kegency at Florence, who represented the 
Emperor, as Grand Duke of Tuscany, issued a ducal 
order to prohibit the Lucchese from profiting by the 
Imperial ' patent.' The Lucchese persisted ; where- 
upon the Florentine authorities drowned the country ; 
and it was not till much misery had been endured that 
submerged Lucca rose from out the floods that had 
been let loose upon her, and that arrangements were 
made which reconciled the Emperor with the Grand 
Duke, and which permitted the Lucchese to profit 
by him, in one character, without bringing down 
vengeance from him in another. In April, 1756, 
Mann was in sufficient spirits to treat Walpole to an 
anecdote. The Lord of Strawberry had recounted an 
illustration of Lady Coventry's naivete in her reply to 
a question of the King's, if she was not sorry that 
Masquerades had been given up for a time, ' sacri- 
ficed ' as Walpole said, ' to the Idol, Earthquake/ 
The Countess answered, ' No ; ' she was tired of 
them. She was surfeited with most sights ; there was 
but one left that she wanted to see, and that was a 
coronation. Mann shows that this was really an 
older joke. 

'An instance of the same kind happened to Pope 
Orsini (Clement XII, 1730-40), who, asking a German 
Baron if he had seen all the curiosities of Rome, and 
was satisfied, received for answer, that he had nothing 
to desire on that account, but to see a Sedia vacante. 
This Pope would have made some lively answer. The 
last bon mot that is quoted of him is on occasion of his 
being dissatisfied with the French Ambassador, for 
having so often deferred his entry, and told him that 

1756. VOLTAIRE'S ' PUCELLE.' 387 

as he heard it was fixed for last Sunday, he hoped it 
would take place. " Yes," replied the Envoy, "if the 
weather is good," and added that he had heard his 
Holyness had fixed the promotion ' (of Cardinals, 
urged by France) 'for the next day, and he hoped it 
would take place likewise. " Yes," said the Pope, " if 
the weather is good." : 

The spring of this year 'La Pucclle,' the base 
attack of a base Frenchman on the noblest of French- 
women, had got into public notice, and copies were 
in the hands of Florentines and of the English in 

April 16th. 'Have you seen a Poem of Voltaire, 
called the " Pucelle ? " . . . It was handed about in 
manuscript, and now it is printed, entitled " La 
Jeane" (?) I am told he was really frightened when 
he heard that the former was got into the world by 
somebody's having stolen a copy of it, which made 
him immediately resolve to cause it to be printed, as 
if stolen too ; but with such alterations and omissions 
of every thing that is personal, and of most that is 
free about religion (or I should rather say, of all that 
is downright ridicule), that most people think it is 
quite spoilt. I have only read it in manuscript, for as 
yet there are but one or two printed copies here, but 
as many are expected, I shall then by favour of a 
person less scrupulous than I was of breaking his 
promise not to copy the former, have a compleat 
edition by adding the omissions and alterations, and 
will have one done for you, if you should like it, 
provided you don't tell the Bishop of London ' (Sher- 
lock), ' who would lay to our charge any harm the 


French may do, and perhaps call them only the instru- 
ments of the Lord's just vengeance by fire and sword, 
for the enormous sin of reading such a blasphemous 

' I have by accident seen his Lordship's letter upon 
occasion of the Earthquake, in '50. Seriously, it hurt 
me. I would even consent to limit the Liberty of the 
Press to suppress such performances, which not only 
discredit the nation in general, but tend to weaken the 
minds and impose upon the understandings of His 
Majesty's subjects. Has nobody courage enough to 
write honestly to convince the people that Earthquakes 
are produced by natural causes ? We have been better 
off than you, for we have had our Masquerades, etc., 
as usual, impunely ' (sic). 

Anxiety for his brother Galfridus is expressed at 
length in various successive letters. Mann is ex- 
cessively angry with the blistering and drugging to 
which Gal is subjected, ' a method of physicking which 
is quite exploded here. I was witness a few days ago 
to the writing which Lady Orford signed for Mr. 
Shirley's separate maintenance, ,750 a year, upon his 
renouncing all right and title to her Effects, and 
authority over her person.' In another letter Mann 
writes of Lady Orford : ' She told me, upon my deliver- 
ing to her that parchment, that she now looked upon 
herself as unmarried again, upon which I gave her joy, 
but told her that if it had been my case I would not 
have let her be off so cheap.' 

The quarrels of nations now took place of private 
dissensions. On the 18th May, England declared war 
against France, on the ground of the encroachments of 

1756. OUR ADMIRALS. 389 

the latter country in Nova Scotia and on the Ohio, of 
the invasion of Minorca, and the violation of several 
articles of the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, which France 
had solemnly undertaken to observe. When the Due 
de Kichelieu set out for Minorca, he said the matter 
would be a dejeuner for the troops of the King his 
master. The unfortunate Byng, as some call that in- 
competent Admiral, unfortunate for England, met the 
French fleet under Galissoniere, and after a ' scuffle ' 
or two, withdrew from the fight, and repaired to Gib- 
raltar, to refit. He was superseded by Hawke, who 
was sent out too late to relieve Port St. Philip, and 
recover Minorca. When, on the afternoon of the 14th 
July, the valet de chambre of the Count d'Egmont 
entered the box of the Countess (Richelieu's daughter) 
at the Comedie Italienne, and spoke to her, the lady 
nearly fainted with joy, the public broke forth into 
triumphant shouts, the singers sang a Song of Victory 
which had been prepared beforehand, and soon after 
the city of Paris blazed with illuminations and fire- 
works, and shook again with the pealing of bells and 
the thundering of artillery. Day by day, meanwhile, 
our Minister at Florence was in extreme agony at the 
dark hour which had fallen upon old England. His 
Florentine friends told him that Minorca would be 
given* to Spain, and probably Gibraltar would be 
restored to her. When he heard that the Genoese 
had joined France, Mann recognized the old saying 
of them as people senza fede. 'What an oppor- 
tunity has been lost ' (July 20th) ; ' at present two 
privateers of 16 guns and of 24, that are between 
Corsica and Leghorn prevent any of our Merchant- 

390 LACK OF SYMPATHY. 1756. 

men leaving that port. ' The partiality of the Flo- 
rentine Kegency for the French enraged him. ' It is 
so great/ he writes, in August, 'that there is no bear- 
ing it. The head of this Government, a Lorrainer, 
that is to say, tho' it may be doing him honour, a 
Frenchman, who in the best of times, when it would 
have been impolitic to break with us, could never so 
far restrain himself as to conceal his hatred, now thinks 
himself at full liberty to be as partial as he pleases ; 
but what you'll think very odd is, that the Tuscans 
who hate them are all turned French too, and even at 
Leghorn, where our folks contribute so essentially to 
feed and enrich thousands, they are all against us too, 
and exult in what must greatly contribute to the ruin 
of their trade, if our's is in any way excluded by the 
French from the Mediterranean.' 

Maria Theresa (for few persons spoke of her hus- 
band, the Emperor Francis) had entered into a friendly 
treaty to observe neutrality with the French, against 
whom she had been formerly maintained by the sup- 
port of England. ' Nobody dares disapprove of the 
new alliance. I really know not yet what the 
Austrians say to justify such ingratitude. I hope this 
league, like that of Cambray, will turn at last to the 
disadvantage of one of the principal promoters of it.' 

In August, Sir Horace writes : ' We have many 
people here from Minorca ; they all give strange 
accounts of it ; I mean our own people. The General 
(Blakeuey's) great age and gout made him quite in- 
active. The whole fatigue of the siege fell on two or 
three officers, Jeffries, Boyd, and Cunningham an 
Ingeneur (.sic), but a volunteer on this occasion I there 


were not officers enough to see or direct the execution 
of the most common things. To this the French owed 
the lives of many thousands, as many of the mines 
were not sprung for want of Directors, and others 
attempted so late that the French carried off the 
Matches before they took effect.' 

'Mr. Duncan, their clergyman, told me, that at the 
time of the assault, many of the men had been three 
days on duty, and that nearly the whole garrison was 
so fatigued that they must have surrendered in a 
day or two. The Chevalier Lorenzi is come from 
thence and gives most pompous accounts of his 
bravery. He is very civil and makes me frequent 
visits, tho' I can only return them en blanc (i.e. by 
leaving a card, a new fashion.) His brother (French 
Ambassador at Florence) would think himself guilty 
of treason if more than my name entered his doors.' 

It was the design of Lorenzi's august master, the 
King of France, to make a French lake of the Medi- 
terranean, and to ' chasser les Anglais de la Mediter- 
rane'e ' for ever 1 In the mean time, Mann feared the 
designs of France in Italy, and the evils that might 
arise even out of the squabbles between the Pope and 
the Pretender ! 

' . . . The French Ambassador at Rome is blowing 
up the coals. . . . The Pretender, ever since the illness 
of the late Cardinal Euffo, so long Deacon of the 
Colledge, fixed his eye upon the vice-Chancellorship di 
Santa Chiesa for his devout Son; but he was then 
told that it was promised by the Pope, to his favorite, 
Cardinal Colonna, who accordingly had it. Again, 
on the death of Cardinal Valenti, it being foreseen that 


Cardinal Colonna would quit it, to be made Gamer- 
lingo, the Pretender applyed to him for his interest 
with the Pope in favour of his Son ; but was told 
that the Cardinal knew it was designed for another 
person ; but that as the Chevalier still insisted upon 
it, he would speak to the Pope, from whom the 
Cardinal soon after confirmed what he had said before. 
The Pretender still thought that the Pope would not 
have the courage to refuse him what his Mediators had 
not been able to obtain. He therefore wrote a Letter 
to the Pope, which the Pontiff, either out of forgetful- 
ness or design, neglected to answer. And it being 
known some days after that Cardinal (illegible) was to 
receive his Commission the next morning, for that Im- 
ployment, the Pretender went to Marquis Stanivelli's, 
to complain of the usage he had met with, and there 
took a resolution to return to Albano. Accordingly, 
the next day, after dinner, he left Rome without any 
previous notice to his family, or without taking leave 
of the Pope, or asking for his Guard, as usual. He 
then wrote to Cardinal Spinelli to acquaint him with 
his motives, and if a proper reparation was not made 
for the affront in not answering his Letter, he should 
be obliged to carry his person and Misfortunes into 
another country. The Guards were sent after him ; 
his Son followed three days after, and the day of the 
departure of the Letters, Cardinal Spinelli was set out 
for Albano, after having had two audiences of the 
Pope, on this weighty affair, for the sequel of which 
you must wait till next post.' 

The sequel, however, is not recorded in Mann's 
letters, the next of which is partly occupied with 


references to the Eegent of Tuscany, Kichecourt, who, 
as Frenchman and Austrian official, representing the 
new alliance, exhibited a miserable lack of dignity as 
vicegerent in Tuscany, which was not at war with 

October 23rd. 'He behaved quite childishly on 
the two late Gala Days, the 4th and 15th; the first, 
the Emperor's, and the latter, the Empress's day, 
upon neither of which he invited a single Englishman 
to dinner, though all other strangers, I mean some of 
each nation, were asked. This, the ' (English) ' Lords 
resented ; did not pay their court in the morning as 
usual, nor put on Gala at the Theater. This was 
much noticed by the Lorrainers and spoke of. I myself 
perceived that Richecourt was struck on seeing me 
enter his Levee room in the morning, with Mr. Dick 
only (the new Consul at Leghorn) instead of being at 
the head of a numerous Colony, as usual. He said 
nothing to me ; seemed disconcerted and perceived 
that I did not stay above five minutes. The town, 
which will judge of everything, approved of all this.' 
Walpole's comment on this arrogance was : ' There is 
nothing so catching as the insolence of a great proud 
woman by a little upstart minister. The reflection of 
the sun from brass makes the latter the more trouble- 
some of the two.' Walpole rejoiced that the English 
in Florence showed a ' disregard of Richecourt.' 

The fine autumn helped to keep up the spirits of 
* the colony.' Sir Horace thus ends this letter of 
October 23rd : ' We have still so fine a day now and 
then, that this very day we have dined under the 
tents in my garden, had a Dish of beans and Bacon 


and Gooseberry tarts. Mrs. Dick says that this is 
living ! ' In the political combinations of the time, the 
Grand Ducal Tuscans discovered the cost of having 
in their Grand Duke, an Emperor. November 1 3th : 
'The Tuscans who, for many ages, have not been 
martial, are to contribute, as an Imperial Fief, to join 
in the destruction of Prussia. Three Batallious, with 
six companies of Grenadiers, have had two orders, and 
only wait the third, to march. They are so humble 
and so civil upon it, that it is edifying. Eichecourt, 
as long as he was able,' opposed this martial dispo- 
sition, but he is, for the present, incapable of doing 
any more good or harm, having been attacked by a 
severe stroke of palsy last Sunday night, which for a 
considerable time took away the use of his whole left 
side. The proper application of bleeding, blisters, etc., 
have so far recovered him that there seems no im- 
mediate danger, but a perfect recovery is thought more 
than doubtful. This is a great epoque for Tuscany.' 

' . . . The French troops have landed in Corsica ! 
Everybody saw that unless we had taken possession 
of the ports of that island, it would be impossible 
to exclude the French. I fear, as that was the only 
operation left for our fleet to do, people will be angry. 
Our Merchant ships are taken in sight of Leghorn. I 
am now reclaiming two that were taken from under 
the cannon of the former. The fleet, we hear, is at 
Gibraltar. ... I am vastly afraid that domestic or 
rather personal matters ' (ministerial changes, in Eng- 
land) ' take off their attention from things of such great 
importance that we are engaged in, and which would 
require a well-concerted and regularly pursued system. 


Our enemies set us an excellent example in this. I 
am sorry to hear of the follies of those who have no 
call to meddle with State affairs, but yet whose rank 
makes them more conspicuous.' 

Among the complications which bewildered other 
men besides our Minister at Florence, was that with 
Austria. England had a right, under former treaties, 
to demand the quota Austria (or Maria Theresa) was 
bound to furnish as aid against France ; but the 
Empress-Queen, whose mendacity was equal to her 
audacity, 'has so whimsically jumbled matters/ (as 
Mann writes, on December 13th) 'as to make that 
demand on England, on account of the difficulties 
which her having joyned with our only enemy has 
drawn her into ! ! . . . In the mean time she will 
probably raise a civil war in Germany, thus still 
doing the business of France . . . She has got the 
Aulick Council to condemn the City of Frankfort in a 
fine of 400,000- florins for not having obeyed their 
former decree with regard to putting a stop to the 
raising recruits for the King of Prussia, in their town 
or district. It is said the Elector of Mentz is to have 
the execution of this sentence, and that he is to be 
assisted therein by the Austrian troops that are march- 
ing from Flanders. There is likewise a decree issued 
by the Aulick Council, against the people of Nurem- 
berg, for having resisted their Magistrates when they 
would have stopt the recruiting for the Prussians. 
The Bishop of Wurtzburg is to put this last sentence 
into execution.' 




SIR HOEACE begins the new year in low spirits at 
his brother's deplorable illness, and with angry remon- 
strance at the way in which Galfridus was being 
mercilessly drugged and tar-watered : both processes 
much in fashion. The very long letter does not touch 
on matters connected with Italy, till the last paragraph, 
which refers to a man who was not quite in the ex- 
tremity he had been thought to be in Benedict XIV. 
(Lambertini), who had been Pope from 1740. 

January 1st. ' The Pope, who has had the 
extreme unction, was so much better at the departure 
of the last letter that he was almost thought out of 
danger. The Cardinals are out of all patience. One 
of his last bon mots was to the surgeon, whose name 
is Ponzio, who made excuses for hurting him with 
the siringe. The Pope replied that " Cristo aveva 
sofferto sotto Ponzio Pilato ; ed lo, chi sono suo 
Vicario indegno, devo soffrire sotto Ponzio Coglione." ' 

Mann's letter of January 8th is an outburst of 
affectionate despair at the death of his brother Gal- 
fridus, whom Mann loved more than any other 
member of his family, and who had been to him both 


a father and a brother. Speaking of Galfridus Mann's 
son, he says, ' I should think the little boy might be 
better educated abroad than in England. I should 
therefore most ardently wish to have him with me. 
There is, I believe, no place more proper for the educa- 
tion of a youth than this, where he may be instructed 
in most sciences with greater care and much less 
expense than in England, where the school education 
is confined to too few objects, and many very essential 
ones are neglected. I should, supposing that my 
situation here should not be interrupted, have the 
consolation, by that means, to cherish my own dear 
Brother's memory, by my care and tenderness of his 

The manly grief finds expression and leaves tokens 
of tears in subsequent letters. Mann's own affliction 
served to move his sympathy for others who were 
afflicted, and he thus writes, January 15th, of Biche- 
court's daughter, whom Lady Orford so recently 
decked with jewels : 

'Nothing can exceed the desolation that is, at 
present, in Count Bichecourt's family. He, half dead 
and motionless, is confined to his room, suspecting, but 
not informed of, what has been passing in his daughter's 
Appartment, who, upon a miscarriage, was seized with 
the small-pox, of so violent a sort that, from the first 
instant, the dreadful apprehensions she always had 
of that illness were justified by the opinion of the 
Physicians. Yesterday, at noon, she was seized with 
a convulsion that deprived her of her speech, but not 
in the least of her senses. The. scene of her taking 
leave of her husband in that condition was most 


affecting, and his frantic despair must have added to 
her distress. They were passionately fond of each 
other, and much force was necessary to separate them. 
She afterwards went through the ceremonies of the 
Church, even the Extreme Unction, still in her senses. 
She expired at seven o'clock last night ; and they were 
forced to put the body into a coffin and remove it into 
a Church, before eleven the same night. All this is 
to be communicated to her father by degrees, whose 
fondness for her may make it fatal to him in the 
melancholy condition he is in. I sympathize so much 
with any body in affliction that I could not refrain 
from telling you this melancholy story/ 

Mann next refers to the attempt of Damiens to 
stab Louis XV. 

' The consternation France is in at the renewal 
of the age of Clements and Ravaillacs will, let us hope, 
take off their attention a while from the war. This 
atrocious attempt must have astonished you. Couriers 
have been sent all over Europe with an account of it, 
and almost daily to Parma. The last we have heard 
of these was in the King's own hand, with this ex- 
pression to his Daughter mon corps se porte bien, 
mais mon esprit ne guerira jamais ! ' (This wretched 
King whose body was so well, but whose mind was 
irrecoverably shaken, had scarcely been scratched by 
the point of Damiens' penknife, through a thickly 
quilted waistcoat). ' He was always afraid since those 
verses about " Deux Henris immoles," etc., were 
found under his plate. What will he be now ? No- 
body pretends to guess whether the coup came from 
a Jansenist or a Molinist ; but whether from one or 


the other, it is surely time to get rid of a Bull that 
is capable of producing such mischief. D'Argenson 
has made the King act so inconsistent and contra- 
dictory a part, not out of devotion, but because 
D'Argenson is convinced that the Roman Catholick 
religion, in its full extent, is necessary for a Monarchy/ 
(Walpole has written between the lines : ' What a 
reason to exclude both ! ') 

'I must tell you an answer that Buondelmonte 
made to a question that was proposed in the Academy 
of the . . . (illegible) where the foolish Gioco della 
Sibilla is performed. " Why do the French love their 
monarchs more than other nations do theirs?" He 
hesitated some time, and then said, "I don't know. 
Henry the 2nd, killed by a Frenchman; Henry the 4th, 
killed by a Frenchman ; I don't know if these be signs 
of love." I pass all my evenings alone, and find more 
satisfaction than I could have at the Theaters/ 

February 19th. In this long letter, devoted 
chiefly to English politics, and containing the curious 
assertion that, if England was in want of Porto Ferrajo, 
as a harbour, it might be secured, if England did not 
still neglect the easy means of acquiring a title to 
Corsica, by paying King Theodore's debts, there is 
the following passage : 

' . . . I never heard before that the King of France 
had such a personal enmity to the Young Pretender. 
Where is he ? We can get no account of him from 
Eome, and his father is again quite at a loss. Most 
undoubtedly, the Dauphin would assist the Pretender, 
with all his power, thinking he was fighting the 
cause of the Faith. I am surprized the late attempt 


(Damiens') was not rather made upon the Dauphin 
than on his father, whose chief fault is weakness and 
coinplyance with others' opinions. 

' You may suspend your tears still for some time 
for your favourite the Pope, who is so well recovered 
as to attend to business, tho' mostly confined to his 
bed. He repents having interfered so much in the 
affairs of France ; but yet could not help it. What 
Pope dare resist such strong invitations to extend the 
authority of the Church, when promised that it should 
be supported by all the power of the King ? When 
a Cardinal, Pope Benedict was a Janseuist, but, you 
will allow, his present situation is a good excuse for 
changing sentiments, since the decrees of the Church 
are irrevocable.' 

Sir Horace encloses a copy of a letter which the 
Pope addressed to Louis XV. When it is remembered 
that to call that king ' an unclean beast ' is almost an 
insult on the beasts themselves, it is difficult to con- 
ceive how even a Pope could stoop to the mendacity 
and blasphemy in this precious document. 

' Benedict P. P. XIV. To his most beloved Son 
in Christ, Health and Apostolic Benediction. The 
unexpected intelligence which we have received of the 
horrible and infamous attempt committed on the 
Sacred Person of your Majesty had for some time 
so overwhelmed us that we hardly knew where we 
were. But, having at last come to ourselves, we have 
not omitted, immediately, to render the most lively 
thanks to the Great God that your Majesty's precious 
Life has been secured, and, for as much as we know, 
all the People of this City have done the same. Con- 

1757. THE POPE'S LETTER. 401 

sidering next what your Majesty has done since this 
attempt, we believe that we cannot, and ought not, to 
attribute the rescuing of your Person to any other 
source but to the special Providence of God, who 
willed its safety by way of recompense (as may be 
manifestly believed), for the great fund of Religion 
which Your Majesty has always had in your heart, 
and for your Righteous Zeal in preventing the Church 
from being defrauded of its Rights. Sire, common to 
many, not to say to all, will be the esteem for your 
Power, but we pretend to distinguish it with the Love 
which we bear to your Soul, and on our knees, with 
tears in our eyes, we pray the Great God to grant you 
a long life, and a happy, and to maintain it down to 
the hour of Death, in that state in which, since this 
event, it has been so exemplarily conducted. Your 
Majesty's prerogative as Eldest Son of the Church is 
borne in mind, and with the utmost fulness of heart 
we give to Your Majesty, and all the Royal Family, 
our Apostolic Benediction. Given at Rome, the 19th 
of January, 1757 ; the 17th Year of our Pontificate.' 

Mann styles this ' a bad letter, which,' as he says, 
' was wrote in Italian.' About the time that it was 
written, the following, in the shape of a hand-bill, and 
in the spirit of gross flattery to Bichecourt, was dis- 
tributed in the streets of Florence to the number of 
' some thousands.' 

'To the Most Holy, Equal- with- God (Mary) 
commonly called Of Good Counsel, the Supplication, 
by which, One of grateful mind, not forgetting kind- 
nesses, devoutly implores the safe restoration to health 
of the most Excellent Lord, the Lord Emanuel, 


VOL. I. 


Count of Kichecourt. Queen of the World, Supreme 
Lady of the Heavens, Mary I who permittest no one 
to be afflicted who trusts in Thee, turn, benignly, 
thy eyes of mercy on Thy most devoted servant 
Emanuel, and by the potency of thy intercession, drive 
far away from him the infirmity by which he is 
oppressed, in order that he may longer rule the People 
of Etruria committed to his care, and happily provide, 
by means of his government, the things of which 
they may be in want. Through Him whom, without 
hurt to thy Virginity, thou didst concieve, and didst 
bear, Our Lord Jesus Christ, thy Son, who glorifies 
Thee for ever and ever ; Amen 1 ' Mann records, to 
the credit of Eichecourt's modesty, that, as far as was 
in his power, the Count called in and suppressed all 
these bills. Walpole, who really loved the jocose 
Pope, Benedict, despised Eichecourt; but he was 
sincerely sorry for the dreadful catastrophe in the 
Count's family. 'What a lesson for human grandeur ! 
Florence, the scene of all his triumphs and haughtiness, 
is now the theatre of his misery and misfortunes.' 

On the 25th of March, Sir Horace alluded to the 
misery and misfortune of Admiral Byng, but he looked 
on the sentence of 'Death' as 'an act of vigorous justice.' 
Without implying Voltaire's phrase that the Admiral 
was shot 'pour encourager les autres,' Mann hoped 
that it would give courage to others. He had seen 
much of our ' Sea Captains ' during his official resi- 
dence at Florence, and he says : ' Let us hope that 
the sentence may produce for the future some reforma- 
tion in the conduct of our Sea Officers, which was so 
publickly criticized in the last war. I wish we could 

1757. NAVAL AFFAIRS. 403 

see a Fleet in these parts, now. Something must be 
done to recover our maritime reputation. The sea 
swarms with French Privateers, who daily take all the 
merchant ships that venture out. I have dissuaded 
the people at Leghorn from sending many ships away 
that are laden for above a Million sterling, which, we 
know, the French have stationed several Privateers 
and Ships of War, to wait for. They have advice 
boats continually going backwards and forwards, and 
others are at anchor at Porto (illegible) to be ready to 
follow Captain Wright and his prizes that had taken 
refuge at Poto Ferrajo, from whence, if they can 
escape, we daily expect them at Leghorn. A plan has 
been agreed upon to indemnify the Captains of the 
Merchant Ships who are ruined by laying at a vast 
expense, in port, by making a small average on the 
goods they have on board, otherwise they would have 
ventured out at all hazards . . . 

' . . . Your old friend, the Pope, still holds out. 
He triumphed lately on the death of Cardinal Londi(?) 
who was looked upon as the most likely to succeed 
him : So ! Benedict the Fifteenth has died before 
Benedict the Fourteenth ! ' 

April 2nd. ' A vulgar report has prevailed here 
for a day or two, that Admiral Byng had made his 
escape to Holland. You can't imagine how this 
affair employs people here. It is an effect of their 
want of occupation and of the inaction in other parts. 
The least event in Germany will take off all their 
attention from what concerns them so little.' 

Our court at home, however, took up all the 
attention of Florence for a time. April 23rd. 'Since 


Nature did not compleat the work she had begun, an 
Event equivalent to it has happened that has given 
great satisfaction to the Florentines, who, however, 
have shown more good nature, or at least humanity, 
than I thought they were capable of. Count Eiche- 
court, before whom all had trembled for so many 
years, set out, trembling, and even fainting, a few 
days ago, on his journey to Lorraine. Nothing was 
ever more visible than his apprehensions of some 
insults from the common people. Great pains were 
taken to conceal the exact time of his departure, and 
even to the few who were admitted familiarly to 
him every evening, he said : "A vous revoir demain 
au soir ! " Nobody, however was the Dupe. The 
whole town knew he was to set out, but nobody 
thought it necessary to feign an attention. He was 
literally packed up in his litter, in his bedchamber, 
which vehicle is so contrived as to be detatched from 
the (illegible) to serve even as a bed, and be trans- 
portable anywhere. In this manner, he was brought 
down stairs by porters, and put on the backs of the 
Mules, which marched off with him, without any 
attendance, except one servant at a distance. His son- 
in-law and a few servants followed, after ; and even a 
dozen or two of beggars regretted the time they had 
lost in waiting for him. 

' What an Exit ! How different from his depar- 
ture to Vienna two years ago, when his court-yard was 
filled with Noblesse, and the streets with people to 
wish him a good journey. 

' He was extremely apprehensive of being insulted 
by the common people. Nothing was said within his 

1757. GINORI. 405 

hearing ; but now, nothing, however severe and con- 
temptable, is omitted, by all sorts, behind his back I 
A good thing was said, some time ago, on his first 
being carried out, after his Apoplexy, to take the air. 
" Oh, povero Signore 1 e il padre dei poveri ! " 
" E vero," replied another, " ne ha fatto tanti ! " 

' The Florentines have been extremely disappointed 
in their hopes of having a Tuscan at the head of this 
Government. The great antagonist of the Count, 
Ginori, was certainly to have succeeded him ; the day 
was fixed for his coming here, but a cruel stroke of an 
Apoplexy crushed all these hopes. He died on the 
17th of this month, in the height of popular favour, 
which he really owed more to his opposition to the 
Count than to any extraordinary merit, though if half 
what is said in the enclosed paper was true, you would 
think that not only the Tuscans, but that mankind in 
general had had a great loss. His death revived the 
Count (Bichecourt's) spirits much, and the last act of 
his authority was to forbid a magnificent funeral that 
was disposing for him at Leghorn. You must not 
wonder I say so much about these two people ; we 
talk of nothing else here.' 

The printed paper which Mann enclosed in his 
letter of the 23rd, and which is a copy of a monu- 
mental inscription that was circulated in Florence, 
contains a pompous account in Latin, of all Count 
Ginori's earthly greatness, which was supposed to have 
commenced from the day of his birth, in 1702. It 
tells how Ginori served the Medici, till the race was 
extinct, and how he transferred his services to the 
house of Lorraine, which, in the person of Francis, 

406 A SICK POPE. 1757. 

succeeded to the Great Dukedom of Tuscany ; and 
in what ample measure both houses, with the Queen 
of Hungary and Bohemia, had rewarded his bravery 
as a soldier, and his wisdom as an administrator. It 
records what he did for arts, science, and commerce, 
and claims for him a never-dying fame throughout the 
whole world ! After stating that Ginori died in his 
56th year, the inscription ends thus : ' Elizabeth, his 
wife, daughter of Bartholomew, Prince Corsini, great 
grand- daughter of Pope Clement XII. ; the Cavaliere 
Lorenzo, his son, and Francis Marie, Bishop of Fiesole, 
his brother, have with tears and trembling raised this 
monument. Oh ! children, oh ! country, when will 
you ever find his like again ? ' 

A greater than Ginori lived on to the disgust of 
impatient Cardinals who would have him begone. 
' Your old friend the Pope has again been in the utmost 
danger ; he received no nourishment for some time, 
was speechless, and had again received the extreme 
unction, so that the people about him thought it high 
time to strip his room ; but a favourite crisis happened 
when least expected, that made the want of clean 
sheets and other necessaries which they had carried 
off, very inconvenient. At the departure of the 
letters, he was better than before this last attack. 
However, the dispositions for building a Conclave are 
publickly continued. The Cardinals now begin to 
dread the danger of being shut up during the 
heats, though they would willingly have spent the 
Carnival there.' 

April 30th. ' Our situation here is not altered, 
except that one of our two members of the Kegency 


is become incapable of the business. Sometime ago, 
he wrote Torrequinei, without any vowels. We are 
now under the sole government of the Chevalier 
Antinori, which is the strongest proof that II mondo 
va da se. We not only expect orders, but even people 
to execute them, from Vienna. The paper which I 
sent you ' (the prayer for Richecourt's recovery) ' has 
been suppressed, and a second impression, after 1000 
had been distributed, prohibited ; but the Sbirri, who 
go about the streets to whip the children, for singing 
Gesu & morto ! Pilato I partita, cannot silence them. 
Pilate has wrote many letters, containing many lies 
under his own hand, asserting that he grows better 
every day, on the journey ; but the truth is, that 
the people about him are fearful that he won't be 
able to get to the end of his journey.' 

May Ikih. ' We are still left to govern ourselves. 
We are all mildness and submission to our very insuffi- 
cient Member of the Regency ; we must conclude, as 
really everything is at a stand here, that either the 
Emperor is much embarrassed, or has something of 
more importance to think of. They say that the King 
of Prussia gives him full occupation, as well as to the 
Queen's army. If the accounts which have escaped 
from Vienna be true, he will stop perhaps the pub- 
lication of the Ban of the Empire, and gain over 
perhaps some of the votes at Ratisbonne, where he 
has hitherto been treated with the utmost contempt. 
It is some time since Mr. Mitchell wrote that the 
King of Prussia was in high health and spirits, and 
not at all embarrassed by his numerous enemies, 
the Austrians don't defend themselves better, France 

408 PICTURE-BUYING. 1757. 

must send at least another hundred thousand men 
into Germany, to do their business.' 

Among the many commissions which Mann was 
called on to execute for men of rank and wealth in 
England, was the delicate one of purchasing pictures 
for them. These were generally 'copies.' Of such 
ware, he bought an assortment for the Earl of 
Northumberland's great gallery, in his house in the 
Strand. The Earl was ' most perfectly satisfied ' with 
them. To Horace Walpole, Mann wrote : ' I recollect 
that you never approved of that scheme ; but I trust 
that you will go to see them, and then that you will 
be a convert to them, when you reflect that the origi- 
nals are so near a total decay.' Walpole went to 
Northumberland House, saw the much-talked of Italian 
pictures, and thought little of them. 

June Uh. ' I am disappointed by your opinion of 
Lord Northumberland's pictures. You know I never 
saw them, and only could chuse what was of a size for 
the place, and of painters that were in the greatest 
repute. I can't conceive how so many could give me 
such (Encomiums of them. My Lord too is highly 
satisfied with them. I wish you could like them. 
Pray, go to see them by daylight.' 

The Italian climate was in no respect less rigorous 
in its summer weather than England. ' Here we are 
in June,' says Mann, 'wearing our winter cloaths.' 
London was even as Florence was. ' I certainly am 
glad of rain,' Walpole writes from Arlington Street, 
June 2nd, ' but could wish it was boiled a little over 
the sun first. Mr. Bentley calls this the hard summer, 
and says he is forced to buy his fine weather at 
Newcastle ! ' 


The Seven Years War (1756-1763) maintained by 
Frederick II. of Prussia against Austria, Russia, and 
France, was now exciting much angry remark in the 
Duchy of Tuscany. Reflecting on these comments, 
Mann writes : ' What say you to the surprising success 
of the King of Prussia ? We daily expect to hear 
that he has taken Prague, and the inhabitants of 
Vienna expect him under their walls. The conster- 
nation is almost as great there as if he was half 
way. All their Ministers at court disagree, as much 
as their Generals at the Army, and the King of 
Prussia, notwithstanding the loss he has had, of 
Schwerin, knows how to profit of the incapacity 
of both. By the late accounts he had received his 
great artillery, and whilst part of his army was to 
batter the town ' (Prague), ' a considerable body had 
been detached to attack Marshal Daun, who was 
retired into Moravia, and, they say, has had dis- 
cretional orders to cover Austria as well as he can ; 
and for which purpose, they suspend his process for 
not having joyned Brown on the day of action. He 
excuses himself by the orders he had from Neiberg and 
the Council of War at Vienna ; and they lay the fault 
much higher. The French troops will have little 
courage or inducement to go to remedy des affaires 
si delabrees.' 

' I trust that the Duke ' (of Cumberland) ' will be 
able to do something as great on his side, that they 
may be fully convinced again that the title of Gerant 
de la Paix de Westphalie (though it would puzzle 
them to extend that to justify their attacking Han- 
over) is a troublesome obligation which they had 

410 DIFFICULTIES. 1757. 

better renounce. A great Lady here, however, is very 
angry that a Prince of England should go abroad to 
command a foreign army. I just stopt her, to say, 
that he was also a Prince of Hanover ; but she went 
on by saying that it was as unnatural a step as an 
Arch-Duke's being sent into Italy to defend St. 
Marino or the Eepublick of Lucca. I asked her, if 
she did not mean Tuscany, but she finished her 
political remarks with great applause, till her au- 
ditors were at liberty to laugh at her.' 

June 18th. 'In the midst of all this' (the progress 
made by the King of Prussia) 'and the declared enmity 
between the ministers at Vienna, you will not wonder 
that they do not think of Tuscany. They even forget 
that there are very large sums of money accumulated 
here, none having been called for for a long while, 
though the Empress is seeking money every where and 
at any interest. 

' Your friend, the Pope, is so well recovered that 
he gave the publick benediction from the balcony of 
his palace on Easter Day.' 

July Ind. 'Your old friend, the Pope, is relapsed. 
The Cardinals now pray that he may hold out till the 
Autumn. It is said that Baron Toussaint will be sent 
here to look into affairs, for a month or two, before M. 
Botta is put at the head of the Eegency. All the 
private letters from Vienna say this. None of any 
other kind are sent from thence. Our Regents, two 
only, one of whom (the Chevalier Antinori) is quite 
a child by age, are totally neglected there ; though, I 
dare say, they look upon it as a compliment, and that 
it is supposed they can govern without any aid or 

1757. TE DEUM! 411 

instructions. I wish our folks would let people go 
on as quietly, they then might have leisure to attend 
to our affairs abroad/ 

And now Florence was flying her flags, lighting 
her festal lamps, kindling her fires, and discharging 
congratulatory salvoes of artillery, on occasion of the 
King of Prussia being compelled, by Prince Charles of 
Lorraine, to raise the siege of Prague. 

July 9th. 'Couriers flew with such dilligence into 
all parts, with Prince Charles's laurels that they left 
the common posts with the ordinary occurrences vastly 
behind. Florence was forced to rejoice on that occa- 
sion. The Emperor sent orders to the Eegency of 
two members, the first of any kind that he has sent 
since Count Richecourt's departure in April, to cause 
a Te Deum to be sung in all the principal cities in 
Tuscany, and they are, besides this capital, where the 
farce was performed the day before yesterday, Leg- 
horn, Sienna and Pistoja. If it was both unnecessary 
and indiscreet too, as most people are of opinion, to 
declare by that means Tuscany is concerned in the 
present war in Germany ... it must be doubly so to 
perform that ceremony at Leghorn, a free port and a 
common trading town, where a Consul from the King 
of Prussia actually resides, with his Master's Arms 
over his door, on the Great Place. This, even the 
Regency disapproves of, but dare not venture to dis- 
pense with the execution of the orders, tho' they are 
persuaded that their Master did not think at the time 
he gave them. 

' One of the Regency came, as if by accident, to 
sound me, and I let myself be sounded, but I only 

412 WALPOLE, ON THE POPE. 1757. 

ericreased his embarras, by starting new difficulties 
" Well, but what would you advise ? If anybody 
would make a representation, that would justify, at 
least, our suspending it for Leghorn." But I reply ed, 
that I knew nobody in a condition to do the latter, 
and that I never advised in things that were totally 
indifferent to me.' 

Leaving politics and municipal arrangements, 
Mann, replying to a letter from Walpole, dated from 
Strawberry Hill, June 20th, 1757, says, 'I admire your 
inscription on the Pope's picture/ This referred to an 
inscription which Walpole had written, and placed 
behind a bas-relief portrait in wax of Benedict, which 
hung in the gallery. It is as follows : ' Prospero Lam- 
bertini, Bishop of Rome, by the name of Benedict 
XIV., who, though an absolute Prince, reigned as 
harmlessly as a Doge of Venice. He restored the 
lustre of the Tiara, by those arts alone, by which alone, 
he attained it, his virtues. Beloved by Papists, 
esteemed by Protestants ; a Priest without insolence or 
interest ; a Prince without favourites ; a Pope without 
Nepotism ; an Author without vanity ; in short, a 
Man whom neither Wit nor Power could spoil. The 
Son of a favourite Minister, but One who never 
courted a Prince, nor worshipped a Churchman, offers, 
in a free Protestant country, this deserved incense to 
the best of the Roman Pontiffs." Walpole thought so 
well of the incense as to have no doubt that the Pope 
would like to smell it. ' If,' he says, 'if the good old 
soul is still alive, and you could do it unaffectedly 
and easily, you may convey it to him. It must be a 
satisfaction to a good heart to know that in so distant 

1757. THE POPE, ON WALPOLE. 413 

a country, so detached from his, his merit is acknow- 
ledged without a possibility of interest entering into 
the consideration. His death-bed does not want comfort 
or cheerfulness, but it may be capable of an expansion 
of heart that may still sweeten it.' To this, inscrip- 
tion, sentiment, and figure of speech, Sir Horace' re- 
plies: 'I admire your Inscription on the Pope's picture. 
He is better and I hope will see it. The method I have 
made use of, I think, will succeed. I made Niccolini 
in love with it, and eager to have a copy, which I gave 
him. If this should fail, I'll try some other.' 

On the 23rd August, he continues : ' The method I 
took to convey your elegant Inscription on the Pope's 
picture succeeded beyond my expectation. It was 
sent in confidence by Archiuto, with the translation on 
the same paper, and was immediately communicated 
to the Pope, who was so well pleased with it that he 
made everybody read it who went to him. Innumer- 
able copies have been dispersed, and to shew you 
how much people are convinced of the truth of the 
(Encomium, his Enemies have made a counter one to 
damage the great effect it had produced in his favour. 
The good old man is so much recovered that he is 


carried out every day, in a chair, to take the air.' 

Benedict XIV. was well enough to criticize 
Walpole's panegyric, which he did, in the following 
terms, in a letter to a friend at Bologna, from which 
Mann makes the following extract : it is ' abroad ' in 
its contemporary history : 

' The Volpole is the chief of the present Adminis- 
tration in the English Court. He has a son who has 
composed the fair (onesto) but undeserved eulogy on 

414 MANN, CRITICAL. 1757. 

ourself. This eulogy has been translated into our 
Italian language, by the famous Niccolini of Florence. 
We send the whole to our dear Canonico Poggi, in 
order that he may know how very like we are to the 
front of the statues (sic) of St. Peter in the Vatican. 
To those who are at a distance from them, they look 
very fine indeed, but to those who are near, they 
appear horribly ugly. May the good Canonico pre- 
serve his love for us from whom comes, herewith, our 
Apostolic Benediction.' 

Mann was not at all satisfied with the translation 
of Walpole's Inscription, though it was the work of 
' the famous Niccolini ;' and he made a second which he 
circulated all over Italy. He points out very sensibly 
where the difficulties lay. 

August 27th. ' It is not near so good as in English, 
but it was impossible to stick nearer to the original. 
One could not well say, for " A Priest without inso- 
lence," Prete senza insolenza. It is a Cacophony that 
was better avoided.' (He rendered the English thus, 
Prete non insolente.) 1 1 wish, however, I had said, 
senza superbia, or alterigia, which is pretty near what 
you mean, and less harsh to Catholick or devout ears ; 
and then, the want of a word in Italian for wit, 
which is so peculiarly the Pope's character, weakens 
the whole idea ; sometimes it is ingegno, or rather, 
vivacitd d' ingegno, but neither exactly answers to 
" wit." ' (For, ' A Man whom neither Wit nor Power 
could spoil,' Sir Horace said, in Italian, Un uomo cui 
ne lo Spirito ne la Potenza poterono guastare.) 
1 Niccolini had made use of corteggid for " courted," 
but corteggiare is a duty and not a crime.' (In 

1757 - PAPAL IGNORANCE. 415 

Mann's version, the line was thus happily rendered : 
che pero non aduld mai alcun Principe.) ' Weak, 
however, as the translation is in comparison of the 
original, it has pleased extremely. The Pope, you see, 
was proud of it, and Cardinal Passionei reproves 
Niccolini for not having given him the preference to 
convey it to the Pope, instead of Cardinal Archiuto, 
and adds an invitation to him to go to Rome in the 
Autumn, when the world would certainly find the 
Pope alive, for Volpole's Eulogy has given him fresh 
life and vigour.' 

'You will be surprised, perhaps, at the Pope's 
ignorance about our Court. Niccolini would have 
had me correct the old man's mistake, but I insisted 
on sending you the letter as it was. Cardinal Passio- 
nei is to set him right, and perhaps Cardinal Albani, 
who may be angry with me for making use of any 
other channel than his, may convey to the Pope the 
translation which I have since sent to Albani, with 
some trifling excuse for not having done it sooner ; 
though that, I thought, would have been too direct a 
method, at first. Your commission was to coovey 
it easily and unaffectedly, which was literally executed.' 

Mann's interest in the Opera was now somewhat 
revived ; by way of P.S. to the letter from which the 
above is taken, he writes : ' We have a most excellent 
Opera here, which was opened last Sunday, the day 
that the news of a new Ministry came. Its title is 
La Disfatta di Datio (The Defeat of Darius) ; but 
everybody calls it La Disfatta dei Lorranesi. Man- 
zoli is our first man, and the best singer at present in 
Italy. I am just going to its second representation.' 




THE Opera, for a long time, was the last place, in Italy, 
at which music, vocal or instrumental, could be heard. 
Those persons who subscribed for their boxes for the 
season, received therein any of their friends who chose 
to call upon them. Those visitors went to the boxes 
where their friends were lodged for the evening, with- 
out challenge from money or cheque taker. There was 
a continual knocking at, and noisily opening and shut- 
ting of doors. From the boxes came the loud voices of 
noisy and idle talkers, with bursts of laughter that 
overwhelmed the orchestra itself. No one regarded 
the stage or the singers. There was a continual going 
to and fro, and visits exchanged from box to box, and 
messages sent and answered, viv4 voce, across the 
house. In many of the boxes, the occupants filled up 
part of their time with sitting down to a hot supper, 
(the fumes from which spread into the house), with 
wine, the effect of which was but to increase the noise 
and make the confusion worse confounded. If a poor 
dilettante in the pit humbly begged for a little silence, 
the chances were that he would have his head broken 
by something flung at him from the revelling guests. 

1757. MANZOLI. 


This aristocratic rudeness survived in France long 
after its extinction in Florence the beautiful. The 
Comte d'Hezecques, in his 'Memoirs of a Page, at 
the Court of Louis XVI.,' relates an instance which is 
much to the point. At the public theatre in Versailles, 
the royal Pages arrogantly ruled actors and audiences 
from the boxes. One day, when one of these impu- 
dent young gentlemen was drinking a hot milk posset 
at the front of the box, a Pit-ite, ashamed at a fashion 
in France which, for a score of years, had been thought 
too bad to be tolerated in Italy, cried d bas ! on such 
a fashion ! Thereupon, the Page of quality started to 
his feet and emptied the hot contents of his jug on the 
heads of the citizens below, who scrambled out of the 
way of the avalanche, with much precipitation and no 
chance of redress. Scenes somewhat similar had once 
been common in Florence. A growing good taste, 
however, had grown up, and instead of the noisy hot 
suppers which added many a paroxysm to Mann's 
chronic headaches, there was a distribution of light 
refreshments, beginning with ices, and continuing to 
the end with sweetmeats. 

Manzoli, moreover, was a proud artist who would 
insist on respect for his art. In the year 1757, he was 
at his best; and the Florentines were unwilling to lose, 
by their indifference, the foremost vocalist in Italy ; 
the singer, whom Farinelli took with him to Madrid, 
where Manzoli's voice was valued, for the use of it, 
at sixteen thousand ducats a year. The praise awarded 
him by Sir Horace Mann excited a strong desire 
among the patrons of our own Opera, to hear him in 
England ; but Manzoli did not satisfy that desire till 
VOL. i. 2 E 


1764. Meanwhile an event occurred at Florence, which 
could not be disregarded. 

September 3rd. ' On Wednesday, at J past 2 in 
the morning, we had a very smart shock of earth- 
quake, which so alarmed the people, that thousands ran 
into the streets, from their beds. It was preceded by 
a violent wind, for some hours ; but neither did any 
mischief. The Admiral's Courier returned that night, 
in eleven days, from England ; he felt nothing of the 
shock, but he had much difficulty to sit upon his horse, 
for the wind ; and was frequently forced to stop or 
turn his back to it. As nobody has prophesyed that it 
will return, so people are not at all alarmed/ 

Although the Grand Duchy of Tuscany was neutral, 
while the Empire was at war, it was not without 
difficulty that Mann established the right of the 
British Fleet to anchor at Leghorn and procure there 
everything of which they might be in need. Against 
the coming of the ships, Sir Horace provided 400 oxen, 
1200 sheep, and ' everything that Admiral Osborn 
foresaw he should want at Leghorn.' He and his 
vessels were received with all the honours that Mann 
had previously insisted on ; and he writes : ' It is im- 
possible to describe the joy that the arrival of the fleet 
has occasioned both in Florence and at Leghorn. The 
advantage must be great to the country, and they 
assure me that the Emperor himself is vastly sensible 
of it. Leghorn was ruined before ; no business at all 
done. Two or three French Privateers prevented any 
ships going out. The Custom House which commonly 
produces 900,000 scudi per annum, was reduced to 
less than 400,000 ; and what would that still be re- 


duced to, if that fleet which is to recover everything, 
was to be its enemy ? Not only interest, therefore, but 
fear, one would think, should prevent any alteration.' 

In view, however, of the contingencies of war 
affecting Tuscany, and abolishing its neutrality, Mann 
began to consider his own interests. He manifested 
his liking for his post by his desire to retain it. ' I can- 
not judge whether on such occasions, it depends upon 
one's own choice to retire to any place, or whether 
the order be not positive to return home. Could the 
former be obtained and my appointment continued, 
I should most undoubtedly prefer it, and with any 
degree of favour, one might hope it would be granted 
upon the probability of the suspension not lasting long, 
and the reflection that upon the sending any Minister 
again, the allowance for journey and equipage is a 
considerable article.' 

The King of Prussia's alternative at Prague is 
almost epigrammatically described. ' Delay to him 
was worse than a battle lost ; and if Prague had been 
relieved by Daun's army, which was daily increasing, 
it must have been attended with the King's total ruin. 
He, therefore, had only this alternative, to retire 
from Prague without striking a blow, or make himself 
master of it by beating an army almost inaccessibly 
placed. His own inclination and the reputation of 
his arms urged him to that desperate effort in which, 
says one of his enemies, " il auroit e'te' victorieux, s'il 
n'avoit pas tent^ 1'impossible ! " 

Mann, having provided for the English fleet, went 
over to Leghorn to look at it. ' I stayed a fortnight. 
The manner of life was so new to me ; for I had seen 

420 SPECULATION. 1757. 

nothing like it since the year '44, that I was not dis- 
pleased with it ; and, I flatter myself that my going 
there was not totally useless. Many private people 
received small advantages from it, in relation to their 
effects that I got released from the Captors ; and this 
Government attributes to me the merit of everything 
having passed with the utmost reciprocal satisfaction, 
in regard to the reception of the fleet, and to the 
tranquility of its inhabitants during its stay there ; 
but I am far better pleased with the influence that 
I obtained over its leader, and the hopes that my 
solicitations, which induced him to send a Courier 
to England, may produce something better than 
nothing at all.' 

* We cannot indeed strike any great blow, but it 
was not such that induced France, last war, to listen to 
a peace. It was the ruin of their trade, which pro- 
duced such intrinsick misery, and, as low as we are 
fallen, we may still do this with the fleet now in the 
Mediterranean ; at Marseilles, at Toulon, consequently 
at Lions and all Provence, they are in the utmost 
consternation, on account of the interruption of their 
trade, which, if continued for any time, must produce 
Bankrupcies (sic) and such extensive inconveniences 
as must be felt even at Paris. . . . Except my great 
head-aches, I went through my maritime visits and all 
the honours that attended them, without any incon- 
venience. Some might have happened to others, for 
from two ships that saluted, there remained accident- 
ally a ball in a cannon of each I They were prizes 
which came in after the departure of the fleet, and 
rejoiced the hearts of the Livornians and of the Govern- 

1757 - MARQUIS BOTTA. 421 

ment who, by experience, are convinced that the 
welfare of the State depends on the English trade. 
This alone may prevent their quarreling with us.' 

'We were lodged at Mr. (Consul) Dicks, as was 
the Admiral, with whom, and some Captains, not of 
the Anson party, I did him much good, and we hope 
that he will daily feel the effects of it, by the prizes 
they may send in to him.' 

Admiral Osborn fulfilled Mann's expectations, and 
he satisfied even Walpole, who remarked to the Minis- 
ter at Florence: 'I rejoice at Admiral Osborn's suc- 
cess. I am not patriot enough to deny that there are 
Captains and Admirals whose glories have little charms 
for me ; but Osborn was a steady friend of murdered 
Byng.' Leaving a heavy detail of German war news, 
including the failure of the Duke of Cumberland, with 
the remark, 'the Austrians begin to have a great 
dffidence of their new and zealous ally, but they 
deserve the fate that hangs over them, of being, at 
least, the last to be devoured ; for France will never 
let slip such an opportunity of weakening its antient 
and natural rivals,' Sir Horace turns to the affairs 
of the Grand Duchy. 

' The Emperor has made known his intentions to 
send Marquis Botta to govern us. He has added two 
new Members for the Eegency, and named a Governor 
of Leghorn, all Tuscans. The Lorrainers are in 
despair, and were literally on the point of sending an 
Irish Lorrainer to Vienna, to expostulate with the 
Emperor, in their name, against this disposition. The 
common people insult them. Tickets have been fixt 
on the houses of many, as to be let in September. 

422 TSE NEW REGENT. 1757. 

Hitherto, the fear of Count Richecourt's return, which 
was cultivated with great industry, restrained them, 
but now, they load him and his party with all kinds 
of abuse.' 

After allusions to the irregularity of the posts, the 
detention and the loss of English letters, Sir Horace 
describes the people of -Florence, September 17th, as 
follows : ' The Florentines are as much occupied with 
the fitting out Prince Craon's house for Marquis Botta, 
as you can be in England for the Secret Expedition. 
... On November 12th, Mann writes, * Marshal 
Botta has been here about ten days. They are pleased 
with him. He has always been used to high life, 
and his rank gives him a right to great state ; and 
indeed, what he takes is almost royal. He returns no 
visits, not even those of the other Regents. He gives 
audiences almost all day, but permits few to sit down ; 
and dismisses people, whom he receives always in his 
closet, nay, on St. Charles's day, he retired from the 
publick room full of company, with a slight bow. 
He seems vastly well informed of Government, is very 
just, hears reason, and yields to it ; and seems above 
little arts and tricks ; is polite in the high stile, and 
gives up his whole time to business.' 

A week later, Mann corroborates his own testi- 
mony : ' People continue to be pleased with their new 
Governor, who gives audiences, from seven in the 
morning till eight at night. The Archbishop, who is 
to the full as weak and as simple as Archbishops 
ought to be, was assured by him that the disattentions 
and vexations which he had received during the late 
Administration were quite at an end, and that it was 

1757. A TE DEUM, WHISPERED. 423 

the Emperor's intention that all proper regard should 
be paid to the Church, which so rejoiced the pious 
heart of that Prelate, that he made his attendants who 
accompanied him in his coach, join in whispering a 
Te Deum, as they returned home ! The first time, 
perhaps, that any Te Deum was sung in chorus, sotto 
voce ! ' 

November 12th. Walpole had alarmed Mann by 
his allusion to his decaying eyesight, and Mann con- 
sulted one of the most eminent medical practitioners in 
Florence, Dr. Cocchi, whose name is of very frequent 
occurrence in these letters. 'I have consulted Dr. 
Cocchi about your eyes, and he approves of the 
remedy, tho' he says that White Spirit of Lavender 
and Hungary Water are, in that respect, of the same 
nature ; the former only stronger, and that you must 
take care not to bathe too near the eye. Monsignor 
Cerati, a noted man here, was cured of the same dis- 
order by Hungary Water only, and by bathing the 
forehead and temples. Your disorder, as well as his, 
proceeded, it is plain, from forcing some of the vessels 
and their filling with blood ; and the operation of the 
cure is performed by revulsion ; but, he thinks you 
do extremely wrong in reading so much by candle 
light (six hours at a time). Let me entreat you, my 
dear Child, to follow his prescription, to read very 
little at night ; even close application by day will 
hurt your eyes too much.' 

Baron Stosch, who was an antiquary by taste, and 
an Ambassador, so far as he was a sort of spy, by 
occupation, being employed by the English Govern- 
ment to watch the Pretender and to communicate to 

424 BARON STOSCH. 1757. 

Mann the results of his vigilance, now passed away 
from the society of Rome and Florence. ' Baron Stosch 
is dead at last ; after a short illness, or rather weak- 
ness, for he did not appear to suffer at all. About 
ten days before, he began to falter in his speech, and 
was more confused than usual, insomuch that he made 
use of one word for another ; and, upon being asked 
at supper what he felt, answered, je sens que je suis 
bien bSte ce soir (which was really a satisfactory proof 
of his consciousness). It is supposed that he had after- 
wards in the night a slight fit of an apoplexy. In 
short, in a day or two, he totally lost his speech, tho' 
not quite his understanding ; was lethargick, and the 
second day that he was confined in bed, for before he 
would get up and lay upon a couch, he expired, not 
of an apoplexy, however, as was expected, but of an 
inflammation. . . . He had made his will in 1754, a 
copy of which he had deposited, sealed, in my hands. 
By this he has made his nephew, who quitted the 
French service, or a German Regiment, about two 
years ago, to come and live with him, his sole heir. 
His effects consist only in his Collection, which is 
very great and worth a large sum. It is to be offered 
to the Emperor. He has appointed me and Abbe 
Buonacorsi his Executors ; and has left him a picture ; 
and me, a Cameo, which I might have bought some 
years ago for six zecchins. Everything is sealed up 
as yet, till the Farmers are satisfied. They ' (Farmers 
General who gave a sum for the right to collect and 
keep the taxes) ' have a right to 7f per cent on the 
value or appraisement of the whole. . . . Then, the 
Emperor is to have an account of the Collection, and 


consequently the preference of what part of it, and 
perhaps at what price, he pleases.' 

' The collection is very valuable in many branches, 
and is so well known that there is no doubt that it 
will excite the curiosity of many and great purchasers. 
So soon as the present Stosch is at liberty, I will 
advise him to send accounts of it everywhere ; at 
least, the heads of it, for an exact Inventory would 
take up many months. . . . The Cameos and In- 
taglios are very numerous, but the value quite arbi- 
trary. The Meleager is the only one of the first 
class. Lord Duncannon, some years ago, gave old 
Stosch a hundred zecchins for his Gladiators.' 

' It would be vastly clever if I could get the 
addition of old Stosch's appointments for the branch 
of the affairs of Rome ; in which case, I could re- 
linquish what they have allowed me some years past, 
on account of Secret Service. I would much rather 
have this, if it were permitted forme to chuse, than 
what I believe nothing but common report destines 
for me, that is, to succeed Sir James Gray, at Naples.' 

This diplomatic change did not take place ; and 
Mann was not so ' vastly clever ' as to obtain from Mr. 
Fox, the Secretary of State, Stosch's ' appointments.' 
How our Envoy at Florence went, in part, about it, 
may be seen in a letter of Walpole's, November 20th, 
1757. 'Mr. Fox,' (Secretary of State) ' was going to 
write to you, but I took all the compliments on myself, 
as I think it is better for you to be on easy, than on 
ceremonious terms. To promote this, I have estab- 
lished a correspondence between you ; he will be glad 
if you will send him two chests of Florence wine, 

426 RULE OF ACTION. 1757. 

every year. The perpetuity destroys all possibility of 
your making him presents of it. I have compounded 
for the vases, but he would not hear, nor must you 
think of giving him the wine.' Mann, who thus was 
a sort of agent, sending wine to our ministers at 
home, liqueurs to the peers, knick-knacks to the ladies, 
pictures, statues, and articles of virtu to half the 
nobility who, as the contemporary phrase went, ' had 
the gout,' submitted to be instructed by Walpole, as 
to how Sir Horace might best perform his diplomatic 
office in Florence. Mann was given to both speaking 
and writing more frankly than became his vocation. 
Walpole recommended discretion. * We plain-dealing 
houses in Arlington Street/ he says, ' speak our minds 
. . . pray do not you do that . . . about anything ; 
remember you are an Envoy, and though you must 
not be so false as an Ambassador, yet not a grain of 
truth is consistent with your character. Truth is very 
well for such simple people as me . . . but I am 
arrantly wicked enough to desire you should lie and 
prosper. I know you don't like my doctrine, and 
therefore will compound with you for holding your 
tongue.' This, Mann was unable to do, at least when 
his sympathies were excited on behalf of such a friend 
as Dr. Cocchi. 

November 19th. 'I am extremely uneasy about 
my worthy friend, Dr. Cocchi, whose health I see 
daily decay. He had so violent an attack of an 
Asthma a few days ago, that he alarmed his family 
and friends very much ; and though he is so well 
recovered as to be able to lay down in bed, yet the 
constant irregular motion of his heart and pulse 

1757. DE. COCCHL 427 

denotes too clearly that Danger is not very remote, 
and that it may be sudden. His only concern is for 
his family which, I fear, he will leave in distress. 
His son is very well instructed and, w.e hope, may 
succeed to his father's Employments. He has this 
morning read a publick Lecture of anatomy, for him, 
and exerts the Employment of an Antiquarian (sic) in 
the Gallery. The father deserves compassion in every 
respect, being uneasy in his circumstances.' Later 
Mann writes : ' Dr. Cocchi was highly sensible of the 
mark of your friendship in the present, which I made 
him yesterday, of Mr. Gray's most inimitable Odes, 
but he was not in a condition to read them.' Mann 
then describes, with painful minuteness, the great 
scholar's sufferings from aggravated dropsy, and his 
inability to take the smallest quantity of the simplest 
food without acute agony. ' He bears it all with 
considerable cheerfulness, and sees Death approach 
with the utmost indifference from every other con- 
sideration but that of leaving his family in distress ; 
for, so slightly is the greatest Merit rewarded here, 
that he has never been able to make any provision 
for them, otherwise than by giving the best Education 
to his Son and Daughter, which gives hopes that the 
son may succeed to one at least of the little employ- 
ments that his father has. Nothing but his great 
youth can be an objection, for he has parts and study 
fit for anything. The Daughter has great merit, but 
that, without fortune, avails but little.' 

The letter announcing the death of this eminent 
philosopher has disappeared, but Mann alludes to a 
singular Italian custom with regard to Dr. Cocchi's 


funeral. ' I send you the Eloge of Dr. Cocchi, made 
by a friend of his. It is the custom of this country 
to put such performances, wrote on parchment, and 
enclosed in a tin case, into the vault with the corpse, 
and copies are dispersed to friends. If you have no 
objection, pray send it to Lord Huntingdon, whom 
I don't think it necessary to trouble on purpose.' 

So ended one of the greatest of Italian physicians 
and men of science, the ' only sensible friend,' accord- 
ing to Walpole, that Mann had in Florence. Walpole 
indeed spoke of him as ' a good sort of man rather 
than a great man, a plain honest creature, with quiet 
knowledge.' Cocchi was, in fact, a scholar without 
the ostentation of scholarship, and, as a physician, 
Spence, in 1741, found in him the best aid the place 
could afford, which aid helped to save Walpole's life. 
Cocchi was described by the Earl of Cork, as ' a man 
of most extensive learning, who understands, reads, 
and speaks all the European languages/ Then, re- 
ferring to Mann and Cocchi, the Earl says, * could I 
live with those two gentlemen only, and converse with 
few or none others, I should scarce desire to return to 
England, for many years.' So, if Mann had no word 
in his letters about the Doctor, Walpole asked, * Do 
only knaves and fools deserve to be spoken of ? ' In 
1745, his name was so highly esteemed in England 
that his * De Vitto Pythagorico ' a treatise to prove 
that vegetables only were conducive to the preserva- 
tion of health and the cure of disease, was translated, 
and it met with a wide reception. The work gave 
evidence of the author's extensive knowledge which, 
pleasant as living in Florence might be, was never, 

1757. DR. COCCHFS WORKS. 429 

says Walpole, ' at a lower ebb than there ; I had 
forgot. I beg Dr. Cocchi's pardon, who is much an 
exception.' So great an exception, even more gene- 
rally, that when Cocchi was preparing his ' Chirurgici 
Veteres/ which is said to be a very curious work, con- 
taining valuable extracts from the Greek Physicians, 
Walpole expressed his extreme readiness to help him 
in the undertaking : ' my regard for him and for you 
would make me take any pains.' Walpole's regard 
was equally great for Cocchi's judgment, for he asked 
him his opinion of Montesquieu and Heinault, and he 
said of the latter's 'Abre'ge' Chronologique,' that it 
'contained little circumstances that gave one an idea 
of the manners of old time, like Dr. Cocchi's treatise of 
the old rate of expenses.' Occasionally, Walpole takes 
a bantering air with Cocchi, and in reference to the 
Doctor's ' Greek Physicians,' thanks God that he had 
little Greek and never needed physic. So against the 
Florentine Medico's vegetable theory, Walpole regis- 
ters Lord Fitz waiter's state, in 1755 'he is past 
eighty-four, was an old beau, and had scarce any 
more sense than he has at present ; he has lived many 
months upon fourteen barrels of oysters, four and 
twenty bottles of port, and some, I think seven, 
bottles of brandy per week ! What will Dr. Cocchi, 
with his Vitto Pithagorico, say to this ? ' Probably, 
that, at all events, it was not a carnivorous diet. 

This scholar, who is better worth chronicling than 
many of the Florentine Princes, made his mark in 
Florence, in 1747, by a dissertation which caused its 
Italian readers to shiver with disgust, namely, a ' Dis- 
sertation on the External Use of Cold Water on the 


Body, as practised by the Ancients.' Cocchi, a Pisan 
by birth, was a Florentine by adoption, born in 1695 ; 
he died in January, 1758, leaving no fortune for his 
children, and taking with him only his parchment 
Eulogy, as a passport to the next world. A few years 
previously, the wealthy and capable Dr. Mead, in 
England, was a bankrupt. He was Dr. Cocchi's friend, 
when Lord Huntingdon brought the Florentine to 
England. 'His friend/ says Walpole, 'is undone; 
his fine collection is going to be sold ; he owes about 
five and twenty thousand pounds. All the world 
thought him immensely rich ; but, besides the expense 
of his collection, he kept a table for which alone he is 
said to have allowed seventy pounds a week ; ' that 
sum would have carried Dr. Cocchi's table over half 
a year. 

Among the importations from Florence into Lon- 
don this December, was a ' Countess Rena, of whom/ 
writes Walpole, ' my Lord Pembroke bought such 
quantities of Florence, etc. I shall wonder if he deals 
with her any more, as he has the sweetest wife in the 
world, and it seems to be some time since La Comtessa 
was so. Tell me more of her history. Antique as she 
is, she is since my time/ Mann replies, December 
13th: 'The Countess Rena picked up that title in 
her travels. Here, she was known by all the young 
English, and by their Valets de Place, by the name of 
La Rena. She is certainly in a pais de connoissance, 
but probably her having had views to captivate the 
French Monarch, and having succeeded for a time 
with his favourite's brother (now the Marquis de 
Marigny, formerly De Vandieres, brother of Madame 

1757. WALPOLE'S GUEST. 431 

de Pompadour), and then passing into the arms of the 
grave minister, M. de Machault, etc., etc., etc., will 
give her more reputation with the younger set, than 
induce those who knew her here to renew their 
acquaintance. The most ludicrous part of her history- 
is the conquest of a Mr. Bolland, a rich Aleppo 
Consul, who spent several thousand pounds to gratify 
her unlimited caprices.' This Florentine woman had 
a strange success in England. In September, 1762, 
Walpole writes from Strawberry Hill : ' I have had 
Lord March and the Eena here, for one night, which 
does not ruin my reputation in the neighbourhood, 
and may usher me again for a Scotchman, into the 
North Briton." 




Doran, John 

'Mann 1 and manners at the 
court of Florence 



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